Transcriptomic and physiological analysis of common duckweed Lemna minor responses to NH4(+) toxicity.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Plants can suffer ammonium (NH4 (+)) toxicity, particularly when NH4 (+) is supplied as the sole nitrogen source. However, our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of NH4 (+) toxicity is still largely unknown. Lemna minor, a model duckweed species, can grow well in high NH4 (+) environment but to some extent can also suffer toxic effects. The transcriptomic and physiological analysis of L. minor responding to high NH4 (+) may provide us some interesting and useful information not only in toxic processes, but also in tolerance mechanisms. RESULTS:The L. minor cultured in the Hoagland solution were used as the control (NC), and in two NH4 (+) concentrations (NH4 (+) was the sole nitrogen source), 84 mg/L (A84) and 840 mg/L (A840) were used as stress treatments. The NH4 (+) toxicity could inhibit the growth of L. minor. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death were studied using stained fronds under toxic levels of NH4 (+). The malondialdehyde content and the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase increased from NC to A840, rather than catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. A total of 6.62G nucleotides were generated from the three distinct libraries. A total of 14,207 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among 70,728 unigenes were obtained. All the DEGs could be clustered into 7 profiles. Most DEGs were down-regulated under NH4 (+) toxicity. The genes required for lignin biosynthesis in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were up-regulated. ROS oxidative-related genes and programmed cell death (PCD)-related genes were also analyzed and indicated oxidative damage and PCD occurring under NH4 (+) toxicity. CONCLUSIONS:The first large transcriptome study in L. minor responses to NH4 (+) toxicity was reported in this work. NH4 (+) toxicity could induce ROS accumulation that causes oxidative damage and thus induce cell death in L. minor. The antioxidant enzyme system was activated under NH4 (+) toxicity for ROS scavenging. The phenylpropanoid pathway was stimulated under NH4 (+) toxicity. The increased lignin biosynthesis might play an important role in NH4 (+) toxicity resistance.
Project description:Albinism in shoots of tea plants is a common phenotypic expression which gives the tea infusion a pleasant umami taste. A novel natural albino mutant tea germplasm containing high amino acids content was found and named as 'Huabai 1'. 'Huabai 1' has white jade tender shoots under low temperature and turns green with increased temperature. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of color change in leaf of 'Huabai 1', transcriptome analysis was performed to identify albino-associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A total of 483 DEGs were identified from white shoots of 'Huabai 1' compared to its green shoots. There were 15 DEGs identified to be involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, which account for the majority of characterized DEGs. The metabolites related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis revealed similar expression pattern of DEGs. Furthermore, metabolic pathways such as ubiquonone, tyrosine, and flavonoid biosynthesis associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis could also contribute to the color change in 'Huabai 1' tender shoots. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed a hub protein NEDD8 (CSA009575) which interacted with many regulated genes in spliceosome, nitrogen metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and other pathways. In conclusion, the findings in this study indicate that the color change of 'Huabai 1' tender shoots is a combined effect of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway and other metabolic pathways including flavonoid biosynthesis in tea plants. Chlorophyll biosynthesis-related genes LHCII and SGR may also play some roles in color change of 'Huabai 1'.
Project description:Ammonium (NH4+) phytotoxicity is a worldwide phenomenon, but the primary toxic mechanisms are still controversial. In the present study, we investigated the physiological function of gibberellins (GAs) in the response of rice plants to NH4+ toxicity and polyamine accumulation using GA biosynthesis-related rice mutants. Exposure to NH4+ significantly decreased GA4 production in shoots of wild-type (WT) plants. Both exogenous GA application to the WT and increases in endogenous GA levels in eui1 mutants rendered them more sensitive to NH4+ toxicity. In contrast, growth of sd1 GA-deficient mutants was more tolerant to NH4+ toxicity than that of their WT counterparts. The role of polyamines in GA-mediated NH4+ toxicity was evaluated using WT rice plants and their GA-related mutants. The eui1 mutants with GA overproduction displayed a higher endogenous putrescine (Put) accumulation than WT plants, leading to an enhanced Put/[spermidine (Spd)+spermine (Spm)] ratio in their shoots. In contrast, mutation of the SD1 gene encoding a defective enzyme in GA biosynthesis resulted in a significant increase in Spd and Spm production, and reduction in the Put/(Spd+Spm) ratio when exposed to a high NH4+ medium. Exogenous application of Put exacerbated symptoms associated with NH4+ toxicity in rice shoots, while the symptoms were alleviated by an inhibitor of Put biosynthesis. These findings highlight the involvement of GAs in NH4+ toxicity, and that GA-induced Put accumulation is responsible for the increased sensitivity to NH4+ toxicity in rice plants.
Project description:Tung tree (Vernicia fordii), an economically important woody oil plant, is a monoecious and diclinous species with male and female flowers on the same inflorescence. The extremely low proportion of female flowers leads to low fruit yield in tung orchards. The female flower normally develops along with stamen abortion; otherwise sterile ovules will be produced. However, little knowledge is known about the molecular basis of the female flower development in tung tree. In this study, integrated analyses of morphological and cytological observations, endogenous phytohormone assay and RNA-seq were conducted to understand the molecular mechanism of the female flower development in tung tree. Cytological observation suggested that the abortion of stamens in female flowers (SFFs) belongs to the type of programmed cell death (PCD), which was caused by tapetum degeneration at microspore mother cell stage. A total of 1,366 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in female flowers by RNA-seq analysis, of which 279 (20.42%) DEGs were significantly enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant hormone signal transduction. Stage-specific transcript identification detected dynamically expressed genes of important transcription regulators in female flowers that may be involved in PCD and floral organ development. Gene expression patterns revealed that 17 anther and pollen development genes and 37 PCD-related genes might be involved in the abortion of SFF. Further analyses of phytohormone levels and co-expression networks suggested that salicylic acid (SA) accumulation could trigger PCD and inhibit the development of SFF in tung tree. This study provides new insights into the role of SA in regulating the abortion of SFF to develop normal female flowers.
Project description:Clinical use of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) as antibacterials can be hampered by their toxicity to human cells. We hypothesized that certain surface functionalizations of CuO NPs may render NPs toxic to bacteria, but still be relatively harmless to human cells. To control this hypothesis, the toxicity of differently functionalized CuO NPs to bacteria Escherichia coli vs human cells (THP-1 macrophages and HACAT keratinocytes) was compared using similar conditions and end points. CuO NPs functionalized with polyethylene glycol (CuO-PEG), carboxyl (CuO-COOH, anionic), ammonium (CuO-NH4+, cationic) and unfunctionalized CuO NPs and CuSO4 (controls) were tested. In general, the toxicity of Cu compounds decreased in the following order: CuO-NH4+?>?unfunctionalized CuO?>?CuSO4?>?CuO-COOH?>?CuO-PEG. Positively charged unfunctionalized CuO and especially CuO-NH4+ proved most toxic (24-h EC50 = 21.7-47 mg/l) and had comparable toxicity to bacterial and mammalian cells. The multivariate analysis revealed that toxicity of these NPs was mostly attributed to their positive zeta potential, small hydrodynamic size, high Cu dissolution, and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TNF-?. In contrast, CuO-COOH and CuO-PEG NPs had lower toxicity to human cells compared to bacteria despite efficient uptake of these NPs by human cells. In addition, these NPs did not induce TNF-? and ROS. Thus, by varying the NP functionalization and Cu form (soluble salt vs NPs), it was possible to "target" the toxicity of Cu compounds, whereas carboxylation and PEGylation rendered CuO NPs that were more toxic to bacteria than to human cells envisaging their use in medical antibacterial products.
Project description:Programmed cell death (PCD) in bacteria is considered an important target for developing novel antimicrobials. Development of PCD-specific therapies requires a deeper understanding of what drives this process. We recently discovered a new mode of PCD in Escherichia coli that is triggered by expression of a mutant isoform of the essential ObgE protein, ObgE*. Our previous findings demonstrate that ObgE*-mediated cell death shares key characteristics with apoptosis in eukaryotic cells. It is well-known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed during PCD in eukaryotes and play a pivotal role as signaling molecules in the progression of apoptosis. Therefore, we explored a possible role for ROS in bacterial killing by ObgE*. Using fluorescent probes and genetic reporters, we found that expression of ObgE* induces formation of ROS. Neutralizing ROS by chemical scavenging or by overproduction of ROS-neutralizing enzymes did not influence toxicity of ObgE*. Moreover, expression of ObgE* under anaerobic conditions proved to be as detrimental to bacterial viability as expression under aerobic conditions. In conclusion, ROS are byproducts of ObgE* expression that do not play a role in the execution or progression of ObgE*-mediated PCD. Targeted therapies should therefore look to exploit other aspects of ObgE*-mediated PCD.
Project description:The Aegilops kotschyi thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterility (K-TCMS) system may facilitate hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed multiplication and production. The K-TCMS line is completely male sterile during the normal wheat-growing season, whereas its fertility can be restored in a high-temperature environment. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for male sterility/fertility conversion and candidate genes involved with pollen development in K-TCMS, we employed RNA-seq to sequence the transcriptomes of anthers from K-TCMS line KTM3315A during development under sterile and fertile conditions. We identified 16840 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in different stages including15157 known genes (15135 nuclear genes and 22 plasmagenes) and 1683 novel genes. Bioinformatics analysis identified possible metabolic pathways involved with fertility based on KEGG pathway enrichment of the DEGs expressed in fertile and sterile plants. We found that most of the genes encoding key enzyme in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and jasmonate biosynthesis pathways were significant upregulated in uninucleate, binuclate or trinucleate stage, which both interact with MYB transcription factors, and that link between all play essential roles in fertility conversion. The relevant DEGs were verified by quantitative RT-PCR. Thus, we suggested that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and jasmonate biosynthesis pathways were involved in fertility conversion of K-TCMS wheat. This will provide a new perspective and an effective foundation for the research of molecular mechanisms of fertility conversion of CMS wheat. Fertility conversion mechanism in thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterile/fertile wheat involves the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, jasmonate biosynthesis pathway, and MYB transcription factors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In water lily (Nymphaea) hybrid breeding, breeders often encounter non-viable seeds, which make it difficult to transfer desired or targeted genes of different Nymphaea germplasm. We found that pre-fertilization barriers were the main factor in the failure of the hybridization of Nymphaea. The mechanism of low compatibility between the pollen and stigma remains unclear; therefore, we studied the differences of stigma transcripts and proteomes at 0, 2, and 6?h after pollination (HAP). Moreover, some regulatory genes and functional proteins that may cause low pollen-pistil compatibility in Nymphaea were identified. RESULTS:RNA-seq was performed for three comparisons (2 vs 0 HAP, 6 vs 2 HAP, 6 vs 0 HAP), and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was 8789 (4680 were up-regulated), 6401 (3020 were up-regulated), and 11,284 (6148 were up-regulated), respectively. Using label-free analysis, 75 (2 vs 0 HAP) proteins (43 increased and 32 decreased), nine (6 vs 2 HAP) proteins (three increased and six decreased), and 90 (6 vs 0 HAP) proteins (52 increased and 38 decreased) were defined as differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed that the DEGs and DEPs were mainly involved in cell wall organization or biogenesis, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) metabolism, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, secondary metabolism, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Our transcriptomic and proteomic analysis highlighted specific genes, incuding those in ROS metabolism, biosynthesis of flavonoids, SAM metabolism, cell wall organization or biogenesis and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis that warrant further study in investigations of the pollen-stigma interaction of water lily. This study strengthens our understanding of the mechanism of low pollen-pistil compatibility in Nymphaea at the molecular level, and provides a theoretical basis for overcoming the pre-fertilization barriers in Nymphaea in the future.
Project description:Ammonium (NH4+) toxicity inhibits shoot growth in Arabidopsis, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that a novel Arabidopsis mutant, ammonium tolerance 1 (amot1), exhibits enhanced shoot growth tolerance to NH4+. Molecular cloning revealed that amot1 is a new allele of EIN3, a key regulator of ethylene responses. The amot1 mutant and the allelic ein3-1 mutants show greater NH4+ tolerance than the wild type. Moreover, transgenic plants overexpressing EIN3 (EIN3ox) are more sensitive to NH4+ toxicity The ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) increases shoot sensitivity to NH4+, whereas the ethylene perception inhibitor Ag+ decreases sensitivity. NH4+ induces ACC and ethylene accumulation. Furthermore, ethylene-insensitive mutants such as etr1-3 and ein3eil1 display enhanced NH4+ tolerance. In contrast, the ethylene overproduction mutant eto1-1 exhibits decreased ammonium tolerance. AMOT1/EIN3 positively regulates shoot ROS accumulation, leading to oxidative stress under NH4+ stress, a trait that may be related to increased expression of peroxidase-encoding genes. These findings demonstrate the role of AMOT1/EIN3 in NH4+ tolerance and confirm the strong link between NH4+ toxicity symptoms and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide.
Project description:Cold temperatures often severely restrict the growth, distribution and productivity of plants. The freezing tolerance of plants from temperate climates can be improved by undergoing periods of cold acclimation (CA). Tobacco is an important economic plant and is sensitive to cold stress. However, the dynamic changes and regulatory mechanisms of gene expression and metabolic processes during CA remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing and metabolomic profiling analyses to identify the genes and metabolites specifically expressed during CA. Our transcriptomic data revealed 6905 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during CA. Functional annotation and enrichment analyses revealed that the DEGs were involved mainly in signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Moreover, a total of 35 significantly changed metabolites were identified during CA via an LC-MS platform. Many protective metabolites, such as amino acids, carbohydrates, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and phenylpropanoid-related substances, were identified during CA. The gene-metabolite network extensively outlined the biological processes associated with the utilization of sugars, activation of amino acid metabolism, TCA cycle and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in tobacco under CA. The results of our present study provide a comprehensive view of signal transduction and regulation, gene expression and dynamic changes in metabolites during CA.
Project description:Flooding can lead to yield reduction of soybean. Therefore, identification of flooding tolerance genes has great significance in production practice. In this study, Qihuang 34, a highly-resistant variety to flooding stress, was selected for submergence treatments. Transcriptome and proteome analyses were conducted, by which twenty-two up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs)/differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) associated with five KEGG pathways were isolated. The number of the DEGs/DEPs enriched in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis was the highest. Four of these genes were confirmed by RT-qPCR, suggesting that glycolysis/gluconeogenesis may be activated to generate energy for plant survival under anaerobic conditions. Thirty-eight down-regulated DEGs/DEPs associated with six KEGG pathways were identified under submergence stress. Eight DEGs/DEPs enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were assigned to peroxidase, which catalyzes the conversion of coumaryl alcohol to hydroxy-phenyl lignin in the final step of lignin biosynthesis. Three of these genes were confirmed by RT-qPCR. The decreased expression of these genes led to the inhibition of lignin biosynthesis, which may be the cause of plant softening under submergence stress for a long period of time. This study revealed a number of up-/down-regulated pathways and the corresponding DEGs/DEPs, by which, a better understanding of the mechanisms of submergence tolerance in soybean may be achieved.