A Class of Rigid Linker-bearing Glucosides for Membrane Protein Structural Study.
ABSTRACT: Membrane proteins are amphipathic bio-macromolecules incompatible with the polar environments of aqueous media. Conventional detergents encapsulate the hydrophobic surfaces of membrane proteins allowing them to exist in aqueous solution. Membrane proteins stabilized by detergent micelles are used for structural and functional analysis. Despite the availability of a large number of detergents, only a few agents are sufficiently effective at maintaining the integrity of membrane proteins to allow successful crystallization. In the present study, we describe a novel class of synthetic amphiphiles with a branched tail group and a triglucoside head group. These head and tail groups were connected via an amide or ether linkage by using a tris(hydroxylmethyl)aminomethane (TRIS) or neopentyl glycol (NPG) linker to produce TRIS-derived triglucosides (TDTs) and NPG-derived triglucosides (NDTs), respectively. Members of this class conferred enhanced stability on target membrane proteins compared to conventional detergents. Because of straightforward synthesis of the novel agents and their favourable effects on a range of membrane proteins, these agents should be of wide applicability to membrane protein science.
Project description:Detergents serve as useful tools for membrane protein structural and functional studies. Their amphipathic nature allows detergents to associate with the hydrophobic regions of membrane proteins whilst maintaining the proteins in aqueous solution. However, widely used conventional detergents are limited in their ability to maintain the structural integrity of membrane proteins and thus there are major efforts underway to develop novel agents with improved properties. We prepared mesitylene-cored glucoside amphiphiles (MGAs) with three alkyl chains and compared these agents with previously developed xylene-linked maltoside agents (XMAs) with two alkyl chains and a conventional detergent (DDM). When these agents were evaluated for four membrane proteins including a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), some agents such as MGA-C13 and MGA-C14 resulted in markedly enhanced stability of membrane proteins compared to both DDM and the XMAs. This favourable behaviour is due likely to the increased hydrophobic density provided by the extra alkyl chain. Thus, this study not only describes new glucoside agents with potential for membrane protein research, but also introduces a new detergent design principle for future development.
Project description:Native mass spectrometry (native-MS) of membrane proteins typically requires a detergent screening protocol, protein solubilization in the preferred detergent, followed by protein liberation from the micelle by collisional activation. Here, submicrometer nano-ESI emitter tips are used for native-MS of membrane proteins solubilized in both nonionic and ionic detergent solutions. With the submicrometer nano-ESI emitter tips, resolved charge-state distributions of membrane protein ions are obtained from a 150 mM NaCl, 25 mM Tris-HCl with 1.1% octyl glucoside solution. The relative abundances of NaCl and detergent cluster ions at high m?/z are significantly reduced with the submicrometer emitters compared with larger nano-ESI emitters that are commonly used. This technique is beneficial for significantly decreasing the abundances (by two to three orders of magnitude compared with the larger tip size: 1.6 ?m) of detergent cluster ions formed from aqueous ammonium acetate solutions containing detergents that can overlap with the membrane protein ion signal. Resolved charge-state distributions of membrane protein ions from aqueous ammonium acetate solutions containing ionic detergents were obtained with the submicrometer nano-ESI emitters; this is the first report of native-MS of membrane proteins solubilized by ionic detergents. Graphical Abstract.
Project description:The study of membrane proteins is extremely challenging, mainly because of the incompatibility of the hydrophobic surfaces of membrane proteins with an aqueous medium. Detergents are essential agents used to maintain membrane protein stability in non-native environments. However, conventional detergents fail to stabilize the native structures of many membrane proteins. Development of new amphipathic agents with enhanced efficacy for membrane protein stabilization is necessary to address this important problem. We have designed and synthesized linear and branched mannitol-based amphiphiles (MNAs), and comparative studies showed that most of the branched MNAs had advantages over the linear agents in terms of membrane protein stability. In addition, a couple of the new MNAs displayed favorable behaviors compared to n-dodecyl-?-d-maltoside and the previously developed MNAs in maintaining the native protein structures, indicating potential utility of these new agents in membrane protein study.
Project description:High-resolution membrane protein structures are essential for understanding the molecular basis of diverse biological events and important in drug development. Detergents are usually used to extract these bio-macromolecules from the membranes and maintain them in a soluble and stable state in aqueous solutions for downstream characterization. However, many eukaryotic membrane proteins solubilized in conventional detergents tend to undergo structural degradation, necessitating the development of new amphiphilic agents with enhanced properties. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel class of glucoside amphiphiles, designated tandem malonate-based glucosides (TMGs). A few TMG agents proved effective at both stabilizing a range of membrane proteins and extracting proteins from the membrane environment. These favourable characteristics, along with synthetic convenience, indicate that these agents have potential in membrane protein research.
Project description:Detergents are essential tools for functional and structural studies of membrane proteins. However, conventional detergents are limited in their scope and utility, particularly for eukaryotic membrane proteins. Thus, there are major efforts to develop new amphipathic agents with enhanced properties. Here, a novel class of diastereomeric agents with a preorganized conformation, designated norbornane-based maltosides (NBMs), were prepared and evaluated for their ability to solubilize and stabilize membrane proteins. Representative NBMs displayed enhanced behaviors compared to n-dodecyl-?-d-maltoside (DDM) for all membrane proteins tested. Efficacy of the individual NBMs varied depending on the overall detergent shape and alkyl chain length. Specifically, NBMs with no kink in the lipophilic region conferred greater stability to the proteins than NBMs with a kink. In addition, long alkyl chain NBMs were generally better at stabilizing membrane proteins than short alkyl chain agents. Furthermore, use of one well-behaving NBM enabled us to attain a marked stabilization and clear visualization of a challenging membrane protein complex using electron microscopy. Thus, this study not only describes novel maltoside detergents with enhanced protein-stabilizing properties but also suggests that overall detergent geometry has an important role in determining membrane protein stability. Notably, this is the first systematic study on the effect of detergent kinking on micellar properties and associated membrane protein stability.
Project description:Detergents are essential tools for membrane protein manipulation. Micelles formed by detergent molecules have the ability to encapsulate the hydrophobic domains of membrane proteins. The resulting protein-detergent complexes (PDCs) are compatible with the polar environments of aqueous media, making structural and functional analysis feasible. Although a number of novel agents have been developed to overcome the limitations of conventional detergents, most have traditional head groups such as glucoside or maltoside. In this study, we introduce a class of amphiphiles, the PSA/Es with a novel highly branched pentasaccharide hydrophilic group. The PSA/Es conferred markedly increased stability to a diverse range of membrane proteins compared to conventional detergents, indicating a positive role for the new hydrophilic group in maintaining the native protein integrity. In addition, PDCs formed by PSA/Es were smaller and more suitable for electron microscopic analysis than those formed by DDM, indicating that the new agents have significant potential for the structure-function studies of membrane proteins.
Project description:Nanomaterials such as nanoparticles exhibit remarkable antimicrobial activities. Nanoparticles directly disturb the cell membrane or cytoplasmic proteins because they pass through the cell wall. Nanoporous Au (NPG) is another antimicrobial nanomaterial, which cannot pass through the cell wall of bacteria but can still kill bacteria, utilising interactions between the surface of NPG and cell wall of bacteria. The origins of antimicrobial activities without direct interactions are unknown. It is necessary to elucidate these mechanisms to ensure safe usage. Here we show that the antimicrobial mechanism of NPG consists of two interactions: between the surface of NPG and cell wall, and between the cell wall and cell membrane. Fluorescent experiments showed that the cell wall was negatively hyperpolarised by NPG, and molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles calculations suggested that the hyperpolarisation of the cell wall leads to delicate structural changes in the membrane proteins, rendering them bactericidal. Thus, the hyperpolarisation induced by NPG plays a critical role in both interactions. The combination of molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles calculations allows a deeper understanding of the interactions between metallic surfaces and biomolecules, because charge transfer and exchange interactions are calculated exactly.
Project description:Amphipathic agents are widely used in various fields including biomedical sciences. Micelle-forming detergents are particularly useful for in vitro membrane-protein characterization. As many conventional detergents are limited in their ability to stabilize membrane proteins, it is necessary to develop novel detergents to facilitate membrane-protein research. In the current study, we developed novel trimaltoside detergents with an alkyl pendant-bearing terphenyl unit as a hydrophobic group, designated terphenyl-cored maltosides (TPMs). We found that the geometry of the detergent hydrophobic group substantially impacts detergent self-assembly behavior, as well as detergent efficacy for membrane-protein stabilization. TPM-Vs, with a bent terphenyl group, were superior to the linear counterparts (TPM-Ls) at stabilizing multiple membrane proteins. The favorable protein stabilization efficacy of these bent TPMs is likely associated with a binding mode with membrane proteins distinct from conventional detergents and facial amphiphiles. When compared to n-dodecyl-?-d-maltoside (DDM), most TPMs were superior or comparable to this gold standard detergent at stabilizing membrane proteins. Notably, TPM-L3 was particularly effective at stabilizing the human ?2 adrenergic receptor (?2 AR), a G-protein coupled receptor, and its complex with Gs protein. Thus, the current study not only provides novel detergent tools that are useful for membrane-protein study, but also suggests a critical role for detergent hydrophobic group geometry in governing detergent efficacy.
Project description:Amphipathic agents called detergents serve as membrane-mimetic systems to maintain the native structures of membrane proteins during their manipulation. However, membrane proteins solubilized in conventional detergents tend to undergo denaturation and aggregation, necessitating the development of novel amphipathic agents with enhanced properties. Here we describe several new amphiphiles that contain an N-oxide group as the hydrophilic portion. The new amphiphiles have been evaluated for the ability to solubilize and stabilize a fragile multi-subunit assembly from biological membranes. We found that cholate-based agents were promising in supporting retention of the native protein quaternary structure, while deoxycholate-based amphiphiles were highly efficient in extracting/solubilizing the intact superassembly from the native membrane. Monitoring superassembly solubilization and stabilization as a function of variation in amphiphile structure led us to propose that a non-hydrocarbon moiety such as an amide, ether, or a hydroxy group present in the lipophilic regions can manifest distinctive effects in the context of membrane protein manipulation.
Project description:Membrane proteins encapsulated by detergent micelles are widely used for structural study. Because of their amphipathic property, detergents have the ability to maintain protein solubility and stability in an aqueous medium. However, conventional detergents have serious limitations in their scope and utility, particularly for eukaryotic membrane proteins and membrane protein complexes. Thus, a number of new agents have been devised; some have made significant contributions to membrane protein structural studies. However, few detergent design principles are available. In this study, we prepared meta and ortho isomers of the previously reported para-substituted xylene-linked maltoside amphiphiles (XMAs), along with alkyl chain-length variation. The isomeric XMAs were assessed with three membrane proteins, and the meta isomer with a C12 alkyl chain was most effective at maintaining solubility/stability of the membrane proteins. We propose that interplay between the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) and alkyl chain length is of central importance for high detergent efficacy. In addition, differences in inter-alkyl-chain distance between the isomers influence the ability of the detergents to stabilise membrane proteins.