Use of the lichen Xanthoria mandschurica in monitoring atmospheric elemental deposition in the Taihang Mountains, Hebei, China.
ABSTRACT: Air pollution is a major concern in China. Lichens are a useful biomonitor for atmospheric elemental deposition but have rarely been used in North China. The aim of this study was to investigate the atmospheric depositions of 30 trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in a region of the Taihang Mountains, Hebei Province, China using lichens as biomonitors. Epilithic foliose lichen Xanthoria mandschurica was sampled from 21 sites and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that 1) eight elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, P, Pb, Sb and Zn) are of atmospheric origin and are highly influenced by the atmospheric transportation from the North China Plain, as well as local mining activities, while 2) the remaining 22 elements are primarily of crustal origin, the concentration of which has been enhanced by local mining and quarrying activities. These results clearly validate the applicability of lichens in biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition and demonstrate the spatial pattern for air pollution in the region.
Project description:Two epiphytic lichens (Xanthoria alfredii, XAa; X. ulophyllodes, XAu) and soil were sampled at three sites with varied distances to a road in a semiarid sandland in Inner Mongolia, China and analyzed for concentrations of 42 elements to assess the contribution of soil input and road traffic to lichen element burdens, and to compare element concentration differences between the two lichens. The study showed that multielement patterns, Fe:Ti and rare earth element ratios were similar between the lichen and soil samples. Enrichment factors (EFs) showed that ten elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, K, P, Pb, S, Sb, and Zn) were enriched in the lichens relative to the local soil. Concentrations of most elements were higher in XAu than in XAa regardless of sites, and increased with proximity to the road regardless of lichen species. These results suggested that lichen element compositions were highly affected by soil input and road traffic. The narrow-lobed sorediate species were more efficient in particulate entrapment than the broad-lobed nonsorediate species. XAa and XAu are good bioaccumulators for road pollution in desert and have similar spatial patterns of element concentrations for most elements as response to road traffic emissions and soil input.
Project description:Background: Mining activities always emit metal(loid)s into the surrounding environment, where their accumulation in the soil may pose risks and hazards to humans and ecosystems. Objective: This paper aims to determine of the type, source, chemical form, fate and transport, and accurate risk assessment of 17 metal(loid) contaminants including As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ag, B, Bi, Co, Mo, Sb, Ti, V, W and Sn in the soils collected from an abandoned tungsten mining area, and to guide the implementing of appropriate remediation strategies. Methods: Contamination factors (CFs) and integrated pollution indexes (IPIs) and enrichment factors (EFs) were used to assess their ecological risk and the sources were identified by using multivariate statistics analysis, spatial distribution investigation and correlation matrix. Results: The IPI and EF values indicated the soils in the mine site and the closest downstream one were extremely disturbed by metal(loid)s such as As, Bi, W, B, Cu, Pb and Sn, which were emitted from the mining wastes and acid drainages and delivered by the runoff and human activities. Arsenic contamination was detected in nine sites with the highest CF values at 24.70 next to the mining site. The Cd contamination scattered in the paddy soils around the resident areas with higher fraction of bioavailable forms, primarily associated with intense application of phosphorus fertilizer. The lithogenic elements V, Ti, Ag, Ni, Sb, Mo exhibit low contamination in all sampling points and their distribution were depended on the soil texture and pedogenesis process. Conclusions: The long term historical mining activities have caused severe As contamination and higher enrichment of the other elements of orebody in the local soils. The appropriate remediation treatment approach should be proposed to reduce the bioavailability of Cd in the paddy soils and to immobilize As to reclaim the soils around the mining site. Furthermore, alternative fertilizing way and irrigating water sources are urgencies to reduce the input of Cd and As into the local soils effectively.
Project description:A total of 43 water and sediment samples, and 34 Corbicula fluminea samples were collected in Xijiang River in southern China to determine the spatial distribution and sources of 12 metals/metalloids (V, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Sb, and Tl) and to assess the pollution levels and ecological risks of the pollutants. The results showed that the levels of the metals/metalloids (except for Tl) in the river water from almost all of the sampling sites met the Chinese national surface water quality standards. However, the concentrations of the metals/metalloids in the sediments exceeded the background values by a factor of 1.03-56.56 except for V, Co, and Mn, and the contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb in the Corbicula fluminea soft tissue exceeded the limits of the Chinese Category I food Quality Standards. The spatial distribution analysis showed that the concentrations of the contaminants in the lower reaches of Xijiang River were higher than in the upper reaches. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), and the potential ecological risk index (RI) were obtained to assess the pollution levels and ecological risks. The results indicated that Cu, Cd, and Zn were the most prone to bio-accumulation in the Corbicula fluminea soft tissue, and the lower reaches showed a much higher pollution level and risk than the upper reaches. The metals/metalloids in the sediments posed serious threat on the aquatic ecosystem, of which Cd, As, and Sb are the most risky contaminants. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) indicated Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, and As in the sediments came from relevant industrial activities, and V and Co originated from natural sources, and Sb from mining activities, Zn and Tl came from industrial activities and mining activities.
Project description:This study investigated the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn in 102 soils (in the Near and Far areas of the mine), 7 tailings, and 60 plant samples (shoots and roots of Artemisia sieberi and Zygophylum species) collected at the Gol-E-Gohar iron ore mine in Iran. The elemental concentrations in tailings and soil samples (in Near and Far areas) varied between 7.4 and 35.8 mg kg-1 for As (with a mean of 25.39 mg kg-1 for tailings), 7.9 and 261.5 mg kg-1 (mean 189.83 mg kg-1 for tailings) for Co, 17.7 and 885.03 mg kg-1 (mean 472.77 mg kg-1 for tailings) for Cu, 12,500 and 400,000 mg kg-1 (mean 120,642.86 mg kg-1 for tailings) for Fe, and 28.1 and 278.1 mg kg-1 (mean 150.29 mg kg-1 for tailings) for Ni. A number of physicochemical parameters and pollution index for soils were determined around the mine. Sequential extractions of tailings and soil samples indicated that Fe, Cr, and Co were the least mobile and that Mn, Zn, Cu, and As were potentially available for plants uptake. Similar to soil, the concentration of Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Zn in plant samples decreased with the distance from the mining/processing areas. Data on plants showed that metal concentrations in shoots usually exceeded those in roots and varied significantly between the two investigated species (Artemisia sieberi > Zygophylum). All the reported results suggest that the soil and plants near the iron ore mine are contaminated with PTEs and that they can be potentially dispersed in the environment via aerosol transport and deposition.
Project description:In this study, the concentration of eight dissolved heavy metals (Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Mo, Sb, and Ba) in 42 water samples from the Jiulongjiang River, southeast China, were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multivariate statistical methods, including correlation analysis (CA) and factor and principal component analysis (FA/PCA), were analyzed to identify the sources of the elements. Water quality index (WQI) and health risk assessment, including hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI), were used to evaluate water quality and the impacts on human health. Our results were compared with the drinking water guidelines reported by China, the World Health Organization (WHO), and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), revealing that Ti, Mn, and Sb were not within approved limits at some sites and might be the main pollutants in the drainage basin. Based on the spatial distributions, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Mo showed good similarity, indicating that they might come from similar sources along the river. The CA results also showed that Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Mo had a high correlation coefficient. The FA/PCA results identified three principal components (PC) that accounted for 79.46% of the total variance. PC 1 suggested that a mixed lithogenic and urban land source contributed to Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Mo; PC 2 showed that Cr, Ni, and Mo were influenced by the discharge of industrial effluents; Sb had a strong loading on PC 3, which was controlled by mining activities. The results of the WQI indicated that the water in the Jiulongjiang River was basically categorized as excellent water, but the water quality levels in site W5 and N4 were poorer due to urban land use. Hazard quotient and HI values showed that Sb was a potential threat to human health, indicating that preventive actions should be considered in regard to mining activities in the upper reaches of Beixi stream.
Project description:Mining and smelting activities are the primary sources of toxic metal pollution in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pollution risk and identify sources of metals in the arable soil of a Zn/Pb mining and smelting district located in Huize, in Southwest China. Topsoil (346) and profile (three) samples were collected and analyzed to determine the total concentrations of eight toxic elements (Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni). The results showed that the mean Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni concentrations were 9.07, 0.37, 25.0, 512, 88.7, 239, 1761 and 90.3 mg/kg, respectively, all of which exceeded both the Huize and Yunnan soil background levels. Overall the topsoil was quite acidic, with a mean pH of 5.51. The mean geoaccumulation index (Igeo) revealed that the pollution level was in the order of Pb > Zn > Cd > Hg > As > Ni > Cu > Cr. The ecological risk index (Ei) indicated that there were serious contamination risks for Cd and Hg, high risk for Pb, moderate risk for As, and Cd and Hg were the dominant contributors to the high combined ecological risk index (Er) with a mean parameter of 699 meaning a serious ecological risk. The Nemerow pollution index (Pn) showed that 99.1% of soil samples were highly polluted or worse. Horizontally, high concentrations of Cd, Hg, As, Pb and Zn appeared in the north and middle of the study area, while Cr, Cu and Ni showed an opposite trend. Vertically, as the depth increased, Cd, Hg, As, Pb and Zn contents declined, but Cr, Cu and Ni exhibited an increasing trend. The mobilities of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cd > Hg > As > Pb. Horizontal and vertical distribution, coupled with correlation analysis, PCA and CA suggested that Cd, Hg, As, Pb and Zn mainly came from the anthropogenic sources, whereas Cr and Ni had a lithogenic origin. The source of Cu was a combination of the presence of parent materials as well as human activities. This study provides a base for the local government to control the toxic metal pollution and restore the soil environment system and an effective method to identify the sources of the studied pollutants.
Project description:Maternal status of essential and toxic elements affects the health of the mother, developing fetus, or breastfeeding infant. However, few studies have examined the patterns of these elements and their determinants in pregnant or lactating women. Plasma samples of 1211 healthy mid-pregnant, late pregnant, and lactating women enrolled in coastland, lakeland, and inland areas of China from May-July 2014, were analyzed for concentrations of 15 elements, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The adjusted median concentrations of elements varied by physiologic stage and region. Lactating versus pregnant women showed higher concentrations of Zn, Cr, Mo, Ni, Sb, Cd and Pb, but lower concentrations of Cu, I, Al and Hg. In pregnant women, the concentrations of Fe, Zn, I, Mo, Ni, Al, Hg and Cd were higher in mid- versus late-pregnancy. Overall, the highest concentrations were observed in Zn, I, Mn, Al, and Pb in coastland, in Hg in lakeland, and in Fe in inland area. Element concentrations varied by maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, education, parity, delivery mode, feeding practice, and intakes of aquatic products and mutton. In conclusion, essential and toxic elements coexisted in pregnant and lactating women, and their concentrations varied by physiologic stages, regions, maternal socio-demographic characteristics and dietary factors.
Project description:In this study, we performed elemental analysis for floor dust samples collected in Jordanian microenvironments (dwellings and educational building). We performed intercorrelation and cluster analysis between the elemental, polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and microorganism concentrations. In general, the educational building workshops had the highest elemental contamination. The age of the dwelling and its occupancy played a role on the elemental contamination level: older and more occupied dwellingshad greater contamination. The elemental contamination at a dwelling entrance was observed to be higher than in the living room. We found exceptionally high concentrations for Fe and Mn in the educational workshop and additionally, Hg, Cr, and Pb concentrations exceeded the limits set by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. According to the cluster analysis, we found three major groups based on location and contamination. According to the enrichment factor (EF) assessment, Al, Co, Mn, Ti, and Ba had EF < 2 (i.e., minimal enrichment) whereas P, S, Pb, Sb, Mo, Zn, Hg, and Cu had EF > 40 (i.e., extremely enriched). In contrast, Ca and P were geogenically enriched. Furthermore, significant Spearman correlations indicated nine subgroups of elemental contamination combined with PAHs and microbes.
Project description:Trace metal element contamination in mining areas is always a huge environmental challenge for the global mining industry. In this study, an abandoned sphalerite mine near the Yanshan Mountains was selected as subject to evaluate the soil and water contamination caused by small-scale mining. The results show that (1) Pearson correlation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA) results reveal that Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb were greatly affected by the operation of mines, especially mineral tailings. The contents of trace metal elements decrease with the increase of the distance from the mining area. Zinc, Pb, and Cd were discovered in almost all soil samples, and Zn accounted for about 80% of pollution of the topsoil. (2) The trace element pollution levels in the topsoil of the three villages were ranked as follows: Cd > Cu > Pb~Zn. The potential ecological risk of farmland around the mine ranges from lower to higher, with Cd being the most harmful. (3) Human health risk assessment results show that trace elements in the mining area pose obvious non-carcinogenic health risks to children while the risks to adults are not equally obvious. The carcinogenic risk of Cd and Cr is within a safe range and does not pose an obvious cancer risk to the population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidemiological studies have suggested a possible role of trace elements (TE) in the etiology of several neurological diseases including Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Hair analysis provides an easy tool to quantify TE in human subjects, including patients with neurodegenerative diseases. OBJECTIVE:To compare TE levels in scalp hair from patients with MS and healthy controls from the same geographic area (Sicily). METHODS:ICP-MS was used to determine the concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn) in scalp hair of 48 patients with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis compared with 51 healthy controls. RESULTS:MS patients showed a significantly lower hair concentration of aluminum and rubidium (median values: Al = 3.76 ?g/g vs. 4.49 ?g/g and Rb = 0.007 ?g/g vs. 0.01 ?g/g;) and higher hair concentration of U (median values U: 0.014 ?g/g vs. 0.007 ?g/g) compared to healthy controls. The percentages of MS patients showing hair elemental concentrations greater than the 95th percentile of controls were 20% for Ni, 19% for Ba and U, and 15% for Ag, Mo and Se. Conversely, the percentages of MS patients showing hair elemental concentrations lower than the 5th percentile of healthy controls were 27% for Al, 25% for Rb, 22% for Ag, 19% for Fe, and 16% for Pb. No significant association was found between levels of each TE and age, disease duration or Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score. After stratification by gender, healthy subjects did not show any significant difference in trace element levels, while MS patients showed significant differences (p<0.01) for the concentrations of Ag, Cr, Fe, Ni and Sr. No significant differences were also found, at p<0.01, in relation to the use of cigarettes, consume of water, vegetables and place of living. CONCLUSION:The different distributions of TE in hair of MS patients compared to controls provides an additional indirect evidence of metabolic imbalance of chemical elements in the pathogenesis of this disease. The increase in U and decrease in Al and Rb levels in MS compared to controls require further assessments as well as the observed different distributions of other elements.