Domain Organization of Vaccinia Virus Helicase-Primase D5.
ABSTRACT: UNLABELLED:Poxviridae are viruses with a large linear double-stranded DNA genome coding for up to 250 open reading frames and a fully cytoplasmic replication. The double-stranded DNA genome is covalently circularized at both ends. Similar structures of covalently linked extremities of the linear DNA genome are found in the African swine fever virus (asfarvirus) and in the Phycodnaviridae We are studying the machinery which replicates this peculiar genome structure. From our work with vaccinia virus, we give first insights into the overall structure and function of the essential poxvirus virus helicase-primase D5 and show that the active helicase domain of D5 builds a hexameric ring structure. This hexamer has ATPase and, more generally, nucleoside triphosphatase activities that are indistinguishable from the activities of full-length D5 and that are independent of the nature of the base. In addition, hexameric helicase domains bind tightly to single- and double-stranded DNA. Still, the monomeric D5 helicase construct truncated within the D5N domain leads to a well-defined structure, but it does not have ATPase or DNA-binding activity. This shows that the full D5N domain has to be present for hexamerization. This allowed us to assign a function to the D5N domain which is present not only in D5 but also in other viruses of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) clade. The primase domain and the helicase domain were structurally analyzed via a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering and, when appropriate, electron microscopy, leading to consistent low-resolution models of the different proteins. IMPORTANCE:Since the beginning of the 1980s, research on the vaccinia virus replication mechanism has basically stalled due to the absence of structural information. As a result, this important class of pathogens is less well understood than most other viruses. This lack of information concerns in general viruses of the NCLDV clade, which use a superfamily 3 helicase for replication, as do poxviruses. Here we provide for the first time information about the domain structure and DNA-binding activity of D5, the poxvirus helicase-primase. This result not only refines the current model of the poxvirus replication fork but also will lead in the long run to a structural basis for antiviral drug design.
Project description:Poxviruses are large enveloped viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of vertebrate or invertebrate cells. At least six virus-encoded proteins are required for synthesis and processing of the double-stranded DNA genome of vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family. One of these proteins, D5, is an NTPase that contains an N-terminal archaeoeukaryotic primase domain and a C-terminal superfamily III helicase domain. Here we report that individual conserved aspartic acid residues in the predicted primase active site were required for in vivo complementation of infectious virus formation as well as genome and plasmid replication. Furthermore, purified recombinant D5 protein synthesized oligoribonucleotides in vitro. Incorporation of label from [alpha-(32)P]CTP or [alpha-(32)P]UTP into a RNase-sensitive and DNase-resistant product was demonstrated by using single-stranded circular bacteriophage DNA templates and depended on ATP or GTP and a divalent cation. Mutagenesis studies showed that the primase and NTPase activities of the recombinant D5 protein could be independently inactivated. Highly conserved orthologs of D5 are present in all poxviruses that have been sequenced, and more diverged orthologs are found in members of all other families of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses. These viral primases may have roles in initiation of DNA replication or lagging-strand synthesis and represent potential therapeutic targets.
Project description:Smallpox caused by the poxvirus variola virus is a highly lethal disease that marked human history and was eradicated in 1979 thanks to a worldwide mass vaccination campaign. This virus remains a significant threat for public health due to its potential use as a bioterrorism agent and requires further development of antiviral drugs. The viral genome replication machinery appears to be an ideal target, although very little is known about its structure. Vaccinia virus is the prototypic virus of the Orthopoxvirus genus and shares more than 97% amino acid sequence identity with variola virus. Here we studied four essential viral proteins of the replication machinery: the DNA polymerase E9, the processivity factor A20, the uracil-DNA glycosylase D4, and the helicase-primase D5. We present the recombinant expression and biochemical and biophysical characterizations of these proteins and the complexes they form. We show that the A20D4 polymerase cofactor binds to E9 with high affinity, leading to the formation of the A20D4E9 holoenzyme. Small-angle X-ray scattering yielded envelopes for E9, A20D4, and A20D4E9. They showed the elongated shape of the A20D4 cofactor, leading to a 150-Å separation between the polymerase active site of E9 and the DNA-binding site of D4. Electron microscopy showed a 6-fold rotational symmetry of the helicase-primase D5, as observed for other SF3 helicases. These results favor a rolling-circle mechanism of vaccinia virus genome replication similar to the one suggested for tailed bacteriophages.
Project description:Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus is an amoeba-infecting giant virus with over 1000 genes including several involved in DNA replication and repair. Here, we report the biochemical characterization of gene product 577 (gp577), a hypothetical protein (product of L537 gene) encoded by mimivirus. Sequence analysis and phylogeny suggested gp577 to be a primase-polymerase (PrimPol)-the first PrimPol to be identified in a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV). Recombinant gp577 protein purified as a homodimer and exhibited de novo RNA as well as DNA synthesis on circular and linear single-stranded DNA templates. Further, gp577 extends a DNA/RNA primer annealed to a DNA or RNA template using deoxyribonucleoties (dNTPs) or ribonucleotides (NTPs) demonstrating its DNA/RNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase activity. We also show that gp577 possesses terminal transferase activity and is capable of extending ssDNA and dsDNA with NTPs and dNTPs. Mutation of the conserved primase motif residues of gp577 resulted in the loss of primase, polymerase, reverse transcriptase and terminal transferase activities. Additionally, we show that gp577 possesses translesion synthesis (TLS) activity. Mimiviral gp577 represents the first protein from an NCLDV endowed with primase, polymerase, reverse transcriptase, terminal transferase and TLS activities.
Project description:Replication initiation is a crucial step in genome duplication and homohexameric DnaB helicase plays a central role in the replication initiation process by unwinding the duplex DNA and interacting with several other proteins during the process of replication. N-terminal domain of DnaB is critical for helicase activity and for DnaG primase interactions. We present here the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of H. pylori DnaB (HpDnaB) helicase at 2.2 A resolution and compare the structural differences among helicases and correlate with the functional differences. The structural details of NTD suggest that the linker region between NTD and C-terminal helicase domain plays a vital role in accurate assembly of NTD dimers. The sequence analysis of the linker regions from several helicases reveals that they should form four helix bundles. We also report the characterization of H. pylori DnaG primase and study the helicase-primase interactions, where HpDnaG primase stimulates DNA unwinding activity of HpDnaB suggesting presence of helicase-primase cohort at the replication fork. The protein-protein interaction study of C-terminal domain of primase and different deletion constructs of helicase suggests that linker is essential for proper conformation of NTD to interact strongly with HpDnaG. The surface charge distribution on the primase binding surface of NTDs of various helicases suggests that DnaB-DnaG interaction and stability of the complex is most probably charge dependent. Structure of the linker and helicase-primase interactions indicate that HpDnaB differs greatly from E.coli DnaB despite both belong to gram negative bacteria.
Project description:Genome uncoating is essential for replication of most viruses. For poxviruses, the process is divided into two stages: removal of the envelope, allowing early gene expression, and breaching of the core wall, allowing DNA release, replication, and late gene expression. Subsequent studies showed that the host proteasome and the viral D5 protein, which has an essential role in DNA replication, are required for vaccinia virus (VACV) genome uncoating. In a search for additional VACV uncoating proteins, we noted a report that described a defect in DNA replication and late expression when the gene encoding a 68-kDa ankyrin repeat/F-box protein (68k-ank), associated with the cellular SCF (Skp1, cullin1, F-box-containing complex) ubiquitin ligase complex, was deleted from the attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). Here we showed that the 68k-ank deletion mutant exhibited diminished genome uncoating, formation of DNA prereplication sites, and degradation of viral cores as well as an additional, independent defect in DNA synthesis. Deletion of the 68k-ank homolog of VACV strain WR, however, was without effect, suggesting the existence of compensating genes. By inserting VACV genes into an MVA 68k-ank deletion mutant, we discovered that M2, a member of the poxvirus immune evasion (PIE) domain superfamily and a regulator of NF-?B, and C5, a member of the BTB/Kelch superfamily associated with cullin-3-based ligase complexes, independently rescued the 68k-ank deletion phenotype. Thus, poxvirus uncoating and DNA replication are intertwined processes involving at least three viral proteins with mutually redundant functions in addition to D5.IMPORTANCE Poxviruses comprise a family of large DNA viruses that infect vertebrates and invertebrates and cause diseases of medical and zoological importance. Poxviruses, unlike most other DNA viruses, replicate in the cytoplasm, and their large genomes usually encode 200 or more proteins with diverse functions. About 90 genes may be essential for chordopoxvirus replication based either on their conservation or individual gene deletion studies. However, this number may underestimate the true number of essential functions because of redundancy. Here we show that any one of three seemingly unrelated and individually nonessential proteins is required for the incompletely understood processes of genome uncoating and DNA replication, an example of synthetic lethality. Thus, poxviruses appear to have a complex genetic interaction network that has not been fully appreciated and which will require multifactor deletion screens to assess.
Project description:The interaction between DnaG primase and DnaB helicase is essential for stimulating primer synthesis during bacterial DNA replication. The interaction occurs between the N-terminal domain of helicase and the C-terminal domain of primase. Here we present the (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignments for the C-terminal helicase interaction domain of Staphylococcus aureus primase.
Project description:With the use of a high-throughput biochemical DNA helicase assay as a screen, T157602, a 2-amino thiazole compound, was identified as a specific inhibitor of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA replication. T157602 inhibited reversibly the helicase activity of the HSV UL5-UL8-UL52 (UL5/8/52) helicase-primase complex with an IC50 (concentration of compound that yields 50% inhibition) of 5 microM. T157602 inhibited specifically the UL5/8/52 helicase and not several other helicases. The primase activity of the UL5/8/52 complex was also inhibited by T157602 (IC50 = 20 microM). T157602 inhibited HSV growth in a one-step viral growth assay (IC90 = 3 microM), and plaque formation was completely prevented at concentrations of 25 to 50 microM T157602. Vero, human foreskin fibroblast (HFF), and Jurkat cells could be propagated in the presence of T157602 at concentrations exceeding 100 microM with no obvious cytotoxic effects, indicating that the window between antiviral activity and cellular toxicity is at least 33-fold. Seven independently derived T157602-resistant mutant viruses (four HSV type 2 and three HSV type 1) carried single base pair mutations in the UL5 that resulted in single amino acid changes in the UL5 protein. Marker rescue experiments demonstrated that the UL5 gene from T157602-resistant viruses conferred resistance to T157602-sensitive wild-type viruses. Recombinant UL5/8/52 helicase-primase complex purified from baculoviruses expressing mutant UL5 protein showed complete resistance to T157602 in the in vitro helicase assay. T157602 and its analogs represent a novel class of specific and reversible anti-HSV agents eliciting their inhibitory effects on HSV replication by interacting with the UL5 helicase.
Project description:Replisomes are multiprotein complexes that coordinate the synthesis of leading and lagging DNA strands to increase the replication efficiency and reduce DNA strand breaks caused by stalling of replication forks. The bacteriophage T7 replisome is an economical machine that requires only four proteins for processive, coupled synthesis of two DNA strands. Here we characterize a complex between T7 primase-helicase and DNA polymerase on DNA that was trapped during the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis from an RNA primer. This priming complex consists of two DNA polymerases and a primase-helicase hexamer that assemble on the DNA template in an RNA-dependent manner. The zinc binding domain of the primase-helicase is essential for trapping the RNA primer in complex with the polymerase, and a unique loop located on the thumb of the polymerase also stabilizes this primer extension complex. Whereas one of the polymerases engages the primase-helicase and RNA primer on the lagging strand of a model replication fork, the second polymerase in the complex is also functional and can bind a primed template DNA. These results indicate that the T7 primase-helicase specifically engages two copies of DNA polymerase, which would allow the coordination of leading and lagging strand synthesis at a replication fork. Assembly of the T7 replisome is driven by intimate interactions between the DNA polymerase and multiple subunits of the primase-helicase hexamer.
Project description:Promising new inhibitors that target the viral helicase-primase complex have been reported to block replication of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster viruses, but they have no activity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), another herpesvirus. The HCMV helicase-primase complex (pUL105-pUL102-pUL70) is essential for viral DNA replication and could thus be a relevant antiviral target. The roles of the individual subunits composing this complex remain to be defined. By using sequence alignment of herpesviruses homologs, we identified conserved amino acids in the putative pUL105 ATP binding site and in the putative pUL70 zinc finger pattern. Mutational analysis of several of these amino acids both in pUL105 and pUL70, proved that they are crucial for viral replication. We also constructed, by homology modeling, a theoretical structure of the pUL105 N-terminal domain which indicates that the mutated conserved amino acids in this domain could be involved in ATP hydrolysis.
Project description:The vaccinia virus-encoded D5 protein is an essential ATPase involved in viral DNA replication. We have expanded the genotypic and phenotypic analysis of six temperature-sensitive (ts) D5 mutants (Cts17, Cts24, Ets69, Dts6389 [also referred to as Dts38], Dts12, and Dts56) and shown that at nonpermissive temperature all of the tsD5 viruses exhibit a dramatic reduction in DNA synthesis and virus production. For Cts17 and Cts24, this restriction reflects the thermolability of the D5 proteins. The Dts6389, Dts12, and Dts56 D5 proteins become insoluble at 39.7 degrees C, while the Ets69 D5 protein remains stable and soluble and retains the ability to oligomerize and hydrolyze ATP when synthesized at 39.7 degrees C. To investigate which structural features of D5 are important for its biological and biochemical activities, we generated targeted mutations in invariant residues positioned within conserved domains found within D5. Using a transient complementation assay that assessed the ability of D5 variants to sustain ongoing DNA synthesis during nonpermissive Cts24 infections, only a wtD5 allele supported DNA synthesis. Alleles of D5 containing targeted mutations within the Walker A or B domains, the superfamily III helicase motif C, or the AAA+ motif lacked biological competency. Furthermore, purified preparations of these variant proteins revealed that they all were defective in ATP hydrolysis. Multimerization of D5 appeared to be a prerequisite for enzymatic activity and required the Walker B domain, the AAA+ motif, and a region located upstream of the catalytic core. Finally, although multimerization and enzymatic activity are necessary for the biological competence of D5, they are not sufficient.