Partial or non-union after triple arthrodesis in children: does it really matter?
ABSTRACT: Triple arthrodesis is a commonly performed salvage procedure to correct hindfoot deformity. Non-union is considered an undesirable radiographic outcome; however, the clinical ramifications of this are not as well defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of partial or complete radiographic non-union after triple arthrodesis in children and characterize the clinical consequences.An IRB-approved retrospective review of triple arthrodesis surgeries in patients less than 16 years of age performed by a single surgeon (DSW) identified 159 cases meeting the inclusion criteria. Plain radiographs were reviewed for bony fusion (defined as over 80 % radiographic bony union of the subtalar, calcaneocuboid, and talonavicular bones) and charts for clinical outcomes (pain, return to activity, and subsequent hindfoot surgeries). Statistics were used to compare the fused and unfused cases, with p < 0.05 considered to be significant.Of the 159 cases included in the study, 9 % did not achieve at least 80 % plain film radiographic union. The fused and unfused groups had similar clinical outcomes. Only one patient required surgery for sequelae of symptoms arising from a pseudoarthrosis related to the triple arthrodesis. The fused and unfused groups were similar in terms of gender and pin removal time, but differed significantly in surgical age and underlying diagnosis.This is one of the largest case series of pediatric triple arthrodesis surgery presented in the literature. This study demonstrated that good clinical outcomes can be achieved despite the lack of radiographic union after triple arthrodesis surgery in children.IV.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Many different techniques have been described for performing tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis (TTCA) in patients with severe hindfoot disorders such as failed ankle arthroplasty and failed ankle joint arthrodesis with subsequent subtalar arthritis. The use of straight retrograde intramedullary nails is extremely limited because they may interfere with normal heel valgus position and risk damaging the lateral plantar neurovascular structures. Curved retrograde intramedullary nails have been designed to overcome these shortcomings. The purpose of this single surgeon series was to investigate the outcomes of TTCA using a curved retrograde intramedullary nail. METHODS:From June 2009 to January 2012, 22 patients underwent TTCA using intramedullary nails with a valgus curve by the same senior surgeon. All patients were available for analysis, the mean follow-up being 22.3 months (range, 6.8-38 months). The main outcome measurements included EQ-5D functional scores, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot scale, radiologic assessment and clinical examination. RESULTS:Bony union and a plantigrade foot were achieved in 100% of subjects, the mean time to union being 3.9 months (range, 2.4 to 6.2 months). Structural bone graft was used in all patients. Postoperative radiologic results showed a good hindfoot alignment in all patients. The only complication was one case of delayed wound healing without deep infection. The mean postoperative EQ-5D functional and AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scores were 69.33 (range, 20 to 90) and 69.9 (range, 45 to 85) points, respectively. No revision surgery was necessary in our cohort. CONCLUSION:The results of the present study indicate that TTCA using a short, retrograde, curved intramedullary nail is an acceptable technique for obtaining solid fusion and good hindfoot alignment inpatients with severe hindfoot disorders.
Project description:Single, double, and triple hindfoot arthrodeses are used to correct hindfoot deformities and relieve chronic pain. However, joint fusion may lead to dysfunction in adjacent articular surfaces. We compared range of motion in adjacent joints before and after arthrodesis to determine the effects of each procedure on joint motion. The theory of moment of couple, bending moment and balanced loading was applied to each of 16 fresh cadaver feet to induce dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, internal rotation, external rotation, inversion, and eversion. Range of motion was measured with a 3-axis coordinate measuring machine in a control foot and in feet after subtalar, talonavicular, calcaneocuboid, double, or triple arthrodesis. All arthrodeses restricted mainly internal-external rotation and inversion-eversion. The restriction in a double arthrodesis was more than that in a single arthrodesis, but that in a calcaneocuboid arthrodesis was relatively low. After triple arthrodeses, the restriction on dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements was substantial, and internal-external rotation and inversion-eversion were almost lost. Considering that different arthrodesis procedures cause complex, three-dimensional hindfoot motion reductions, we recommend talonavicular or calcaneocuboid arthrodesis for patients with well-preserved functions of plantarflexion/dorsiflexion before operation, subtalar or calcaneocuboid arthrodesis for patients with well-preserved abduction/adduction, and talonavicular arthrodesis for patients with well-preserved eversion/inversion.
Project description:Triple arthrodesis has a significant role in the management of hindfoot osteoarthritis and deformity. Traditionally, it is an open procedure with extensive soft tissue dissection. Arthroscopic triple arthrodesis would appear to provide good visualization and preparation of the fusion surfaces while preserving the soft tissue envelope. The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe a minimally invasive approach of triple arthrodesis to correct chronic flatfoot deformity.
Project description:Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is most common and effective surgical treatment for severe hindfoot pathology, but the fusion rate is often lower than the ordinary tibiotalar arthrodesis because of the more serious joint disease associated with obvious deformity and osteoporosis. Recent literature describe tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with reverse PHILOS plate with good clinical outcome result, though some patients non-union, due to eccentric force of the plate may be hidden. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcome of the lateral approach for tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis with reverse PHILOS Plate and medial cannulated screw.Between Jun, 2013 to April, 2015 12 patient with hindfoot pathology had TTC arthrodesis with a reverse PHILOS plate with medial cannulated screw through a lateral approach with resection of the distal fibula and bone graft. Perioperatively observe for wound and neurovascular status. Patients were follow-up from post-operative 1, 3, 6 and12 months, to observation of wound healing, ankle pain, subtalar Joint Fusion, internal fixation and ankle function. Ankle function were scored according to the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society(AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale system.Twelve ankle fusion all patient follow-up, with mean time to surgery 18.6 months (12-36 month). No cases infection and issue necrosis; one patient complaint of lateral foot numbness we observe and follow-up was spontaneously recovery after 3 months. After 3 months of operation, no obvious pain of ankle joint and internal fixations loose were found. Almost fusion and good axial alignment of TTC joint also were found by X-ray and CT examination. After final fellow-up of each case, no case complain of pain of ankle joint, good fusion and axial alignment of TTC joint were also all found through Terminology. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle society (AOFAS) score average was 77.5.TTC arthrodesis with reverse PHILOS Plate and medial cannulated screw have advantages of clear incision, effective bone orthopaedic and graft fully secure, stable internal fixation, high fusion rate and less complications, can effectively correct deformities, alleviate hindfoot pain and improve function, and is an effective method of treatment of after severe hindfoot disease.This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with reference number: ID: NCT02977910 . Registered 26 Nov 2016, retrospectively registered.
Project description:Conversion of a failed total wrist arthroplasty to arthrodesis can be difficult. A custom-made titanium alloy peg was constructed to enable arthrodesis with the original arthroplasty components in situ. Two out of three patients were especially challenging cases with little bone available. Bony union was achieved in 2 to 3 months. The peg simplified a difficult revision situation and gave good, predictable results at follow-up.
Project description:Background: En bloc resection of the distal radius is a common treatment for advanced and recurrent giant cell tumors and less commonly for sarcoma. Various reconstructive options exist, including ulnar transposition, osteoarticular autograft and allograft, and allograft arthrodesis. We present a technique of reconstruction using a distal radius bulk allograft with a step-cut to allow for precise restoration of proper length and to promote bony union. Methods: Preoperative templating is performed with affected and contralateral radiographs to assess the size of the expected bony defect, location of the step-cut, and the optimal size of the distal radius allograft required. A standard dorsal approach to the distal radius is utilized, and the tumor is resected. A proximal row carpectomy is performed, and the plate/allograft construct is applied to the remaining host bone. Iliac crest bone graft is harvested and introduced at the graft-bone interface and radiocarpal arthrodesis sites. Results: We have previously reported outstanding union rates with the step-cut technique compared with a standard transverse cut. Conclusions: The technique described provides reproducible union and stabilization of the wrist and forearm with adequate function following en bloc resection of the distal radius for tumor.
Project description:An ossified or 'fused' mandibular symphysis characterizes the origins of the Anthropoidea, a primate suborder that includes humans. Longstanding debate about the adaptive significance of variation in this jaw joint centers on whether a bony symphysis is stronger than an unfused one spanned by cartilage and ligaments. To provide essential information regarding mechanical performance, intact adult symphyses from representative primates and scandentians were loaded ex vivo to simulate stresses during biting and chewing - dorsoventral (DV) shear and lateral transverse bending ('wishboning'). The anthropoid symphysis requires significantly more force to induce structural failure vs. strepsirrhines and scandentians with unfused joints. In wishboning, symphyseal breakage always occurs at the midline in taxa with unfused conditions, further indicating that an ossified symphysis is stronger than an unfused joint. Greater non-midline fractures among anthropoids suggest that fusion imposes unique constraints on masticatory function elsewhere along the mandible, a phenomenon likely to characterize the evolution of fusion and jaw form throughout Mammalia.
Project description:Arthrodesis is the most reliable and durable surgical procedure for the treatment of a joint disorder, and its only disadvantage is the loss of motion of the fused joint. The distal radioulnar joint can be arthrodesed, while forearm pronation and supination are maintained or even improved by creating a pseudoarthrosis of the ulna just proximal to the arthrodesis. This is known as the Sauvé-Kapandji (S-K) procedure. The Sauvé-Kapandji differs from the Darrach procedure in that it preserves ulnar support of the wrist, as the distal radioulnar ligaments and ulnocarpal ligaments are maintained. Aesthetic appearance is also superior after the S-K procedure, as the normal prominence of the ulnar head, most noticeable when the forearm is in pronation, is maintained. However, the S-K is not free of possible complications, such as nonunion or delayed union of the arthrodesis, fibrous or osseous union at the pseudoarthrosis, and painful instability at the proximal ulna stump. All of these complications can be prevented if a careful surgical technique is used.
Project description:Varus malunion after subtalar arthrodesis is considered to be the worst deformity in hindfoot alignment. Poor clinical outcome is expected if there is more than 10° of varus malunion with lateral column overload. Open revision subtalar arthrodesis is associated with high rates of complications, especially involving soft tissue and nonunion. The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe the technical details of endoscopic revision subtalar arthrodesis in which the correction of varus malunion is performed with a minimally invasive technique, which may reduce the risk of soft tissue complications and nonunion.
Project description:Trapeziometacarpal arthrodesis (TMA) has been complicated by nonunion and hardware failure.We hypothesized that modification of the TMA technique with a locking cage plate construct would afford reliable bony union while producing greater hand function than trapeziectomy with ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition (LRTI) at early follow-up.We enrolled 36 consecutive patients with trapeziometacapal osteoarthritis (14 TMA patients (15 thumbs), 22 LRTI patients (22 thumbs)). The study was powered to detect a minimal clinically important difference on the QuickDASH questionnaire between groups. Secondary outcomes included Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ), VAS-pain, and EQ-5D-3L scores. Patients were examined to evaluate thumb motion and strength. TMA patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically for union.Mean follow-up was 15.6 months, and the mean age was 59.2 years. Union was achieved in 14/15 (93%) of TMA thumbs. Improvement in QuickDASH scores was similar after TMA and LRTI (49 to 28 and 50 to 18, respectively). Postoperative patient-rated upper extremity function, health status, and pain were similar between groups. Pinch strength was significantly greater after TMA (5.9 vs 4.7 kg). No differences in thumb or wrist range of motion were observed postoperatively with the exception of greater total metacarpophalangeal joint motion after TMA. Complications after TMA included nonunion (7%), development of symptomatic scaphotrapezotrapezoidal (STT) arthrosis (7%), symptomatic hardware (7%), and superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) paresthesia (7%). Complications after LRTI included subsidence (5%), MP hyperextension deformity (5%), and SBRN paresthesias (5%).At early follow-up, patient-rated function was similar among patients undergoing TMA and LRTI. TMA produced 25% greater pinch strength compared with LRTI. Despite historical concerns regarding global loss of ROM with arthrodesis, motion was similar between groups. Our observed TMA nonunion rate of 7% is low relative to historically reported nonunion rates (7-16%). Locking cage plate technology affords rigid fixation for TMA with promising early results noting reliable bony union while minimizing complications.