Preliminary investigation of 6,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazin-4-one derivatives as a novel series of mGlu5 receptor positive allosteric modulators with efficacy in preclinical models of schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT: As part of our efforts to identify a suitable back-up compound to our recently disclosed mGlu5 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) clinical candidate VU0490551/JNJ-46778212, this letter details the investigation and challenges of a novel series of 6,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazin-4-one derivatives. From these efforts, compound 4k emerged as a potent and selective mGlu5 PAM displaying overall attractive in vitro (pharmacological and ADMET) and PK profiles combined with in vivo efficacy in preclinical models of schizophrenia. However, further advancement of the compound was precluded due to severely limiting CNS-related side-effects confirming the previously reported association between excessive mGlu5 activation and target-related toxicities.
Project description:Schizophrenia is associated with disruptions in N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor subtype (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory synaptic signaling. The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) is a closely associated signaling partner with NMDARs and regulates NMDAR function in forebrain regions implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia. Efficacy of mGlu5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) in animal models of psychosis and cognition was previously attributed to potentiation of NMDAR function. To directly test this hypothesis, we identified VU0409551 as a novel mGlu5 PAM that exhibits distinct stimulus bias and selectively potentiates mGlu5 coupling to G?q-mediated signaling but not mGlu5 modulation of NMDAR currents or NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampus. Interestingly, VU0409551 produced robust antipsychotic-like and cognition-enhancing activity in animal models. These data provide surprising new mechanistic insights into the actions of mGlu5 PAMs and suggest that modulation of NMDAR currents is not critical for in vivo efficacy. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Project description:To develop multifunctional aldose reductase (AKR1B1) inhibitors for anti-diabetic complications, a novel series of 2-phenoxypyrido[3,2-b]pyrazin-3(4H)-one derivatives were designed and synthesised. Most of the derivatives were found to be potent and selective against AKR1B1, and 2-(7-chloro-2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenoxy)-3-oxopyrido[3,2-b]pyrazin-4(3H)-yl) acetic acid (4k) was the most active with an IC50 value of 0.023?µM. Moreover, it was encouraging to find that some derivatives showed strong antioxidant activity, and among them, the phenolic 3,5-dihydroxyl compound 4l with 7-bromo in the core structure was proved to be the most potent, even comparable to that of the well-known antioxidant Trolox. Thus the results suggested success in the construction of potent and selective AKR1B1 inhibitors with antioxidant activity.
Project description:We report the optimization of a series of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) from an acyl dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidinone class. Investigation of exocyclic amide transpositions with this unique 5,6-bicyclic core were conducted in attempt to modulate physicochemical properties and identify a suitable backup candidate with a reduced half-life. A potent and selective PAM, 1-(2-(phenoxymethyl)-6,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-4(5H)-yl)ethanone (9a, VU0462807), was identified with superior solubility and efficacy in the acute amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion (AHL) rat model with a minimum effective dose of 3mg/kg. Attempts to mitigate oxidative metabolism of the western phenoxy of 9a through extensive modification and profiling are described.
Project description:Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Both allosteric agonism and high glutamate fold-shift have been implicated in the neurotoxic profile of some mGlu5 PAMs; however, these hypotheses remain to be adequately addressed. To develop tool compounds to probe these hypotheses, the structure-activity relationship of allosteric agonism was examined within an acetylenic series of mGlu5 PAMs exhibiting allosteric agonism in addition to positive allosteric modulation (ago-PAMs). PAM 38t, a low glutamate fold-shift allosteric ligand (maximum fold-shift ~ 3.0), was selected as a potent PAM with no agonism in the in vitro system used for compound characterization and in two native electrophysiological systems using rat hippocampal slices. PAM 38t (ML254) will be useful to probe the relative contribution of cooperativity and allosteric agonism to the adverse effect liability and neurotoxicity associated with this class of mGlu5 PAMs.
Project description:Previous preclinical work has demonstrated the therapeutic potential of antagonists of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus). Still, compounds that are selective for the individual group II mGlus (mGlu2 and mGlu3) have been scarce. There remains a need for such compounds with the balance of properties suitable for convenient use in a wide array of rodent behavioral studies. We describe here the discovery of a selective mGlu3 NAM 106 (VU0650786) suitable for in vivo work. Compound 106 is a member of a series of 5-aryl-6,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazine-4(5H)-one compounds originally identified as a mGlu5 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) chemotype. Its suitability for use in rodent behavioral models has been established by extensive in vivo PK studies, and the behavioral experiments presented here with compound 106 represent the first examples in which an mGlu3 NAM has demonstrated efficacy in models where prior efficacy had previously been noted with nonselective group II antagonists.
Project description:Starting from a singleton chromanone high throughput screening (HTS) hit, we describe a focused medicinal chemistry optimization effort leading to the identification of a novel series of phenoxymethyl-dihydrothiazolopyridone derivatives as selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor. These dihydrothiazolopyridones potentiate receptor responses in recombinant systems. In vitro and in vivo drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) evaluation allowed us to select compound 16a for its assessment in a preclinical animal screen of possible antipsychotic activity. 16a was able to reverse amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats in a dose-dependent manner without showing any significant motor impairment or overt neurological side effects at comparable doses. Evolution of our medicinal chemistry program, structure activity, and properties relationships (SAR and SPR) analysis as well as a detailed profile for optimized mGlu5 receptor PAM 16a are described.
Project description:Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) is a target for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, mGlu5 has been shown to play an important role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, specifically in long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP), which is thought to be involved in cognition. Multiple mGlu5-positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been developed from a variety of different scaffolds. Previous work has extensively characterized a common allosteric site on mGlu5, termed the MPEP (2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine) binding site. However, one mGlu5 PAM, CPPHA (N-(4-chloro-2-[(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)methyl]phenyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide), interacts with a separate allosteric site on mGlu5. Using cell-based assays and brain slice preparations, we characterized the interaction of a potent and efficacious mGlu5 PAM from the CPPHA series termed NCFP (N-(4-chloro-2-((4-fluoro-1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)methyl)phenyl)picolinamide). NCFP binds to the CPPHA site on mGlu5 and potentiates mGlu5-mediated responses in both recombinant and native systems. However, NCFP provides greater mGlu5 subtype selectivity than does CPPHA, making it more suitable for studies of effects on mGlu5 in CNS preparations. Of interest, NCFP does not potentiate responses involved in hippocampal synaptic plasticity (LTD/LTP), setting it apart from other previously characterized MPEP site PAMs. This suggests that although mGlu5 PAMs may have similar responses in some systems, they can induce differential effects on mGlu5-mediated physiologic responses in the CNS. Such stimulus bias by mGlu5 PAMs may complicate drug discovery efforts but would also allow for specifically tailored therapies, if pharmacological biases can be attributed to different therapeutic outcomes.
Project description:Rett syndrome (RS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that shares many symptomatic and pathological commonalities with idiopathic autism. Alterations in protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity (PSDSP) are a hallmark of a number of syndromic forms of autism; in the present work, we explore the consequences of disruption and rescue of PSDSP in a mouse model of RS. We report that expression of a key regulator of synaptic protein synthesis, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) protein, is significantly reduced in both the brains of RS model mice and in the motor cortex of human RS autopsy samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reduced mGlu5 expression correlates with attenuated DHPG-induced long-term depression in the hippocampus of RS model mice, and that administration of a novel mGlu5 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), termed VU0462807, can rescue synaptic plasticity defects. Additionally, treatment of Mecp2-deficient mice with VU0462807 improves motor performance (open-field behavior and gait dynamics), corrects repetitive clasping behavior, as well as normalizes cued fear-conditioning defects. Importantly, due to the rationale drug discovery approach used in its development, our novel mGlu5 PAM improves RS phenotypes and synaptic plasticity defects without evoking the overt adverse effects commonly associated with potentiation of mGlu5 signaling (i.e. seizures), or affecting cardiorespiratory defects in RS model mice. These findings provide strong support for the continued development of mGlu5 PAMs as potential therapeutic agents for use in RS, and, more broadly, for utility in idiopathic autism.
Project description:Herein, we report the structure-activity relationship of a novel series of (2(phenoxymethyl)-6,7-dihydrooxazolo[5,4-c]pyridine-5(4H)-yl(aryl)methanones as potent, selective, and orally bioavailable metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). On the basis of its robust in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy in multiple preclinical models of multiple domains of schizophrenia, coupled with a good DMPK profile and an acceptable therapeutic window, 17a (VU0409551/JNJ-46778212) was selected as a candidate for further development.
Project description:The metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that modulate synaptic activity and plasticity throughout the mammalian brain. Signal transduction is initiated by glutamate binding to the venus flytrap domains (VFT), which initiates a conformational change that is transmitted to the conserved heptahelical domains (7TM) and results ultimately in the activation of intracellular G proteins. While both mGlu1 and mGlu5 activate G?q G-proteins, they also increase intracellular cAMP concentration through an unknown mechanism. To study directly the G protein coupling properties of the human mGlu5 receptor homodimer, we purified the full-length receptor, which required careful optimisation of the expression, N-glycosylation and purification. We successfully purified functional mGlu5 that activated the heterotrimeric G protein Gq. The high-affinity agonist-PAM VU0424465 also activated the purified receptor in the absence of an orthosteric agonist. In addition, it was found that purified mGlu5 was capable of activating the G protein Gs either upon stimulation with VU0424465 or glutamate, although the later induced a much weaker response. Our findings provide important mechanistic insights into mGlu5 G protein-dependent activity and selectivity.