Pseudomonas extremorientalis BU118: a new salt-tolerant laccase-secreting bacterium with biotechnological potential in textile azo dye decolourization.
ABSTRACT: The present investigation focused on screening of a new potent strain for laccase production and optimizing the process parameters to achieve the maximum enzymatic decolourization of textile azo dye Congo red. Seven hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial strains were selected as positive in laccase production in solid medium using 2,6 dimethoxyphenol as an enzyme activity indicator. The best enzyme producer Pseudomonas extremorientalis BU118 showed a maximum laccase activity of about 7000 U/L of wheat bran under solid-state conditions. The influence of different concentrations of dye, enzyme, salt and various incubation times on Congo red decolourization was studied using response surface methodology to find the optimum conditions required for maximum decolourization by P. extremorientalis laccase. The enzyme exhibited a remarkable colour removal capability over a wide range of dye and salt concentrations. The above results show the potential use of this bacterial laccase in the biological treatment of the textile effluent.
Project description:Two bioreactors (column and U-tube) were compared for continuous dye decolourization efficiency using a laccase-producing white rot fungus, Phlebia radiata. Column bioreactor containing immobilized crude enzyme beads and U-tube continuous bioreactor containing actively growing fungal biomass were established. Synthetic dye (coracryl blue C5G) solution treated with immobilized crude enzyme on alginate beads showed a maximum net decolourization up to 55% (flow rate 1 ml/min). The U-tube bioreactor was more efficient in decolorizing the dye, which showed a net decolourization up to 64% at faster flow rate (2.5 ml/min). The decolorization efficiency in both the systems was positively influenced by the slower flow rate. Thus, the study presents designing and operations of two continuous small-scale bioreactors one with immobilized enzyme while the another one with direct fungal contact.
Project description:The gene (CcLcc2) encoding laccase from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea Okayama-7 #130 was synthesized by polymerase chain reaction-based two-step DNA synthesis, and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant protein was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and nickel nitrilotriacetic acid chromatography. The molecular mass of CcLcc2 was estimated to be 54 kDa by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH and temperature for laccase catalysis for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) were 2.6 and 45 °C, respectively. The Km values of the enzyme towards the substrates ABTS, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) and guaiacol were 0.93, 1.02 and 28.07 mmol·L(-1), respectively. The decolourization of methyl orange, crystal violet and malachite green, commonly used in the textile industry, was assessed. The decolourization percentage of crystal violet and malachite green was 80% after 4 h of reaction, and that of methyl orange was 50% at 4 h. These results show that the CcLcc2 has enormous potential for the decolourization of highly stable triphenylmethane dyes.
Project description:A laccase-producing ascomycete fungus was isolated from soil collected around the premises of a textile dye factory and identified as Nectriella pironii. Efficient laccase production was achieved via the synergistic action of 1 mM copper sulfate and ferulic acid. Extracts of rapeseed oil cake, grass hay, and leaf litter collected in a pocket urban park were used for enzyme production. The highest laccase activity (3,330 U/L) was observed in the culture grown on the leaf litter extract. This is the first report on biosynthesis of laccase by N. pironii. This is also the first study on utilization of naturally fallen park leaves as a substrate for fungal laccase production. The extracellular enzyme possessing laccase activity was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatographic techniques. The amino acid sequence of the protein revealed highest similarity to the laccase enzyme produced by Stachybotrys chartarum-and considerable homology to those produced by other fungal species. The purified laccase possessed a molecular mass of 50 kDa. The enzyme had an optimum pH of 2.0 or 6.0 and retained more than 50% of residual activity after 3 hours of incubation at pH 3.0-10.6 or 4.0-9.0 when 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid or 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, respectively, were used. Dithiothreitol, ?-mercaptoethanol, and sodium azide at 1 mM concentration strongly inhibited the laccase activity, while in the presence of 50 mM urea, the enzyme was found to retain 25% of its activity. The laccase was able to decolorize more than 80% of Indigo Carmine, Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Reactive Orange 16, and Acid Red 27 dyes within 1 h. The possibility of leaf litter use for the production of the laccase enzyme from N. pironii (IM 6443), exhibiting high pH stability and degradative potential, makes it a promising tool for use in different environmental and industrial operations.
Project description:This study explored the influence of several key factors on the process and kinetics of azo dye decolourization in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), including cathode potential, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of catholyte and biofilm formed on the cathode. The results show that azo dye methyl orange (MO) decolourization in the BES could be well described with the pseudo first-order kinetics. The MO decolourization efficiency increased from 0 to 94.90 ± 0.01% and correspondingly the reaction rate constant increased from 0 to 0.503 ± 0.001 h(-1) with the decrease in cathodic electrode potential from -0.2 to -0.8 V vs Ag/AgCl. On the contrary, DO concentration of the catholyte had a negative impact on MO decolourization in the BES. When DO concentration increased from zero to 5.80 mg L(-1), the MO decolourization efficiency decreased from 87.19 ± 4.73% to 27.77 ± 0.06% and correspondingly the reaction rate constant reduced from 0.207 ± 0.042 to 0.033 ± 0.007 h(-1). Additionally, the results suggest that the biofilm formed on the cathode could led to an adverse rather than a positive effect on azo dye decolourization in the BES in terms of efficiency and kinetics.
Project description:Textile effluents are highly polluting and have variable and complex compositions. They can be extremely complex, with high salt concentrations and alkaline pHs. A fixed-bed bioreactor was used in the present study to simulate a textile effluent treatment, where the white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, efficiently decolourised the azo dye Reactive Black 5 over 28 days. This occurred under high alkaline conditions, which is unusual, but advantageous, for successful decolourisation processes. Active dye decolourisation was maintained by operation in continuous culture. Colour was eliminated during the course of operation and maximum laccase (Lcc) activity (80.2 U?L(-1)) was detected after glycerol addition to the bioreactor. Lcc2 gene expression was evaluated with different carbon sources and pH values based on reverse transcriptase-PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Glycerol was shown to promote the highest lcc2 expression at pH 5.5, followed by sucrose and then glucose. The highest levels of expression occurred between three and four days, which corroborate the maximum Lcc activity observed for sucrose and glycerol on the bioreactor. These results give new insights into the use of T. versicolor in textile dye wastewater treatment with high pHs.
Project description:White rot fungus Marasmius sp. BBKAV79 (GenBank accession number-KP455496, KP455497) exhibited decolourization and degradation of Navy blue HER dye (concentration 50 mg l-l) within 24 h under shaking condition. In the present study, various investigated parameters like initial dye concentration, pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized to develop a faster decolourization process by Marasmius sp. BBKAV79. High-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis of the extracted product confirmed the biodegradation of Navy blue HER. The microbial toxicity and phytotoxicity assay revealed that the degradation of Navy blue HER produced nontoxic metabolites.
Project description:In this study, we isolated and characterized a new strain of Klebsiella sp. Y3, which was capable of decolourizing azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. The effects of physico-chemical parameters on the Methyl Red degradation by the strain were determined. The results indicated that strain Y3 exhibited a good decolourization ability in the range of pH from 4 to 9, temperature from 30 °C to 42 °C and salinity from 1% to 4%. A broad spectrum of azo dyes with different structures could be decolourized by the strain. The isolate decolourized Methyl Red, Congo Red, Orange I and Methyl Orange by almost 100% (100 mg/L) in 48 h. The culture exhibited an ability to decolourize repeated additions of dye, showing that the strain could be used for multiple cycles of biodegradation. Azo dyes at high concentrations could be tolerated and degraded by Y3. An almost complete mineralization of Methyl Red and Congo Red at the concentration of 800 mg/L was observed within 48 h. The high degradation potential of this bacterium supports its use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing azo dyes.
Project description:Decolourization of azo dyes by Pleurotus ostreatus, a white-rot fungus capable of lignin depolymerization and mineralization, is related to the ligninolytic activity of enzymes produced by this fungus. The capacity of P. ostreatus to decolourize the azo dye Orange II (OII) was dependent and positively co-linear to Mn(2+) concentration in the medium, and thus attributed to Mn(2+)-dependent peroxidase (MnP) activity. Based on the ongoing P. ostreatus genome deciphering project we identified at least nine genes encoding for MnP gene family members (mnp 1-9), of which only four (mnp 1-4) were previously known. Relative real-time PCR quantification analysis confirmed that all the nine genes are transcribed, and that Mn(2+) amendment results in a drastic increase in the transcript levels of the predominantly expressed MnP genes (mnp 3 and mnp 9), while decreasing versatile peroxidase gene transcription (mnp 4). A reverse genetics strategy based on silencing the P. ostreatus mnp 3 gene by RNAi was implemented. Knock-down of mnp 3 resulted in the reduction of fungal OII decolourization capacity, which was co-linear with marked silencing of the Mn(2+)-dependent peroxidase genes mnp 3 and mnp 9. This is the first direct genetic proof of an association between MnP gene expression levels and azo dye decolourization capacity in P. ostreatus, which may have significant implication on understanding the mechanisms governing lignin biodegradation. Moreover, this study has proven the applicability of RNAi as a tool for gene function studies in Pleurotus research.
Project description:Fusarium oxysporum laccase was functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and engineered towards higher expression levels and higher reactivity towards 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, that could be used as a mediator for lignin modification. A combination of classical culture optimization and protein engineering led to around 30 times higher activity in the culture supernatant. The winner mutant exhibited three times lower Km, four times higher kcat and ten times higher catalytic efficiency than the parental enzyme. The strategy for laccase engineering was composed of a combination of random methods with a rational approach based on QM/MM MD studies of the enzyme complex with 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. Laccase mediator system with 2,6-dimethoxyphenol caused fulvic acids release from biosolubilized coal.
Project description:Laccases have been used for the decolorization and detoxification of synthetic dyes due to their ability to oxidize a wide variety of dyes with water as the sole byproduct. A putative laccase gene (LacTT) from Thermus thermophilus SG0.5JP17-16 was screened using the genome mining approach, and it was highly expressed in Pichia pastoris, yielding a high laccase activity of 6130 U/L in a 10-L fermentor. The LacTT open reading frame encoded a protein of 466 amino acid residues with four putative Cu-binding regions. The optimal pH of the recombinant LacTT was 4.5, 6.0, 7.5 and 8.0 with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), syringaldazine (SGZ), guaiacol, and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) as the substrate, respectively. The optimal temperature of LacTT was 90°C with guaiacol as the substrate. LacTT was highly stable at pH 4.0-11.0 and thermostable at 40°C-90°C, confirming that it is a pH-stable and thermostable laccase. Furthermore, LacTT also exhibited high tolerance to halides such as NaCl, NaBr and NaF, and decolorized 100%, 94%, 94% and 73% of Congo Red, Reactive Black B and Reactive Black WNN, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R, respectively. Interestingly, addition of high concentration of NaCl increased the RBBR decolorization efficiency of LacTT. These results suggest that LacTT is a good candidate for industrial applications such as dyestuff processing and degradation of dyes in textile wastewaters.