Project description:Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is a key enzyme involved in the conversion of isocitrate to ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. IDH mutation produces a neomorphic enzyme, which can lead to the abnormal accumulation of R-2-HG and promotes leukemogenesis. IDH mutation occurs in 20% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, mainly including IDH1 R132, IDH2 R140, and IDH2 R172. Different mutant isoforms have different prognostic values. In recent years, IDH inhibitors have shown good clinical response in AML patients. Hence, enasidenib and ivosidenib, the IDH2 and IDH1 inhibitors developed by Agios Pharmaceuticals, have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration on 1 August 2017 and 20 July 2018 for the treatment of adult relapsed or refractory (R/R) AML with IDH2 and IDH1 mutations, respectively. IDH inhibitor monotherapy for R/R AML is efficacious and safe; however, there are problems, such as primary or acquired resistance. Clinical trials of IDH inhibitors combined with hypomethylating agents or standard chemotherapy for the treatment of R/R AML or newly diagnosed AML, as well as in post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as maintenance therapy, are ongoing. This article summarizes the use of IDH inhibitors in AML with IDH mutations.
Project description:Mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 proteins alter the epigenetic landscape in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through production of the oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Here we performed a large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen to identify genes that are synthetic lethal to the IDH1(R132H) mutation in AML and identified the anti-apoptotic gene BCL-2. IDH1- and IDH2-mutant primary human AML cells were more sensitive than IDH1/2 wild-type cells to ABT-199, a highly specific BCL-2 inhibitor that is currently in clinical trials for hematologic malignancies, both ex vivo and in xenotransplant models. This sensitization effect was induced by (R)-2-HG-mediated inhibition of the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC); suppression of COX activity lowered the mitochondrial threshold to trigger apoptosis upon BCL-2 inhibition. Our findings indicate that IDH1/2 mutation status may identify patients that are likely to respond to pharmacologic BCL-2 inhibition and form the rational basis for combining agents that disrupt ETC activity with ABT-199 in future clinical studies.
Project description:The majority of low-grade and secondary high-grade gliomas carry heterozygous hotspot mutations in cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or the mitochondrial variant IDH2. These mutations mostly involve Arg132 in IDH1, and Arg172 or Arg140 in IDH2. Whereas IDHs convert isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate (?-KG) with simultaneous reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH, these IDH mutants reduce ?-KG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) while oxidizing NADPH. D-2-HG is a proposed oncometabolite, acting via competitive inhibition of ?-KG-dependent enzymes that are involved in metabolism and epigenetic regulation. However, much less is known about the implications of the metabolic stress, imposed by decreased ?-KG and NADPH production, for tumor biology. We here present a novel heterozygous IDH1 mutation, IDH1(R314C), which was identified by targeted next generation sequencing of a high grade glioma from which a mouse xenograft model and a cell line were generated. IDH1(R314C) lacks isocitrate-to-?-KG conversion activity due to reduced affinity for NADP(+), and differs from the IDH1(R132) mutants in that it does not produce D-2-HG. Because IDH1(R314C) is defective in producing ?-KG and NADPH, without concomitant production of the D-2-HG, it represents a valuable tool to study the effects of IDH1-dysfunction on cellular metabolism in the absence of this oncometabolite.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) frequently harbors mutations in isocitrate 1 (IDH1) and 2 (IDH2) genes, leading to the formation of the oncometabolite (2R)-hydroxyglutaric acid (2R-HG) with epigenetic consequences for AML proliferation and differentiation. To investigate if broad metabolic aberrations may result from IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in AML, plasma metabolomics was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on 51 AML patients, 29 IDH1/2 wild-type (WT), 9 with IDH1R132, 12 with IDH2R140 and one with IDH2R172 mutations. Distinct metabolic differences were observed between IDH1/2 WT, IDH1R132 and IDH2R140 patients that comprised 22 plasma metabolites that were mainly amino acids. Only two plasma metabolites were statistically significantly different (p < 0.0001) between both IDH1R132 and WT IDH1/2 and IDH2R140 and WT IDH1/2, specifically (2R)-hydroxyglutaric acid (2R-HG) and the threonine metabolite (2R,3S)-dihydroxybutanoic acid (2,3-DHBA). Moreover, 2R-HG correlated strongly (p < 0.0001) with 2,3-DHBA in plasma. One WT patient was discovered to have a D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGDH) A426T inactivating mutation but this had little influence on 2R-HG and 2,3-DHBA plasma concentrations. Expression of transporter genes SLC16A1 and SLC16A3 displayed a weak correlation with 2R-HG but not 2,3-DHBA plasma concentrations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated that 2,3-DHBA was a better biomarker for IDH mutation than 2R-HG (Area under the curve (AUC) 0.861; p < 0.0001; 80% specificity; 87.3% sensitivity). It was concluded that 2,3-DHBA and 2R-HG are both formed by mutant IDH1R132, IDH2R140 and IDH2R172, suggesting a potential role of 2,3-DHBA in AML pathogenesis.
Project description:Cancer-associated isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 mutations gain a new activity of reducing ?-KG to produce D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG), which is proposed to function as an oncometabolite by inhibiting ?-KG dependent dioxygenases. We investigated the function of D-2-HG in tumorigenesis using IDH1 and IDH2 mutant cancer cell lines. Inhibition of D-2-HG production either by specific deletion of the mutant IDH1-R132C allele or overexpression of D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGDH) increases ?-KG and related metabolites, restores the activity of some ?-KG-dependent dioxygenases, and selectively alters gene expression. Ablation of D-2-HG production has no significant effect on cell proliferation and migration, but strongly inhibits anchorage independent growth in vitro and tumor growth in xenografted mouse models. Our study identifies a new activity of oncometabolite D-2-HG in promoting tumorigenesis.
Project description:Mutations in the metabolic enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) and IDH2 that produce the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) occur frequently in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). 2-HG modulates numerous biological pathways implicated in malignant transformation, but the contribution of mutant IDH proteins to maintenance and progression of AML in vivo is currently unknown. To answer this crucial question we have generated transgenic mice that express IDH2(R140Q) in an on/off- and tissue-specific manner using a tetracycline-inducible system. We found that IDH2(R140Q) can cooperate with overexpression of HoxA9 and Meis1a and with mutations in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) to drive acute leukemia in vivo. Critically, we show that genetic deinduction of mutant IDH2 in leukemic cells in vivo has profound effects on their growth and/or maintenance. Our data demonstrate the proto-oncogenic role of mutant IDH2 and support its relevance as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human AML.
Project description:Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2), are present in most gliomas and secondary glioblastomas, but are rare in other neoplasms. IDH1/2 mutations are heterozygous, and affect a single arginine residue. Recently, IDH1 mutations were identified in 8% of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients. A glioma study revealed that IDH1 mutations cause a gain-of-function, resulting in the production and accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Genotyping of 145 AML biopsies identified 11 IDH1 R132 mutant samples. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolite screening revealed increased 2-HG levels in IDH1 R132 mutant cells and sera, and uncovered two IDH2 R172K mutations. IDH1/2 mutations were associated with normal karyotypes. Recombinant IDH1 R132C and IDH2 R172K proteins catalyze the novel nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent reduction of alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) to 2-HG. The IDH1 R132C mutation commonly found in AML reduces the affinity for isocitrate, and increases the affinity for NADPH and alpha-KG. This prevents the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to alpha-KG, and facilitates the conversion of alpha-KG to 2-HG. IDH1/2 mutations confer an enzymatic gain of function that dramatically increases 2-HG in AML. This provides an explanation for the heterozygous acquisition of these mutations during tumorigenesis. 2-HG is a tractable metabolic biomarker of mutant IDH1/2 enzyme activity.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of malignant blasts with impaired differentiation programs caused by recurrent mutations, such as the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations found in 15% of AML patients. These mutations result in the production of the oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), leading to a hypermethylation phenotype that dysregulates hematopoietic differentiation. In this study, we identified mutant R132H IDH1-specific gene signatures regulated by key transcription factors, particularly CEBP?, involved in myeloid differentiation and retinoid responsiveness. We show that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) at clinically achievable doses markedly enhanced terminal granulocytic differentiation in AML cell lines, primary patient samples, and a xenograft mouse model carrying mutant IDH1. Moreover, treatment with a cell-permeable form of 2-HG sensitized wild-type IDH1 AML cells to ATRA-induced myeloid differentiation, whereas inhibition of 2-HG production significantly reduced ATRA effects in mutant IDH1 cells. ATRA treatment specifically decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of mutant IDH1 blasts in vitro. ATRA also reduced tumor burden of mutant IDH1 AML cells xenografted in NOD-Scid-IL2r?(null)mice and markedly increased overall survival, revealing a potent antileukemic effect of ATRA in the presence of IDH1 mutation. This therapeutic strategy holds promise for this AML patient subgroup in future clinical studies.
Project description:Somatic mutations in hotspot regions of the cytosolic or mitochondrial isoforms of the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (<i>IDH1</i> and <i>IDH2</i>, respectively) contribute to the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by producing the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). The allosteric IDH1 inhibitor, ivosidenib, suppresses 2-HG production and induces clinical responses in relapsed/refractory <i>IDH1</i>-mutant AML. Herein, we describe a clinical case of AML in which we detected the neomorphic <i>IDH1</i> p.R132C mutation in consecutive patient samples with a mutational hotspot targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay. The patient had a clinical response to ivosidenib, followed by relapse and disease progression. Subsequent sequencing of the relapsed sample using a newly developed all-exon, hybrid-capture-based NGS panel identified an additional <i>IDH1</i> p.S280F mutation known to cause renewed 2-HG production and drug resistance. Structural modeling confirmed that serine-to-phenylalanine substitution at this codon sterically hinders ivosidenib from binding to the mutant IDH1 dimer interface and predicted a similar effect on the pan-IDH inhibitor AG-881. Joint full-exon NGS and structural modeling enables monitoring IDH1 inhibitor-treated AML patients for acquired drug resistance and choosing follow-up therapy.
Project description:Alterations to genes involved in cellular metabolism and epigenetic regulation are implicated in the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies. Recurring mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes are detected in approximately 20% of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 5% of adults with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). IDH proteins are homodimeric enzymes involved in diverse cellular processes, including adaptation to hypoxia, histone demethylation and DNA modification. The IDH2 protein is localized in the mitochondria and is a critical component of the tricarboxylic acid (also called the 'citric acid' or Krebs) cycle. Both IDH2 and IDH1 (localized in the cytoplasm) proteins catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG). Mutant IDH enzymes have neomorphic activity and catalyze reduction of ?-KG to the (R) enantiomer of 2-hydroxyglutarate, which is associated with DNA and histone hypermethylation, altered gene expression and blocked differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The prognostic significance of mutant IDH (mIDH) is controversial but appears to be influenced by co-mutational status and the specific location of the mutation (IDH1-R132, IDH2-R140, IDH2-R172). Treatments specifically or indirectly targeted to mIDH are currently under clinical investigation; these therapies have been generally well tolerated and, when used as single agents, have shown promise for inducing responses in some mIDH patients when used as first-line treatment or in relapsed or refractory AML or MDS. Use of mIDH inhibitors in combination with drugs with non-overlapping mechanisms of action is especially promising, as such regimens may address the clonal heterogeneity and the multifactorial pathogenic processes involved in mIDH myeloid malignancies. Advances in mutational analysis have made testing more rapid and convenient, and less expensive; such testing should become part of routine diagnostic workup and repeated at relapse to identify patients who may benefit from treatments that target mIDH.