Feeding a Modified Fish Diet to Bottlenose Dolphins Leads to an Increase in Serum Adiponectin and Sphingolipids.
ABSTRACT: Feeding a modified fish diet has been suggested to improve insulin sensitivity in bottlenose dolphins; however, insulin sensitivity was not directly measured. Since demonstrating an improvement in insulin sensitivity is technically difficult in dolphins, we postulated that directional changes in the hormone axis: fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)/Adiponectin/Ceramide (Cer), could provide further support to this hypothesis. We measured 2-h post-prandial serum FGF21, total adiponectin, percent unmodified adiponectin, ceramide, and sphingosine levels from dolphins fed a diet rich in heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) over 24?weeks. Serum FGF21 was quantified by ELISA with an observed range of 129-1599?pg/ml, but did not significantly change over the 24-week study period. Total adiponectin levels (mean?±?SD) significantly increased from 776?±?400?pmol/ml at week 0 to 1196?±?467?pmol/ml at week 24. The percent unmodified adiponectin levels (mean?±?SD) decreased from 23.8?±?6.0% at week 0?to?15.2?±?5.2% at week 24. Interestingly, although FGF21 levels did not change, there was a good correlation between FGF21 and total adiponectin (??=?0.788, P?
Project description:Feeding a modified fish diet has been suggested to improve insulin sensitivity in bottlenose dolphins; however insulin sensitivity was not directly measured. Since demonstrating an improvement in insulin sensitivity is technically difficult in dolphins, we postulated that directional changes in the hormone axis: fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)/Adiponectin/Ceramide (Cer), could provide further support to this hypothesis. Proteomic analysis of the serum proteins revealed few changes in serum proteins over the study period. In conclusion, changing the types of fish fed to dolphins resulted in increases in the insulin sensitizing hormone adiponectin and serum sphingosines consistent with an insulin sensitizing phenotype.
Project description:We investigated the relationship between insulin resistance markers and subsarcolemmal (SS) and intramyofibrillar (IMF) ceramide concentrations, as well as the contribution of plasma palmitate (6.5-h infusion of [U-13C]palmitate) to intramyocellular ceramides. Seventy-six postabsorptive men and women had muscle biopsies 1.5, 6.5, and 24 h after starting the tracer infusion. Concentrations and enrichment of muscle ceramides were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found that HOMA of insulin resistance, plasma insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were positively correlated with SS C16:0 and C18:1 ceramide, but not SS C14:0-Cer, C20:0-Cer, C24:0-Cer, and C24:1-Cer concentrations; IMF ceramide concentrations were not correlated with any metabolic parameters. The fractional contribution of plasma palmitate to 16:0 ceramide was greater in SS than IMF (SS, 18.2% vs. IMF, 8.7%; P = 0.0006). Plasma insulin concentrations correlated positively with the fractional contribution of plasma palmitate to SS 16:0 ceramide. The fractional contribution of plasma palmitate to intramyocellular SS 16:0 ceramide was positively correlated with SS C16:0 ceramide concentrations (? = 0.435; P = 0.002). We conclude that skeletal muscle SS ceramides, especially C16 to C18 chain lengths and the de novo synthesis of intramyocellular ceramide from plasma palmitate are associated with markers of insulin resistance.
Project description:FGF21, a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) superfamily, has recently emerged as a regulator of metabolism and energy utilization. However, the exact mechanism(s) whereby FGF21 mediates its actions have not been elucidated. There is considerable evidence that insulin resistance may arise from aberrant accumulation of intracellular lipids in insulin-responsive tissues due to lipotoxicity. In particular, the sphingolipid ceramide has been implicated in this process. Here, we show that FGF21 rapidly and robustly stimulates adiponectin secretion in rodents while diminishing accumulation of ceramides in obese animals. Importantly, adiponectin-knockout mice are refractory to changes in energy expenditure and ceramide-lowering effects evoked by FGF21 administration. Moreover, FGF21 lowers blood glucose levels and enhances insulin sensitivity in diabetic Lep(ob/ob) mice and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice only when adiponectin is functionally present. Collectively, these data suggest that FGF21 is a potent regulator of adiponectin secretion and that FGF21 critically depends on adiponectin to exert its glycemic and insulin sensitizing effects.
Project description:Ceramide is a key metabolite in both anabolic and catabolic pathways of sphingolipids. The very long fatty acyl chain ceramides N-(docosanoyl)-sphing-4-enine (Cer(22:0)) and N-(tetracosanoyl)-sphing-4-enine (Cer(24:0)) are associated with multiple biological functions. Elevated levels of these sphingolipids in tissues and in the circulation have been associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. To facilitate quantification of these very long chain ceramides in clinical samples from human subjects, we have developed a sensitive, accurate, and high-throughput assay for determination of Cer(22:0) and Cer(24:0) in human plasma. Cer(22:0) and Cer(24:0) and their deuterated internal standards were extracted by protein precipitation and chromatographically separated by HPLC. The analytes and their internal standards were ionized using positive-ion electrospray mass spectrometry, then detected by multiple-reaction monitoring with a tandem mass spectrometer. Total liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) runtime was 5 min. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.02-4 and 0.08-16 ?g/ml for Cer(22:0) and Cer(24:0), respectively, in human plasma with corresponding absolute recoveries from plasma at 109 and 114 %, respectively. The lower limit of quantifications were 0.02 and 0.08 ?g/ml for Cer(22:0) and Cer(24:0), respectively. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the calibration curve ranges. With the semi-automated format and short LC runtime for the assay, a throughput of ?200 samples/day can easily be achieved.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The protective effects of exercise against glucose dysmetabolism have been generally reported. However, the mechanism by which exercise improves glucose homeostasis remains poorly understood. The FGF21-adiponectin axis participates in regulation of glucose metabolism. Elevated levels of FGF21 and decreased levels of adiponectin in obesity indicate the FGF21-adiponectin axis dysfunction. Hence, we investigated whether exercise could improve the FGF21-adiponectin axis impairment and ameliorate disturbed glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese mice. METHODS:Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to three groups: low-fat diet control group, high-fat diet group and high-fat diet plus exercise group. Glucose metabolic parameters, the ability of FGF21 to induce adiponectin, FGF21 receptors and co-receptor levels and adipose tissue inflammation were evaluated after twelve weeks of intervention. RESULTS:Exercise training led to reduced levels of fasting blood glucose and insulin, improved glucose tolerance and better insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Although serum FGF21 levels were not significantly changed, both total and high molecular weight adiponectin concentrations were markedly enhanced by exercise. Importantly, exercise protected against high-fat diet-induced impaired ability of FGF21 to stimulate adiponectin secretion. FGF21 co-receptor, β-klotho, as well as receptors, FGFR1 and FGFR2, were upregulated by exercise. We also found that exercise inhibited adipose tissue inflammation, which may contribute to the improvement in the FGF21-adiponectin axis impairment. CONCLUSIONS:Our data indicate exercise protects against high-fat diet-induced FGF21-adiponectin axis impairment, and may thereby exert beneficial effects on glucose metabolism.
Project description:The aim was to study the prognostic value of plasma ceramides (Cer) as cardiovascular death (CV death) markers in three independent coronary artery disease (CAD) cohorts.Corogene study is a prospective Finnish cohort including stable CAD patients (n = 160). Multiple lipid biomarkers and C-reactive protein were measured in addition to plasma Cer(d18:1/16:0), Cer(d18:1/18:0), Cer(d18:1/24:0), and Cer(d18:1/24:1). Subsequently, the association between high-risk ceramides and CV mortality was investigated in the prospective Special Program University Medicine-Inflammation in Acute Coronary Syndromes (SPUM-ACS) cohort (n = 1637), conducted in four Swiss university hospitals. Finally, the results were validated in Bergen Coronary Angiography Cohort (BECAC), a prospective Norwegian cohort study of stable CAD patients. Ceramides, especially when used in ratios, were significantly associated with CV death in all studies, independent of other lipid markers and C-reactive protein. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation for the Cer(d18:1/16:0)/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio were 4.49 (95% CI, 2.24-8.98), 1.64 (1.29-2.08), and 1.77 (1.41-2.23) in the Corogene, SPUM-ACS, and BECAC studies, respectively. The Cer(d18:1/16:0)/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio improved the predictive value of the GRACE score (net reclassification improvement, NRI = 0.17 and ?AUC = 0.09) in ACS and the predictive value of the Marschner score in stable CAD (NRI = 0.15 and ?AUC = 0.02).Distinct plasma ceramide ratios are significant predictors of CV death both in patients with stable CAD and ACS, over and above currently used lipid markers. This may improve the identification of high-risk patients in need of more aggressive therapeutic interventions.
Project description:AIMS/INTRODUCTION:Sphingolipids, such as ceramides and sphingosine, are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes; however, the modulation of urinary sphingolipids in diabetic nephropathy has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to develop a simultaneous measurement system for urinary sphingolipids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and to elucidate the modulation of urinary sphingolipids in diabetic nephropathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We established a simultaneous measurement system for the urinary sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, and six ceramide species (Cer d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/18:1, Cer d18:1/20:0, Cer d18:1/22:0 and Cer d18:1/24:0), and we examined the urinary sphingolipids in 64 type 2 diabetes patients and 15 control participants. RESULTS:The established measurement system for the urinary sphingolipids showed good precision for Cer d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/20:0, Cer d18:1/22:0 and Cer d18:1/24:0. We observed that the urinary levels of Cer d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/20:0, Cer d18:1/22:0 and Cer d18:1/24:0 were elevated in patients with stage 3 of diabetic nephropathy, and were correlated with urinary biomarkers, such as albumin and N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase, and sediment score. CONCLUSIONS:Our method is useful for the measurement of ceramide in urine specimens, and urinary ceramides might be associated with the pathological condition of diabetic nephropathy, such as renal tubular injury.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Ceramides are associated with coronary plaque vulnerability. We aim to investigate the potential diagnostic value of ceramides for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Chinese patients with chest pain. DESIGN:Prospective observational survey. SETTING:Shanghai, China, 2016-2017. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 2773 patients with chest pain from four hospitals in Shanghai, China, between August 2016 and October 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Performance of metabolites model in detection of ACS cases including ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and unstable angina. RESULTS:Plasma levels of 12 ceramide molecules and corresponding ratios were compared between patients diagnosed with ACS and those without. Cer(d18:1/24:1(15Z))/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio, Cer(d18:1/14:0) and Cer(d18:1/22:0) were independent predictors of ACS after adjustment of traditional risk factors and high-sensitivecardiac troponin T. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a significant improvement in detecting ACS in the multivariable model with ceramides compared with that without (0.865 (0.840 to 0.889) vs 0.808 (0.776 to 0.841), p<0.001). CONCLUSION:Distinct plasma ceramides are independent diagnostic predictors of ACS among patients with chest pain. Ceramides together with high-sensitive troponin and traditional factors showed great potential in identifying ACS among patients with chest pain.
Project description:Elevated hepatic ceramide levels have been implicated in both insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic steatosis. To understand the factors contributing to hepatic ceramide levels in mice of both sexes, we have quantitated ceramides in a reference population of mice, the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel that has been previously characterized for a variety of metabolic syndrome traits. We observed significant positive correlations between Cer(d18:1/16:0) and IR/hepatic steatosis, consistent with previous findings, although the relationship broke down between sexes, as females were less insulin resistant, but had higher Cer(d18:1/16:0) levels than males. The sex difference was due in part to testosterone-mediated repression of ceramide synthase 6. One ceramide species, Cer(d18:1/20:0), was present at higher levels in males and was associated with IR only in males. Clear evidence of gene-by-sex and gene-by-diet interactions was observed, including sex-specific genome-wide association study results. Thus, our studies show clear differences in how hepatic ceramides are regulated between the sexes, which again suggests that the physiological roles of certain hepatic ceramides differ between the sexes.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has recently emerged as a novel endocrine hormone involved in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the exact mechanisms whereby FGF21 mediates insulin sensitivity remain not fully understood. In the present study, FGF21was administrated in high-fat diet-induced obese mice and tunicamycin-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and metabolic parameters, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress indicators, and insulin signaling molecular were assessed by Western blotting. The administration of FGF21 in obese mice reduced body weight, blood glucose and serum insulin, and increased insulin sensitivity, resulting in alleviation of insulin resistance. Meanwhile, FGF21 treatment reversed suppression of adiponectin expression and restored insulin signaling via inhibiting ER stress in adipose tissue of obese mice. Additionally, suppression of ER stress via the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid increased adiponectin expression and improved insulin resistance in obese mice and in tunicamycin-induced adipocytes. In conclusion, our results showed that the administration of FGF21 reversed suppression of adiponectin expression and restored insulin signaling via inhibiting ER stress under the condition of insulin resistance, demonstrating the causative role of ER stress in downregulating adiponectin levels.