Field trial of medicinal plant, Bidens pilosa, against eimeriosis in broilers.
ABSTRACT: Eimeriosis is a severe protozoan disease in poultry. Because of increasing concern about drug residue and drug resistance with the use of anticoccidial drugs, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary approach to control avian eimeriosis. Our previous publication showed that feed supplemented with B. pilosa (BP) was effective at combating chicken eimeriosis in experimental settings. However, its efficacy against chicken eimeriosis under field conditions is not known. Here, we investigated the efficacy of BP against eimeriosis on an organic chicken farm. We found that feed supplemented with BP, at the dose of 0.025% of feed or more, significantly reduced Eimeria infection. This treatment increased body weight gain and reduced feed conversion ratio, leading to superior growth performance. It lowered morbidity/mortality rate, decreased oocysts per gram of feces and gut pathology and augmented the anticoccidial index. Collectively, these data demonstrated the potential of BP to control chicken eimeriosis on chicken farms. BP can, therefore, be used as an effective means to control eimeriosis.
Project description:In the interests of food safety and public health, plants and their compounds are now re-emerging as an alternative approach to treat gastrointestinal diseases in chickens. Here, we studied the impact of the edible medicinal plant, B. pilosa, on growth performance, gut bacteria and coccidiosis in chickens. First, we found that B. pilosa significantly elevated body weight gain and lowered feed conversion ratio in chickens. Next, we showed that B. pilosa reduced cecal damage as evidenced by increased hemorrhage, villus destruction and decreased villus-to-crypt ratio in chicken ceca. We also performed pyrosequencing of the PCR ampilcons based on the 16S rRNA genes of gut bacteria in chickens. Metagenomic analysis indicated that the chicken gut bacteria belonged to 6 phyla, 6 classes, 6 orders, 9 families, and 8 genera. More importantly, we found that B. pilosa affected the composition of bacteria. This change in bacteria composition was correlated with body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and gut pathology in chickens. Collectively, this work suggests that B. pilosa has beneficial effects on growth performance and protozoan infection in chickens probably via modulation of gut bacteria.
Project description:Bidens pilosa (BP) is an edible Asteraceae plant found worldwide that has traditionally been used as food without noticeable side effects. BP has also been used as an herbal medicine to treat over 41 categories of disease in humans and animals. However, to date no long-term toxicity study of BP has been conducted in animals. In this study, 24-week oral toxicity of BP at doses of 0%, 0.5%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% of food was investigated in mice. Mortality, body weight, organ weight, food intake, water consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, genotoxicity and organ histopathology of animals of both sexes were analyzed. No significant difference in the above parameters was observed between control and BP-fed mice except that body weight and food intake in those fed with 10% BP were significantly less than controls. In addition, similar results were seen in chickens fed with BP for 28 days. Collectively, the data demonstrate that BP has no adverse effects in mice and chickens at dose of 5% or less of food.
Project description:Bidens pilosa L. is an easy-to-grow, widespread, and palatable perennial on earth. Hence, it has traditionally been used as foods and medicines without noticeable adverse effects. Despite significant advancement in chemical and biological studies of B. pilosa over the past few years, comprehensive and critical reviews on its anti-diabetic properties are missing. The present review is to summarize up-to-date information on the pharmacology, phytochemistry, and toxicology of B. pilosa, in regard to type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes from the literature. In addition to botanical studies and records of the traditional use of B. pilosa in diabetes, scientific studies investigating antidiabetic action of this species and its active phytochemicals are presented and discussed. The structure and biosynthesis of B. pilosa and its polyynes in relation to their anti-diabetic action and mechanism are emphasized. Although some progress has been made, rigorous efforts are further required to unlock the molecular basis and structure-activity relationship of the polyynes isolated from B. pilosa before their clinical applications. The present review provides preliminary information and gives guidance for further anti-diabetic research and development of this plant.
Project description:B. pilosa has long been purported to have antidiabetes activity, but despite the advancement in phytochemistry and animal models of diabetes, no human clinical trials have been conducted to date. Here, we evaluated the effect of a B. pilosa formulation on fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in diabetic subjects. The B. pilosa formulation reduced the level of FBG and HbA1c in diabetics but increased fasting serum insulin in healthy subjects. Moreover, combination of B. pilosa formulation with antidiabetic drugs had better glycemic control in diabetics. The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) data suggested that the antidiabetic activity of this formulation was via improvement of ?-cell function. We also tested the safety of the B. pilosa formulation in healthy subjects and observed no obvious side effects. We conclude that B. pilosa has potential as an antidiabetes treatment.
Project description:Eimeria species parasites can cause the enteric disease coccidiosis, most notably in chickens where the economic and welfare implications are significant. Seven Eimeria species are recognized to infect chickens, although understanding of their regional occurrence, abundance, and population structure remains limited. Reports of Eimeria circulating in chickens across much of the southern hemisphere with cryptic genotypes and the capacity to escape current anticoccidial vaccines have revealed unexpected levels of complexity. Consequently, it is important to supplement validated species-specific molecular diagnostics with new genus-level tools. Here, we report the application of Illumina MiSeq deep sequencing to partial 18S rDNA amplicons generated using Eimeria genus-specific primers from chicken caecal contents collected in India. Commercial Cobb400 broiler and indigenous Kadaknath type chickens were sampled under field conditions after co-rearing (mixed type farms, n = 150 chickens for each) or separate rearing (single type farms, n = 150 each). Comparison of MiSeq results with established Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) and Sequence Characterised Amplified Region (SCAR) quantitative PCR assays suggest greater sensitivity for the MiSeq approach. The caecal-dwelling Eimeria tenella and E. necatrix dominated each sample set, although all seven species which infect chickens were detected. Two of the three cryptic Eimeria genotypes were detected including OTU-X and OTU-Y, the most northern report for the latter to date. Low levels of DNA representing other Eimeria species were detected, possibly representing farm-level contamination with non-replicating oocysts or Eimeria DNA, or false positives, indicating a requirement for additional validation. Next generation deep amplicon sequencing offers a valuable resource for future Eimeria studies.
Project description:Avian coccidiosis is an economically important disease in the poultry industry. In view of the disadvantages of anti-coccidial drugs in chickens, edible plants and their compounds are re-emerging as an alternative strategy to combat this disease. A previous publication reported that the edible plant B. pilosa showed promise for use against coccidiosis. Here, we first investigated into the anti-coccidial effects of B. pilosa. We found that B. pilosa at 100 ppm or more significantly suppressed E. tenella as evidenced by reduction in mortality rate, oocyst excretion and gut pathological severity in chickens and its minimum prophylactic duration was 3 days. Next, we explored the mode of action of anti-coccidial mechanism of B. pilosa. The E. tenella oocysts were not directly killed by B. pilosa; however, administration of the plant suppressed oocyst sporulation, sporozoite invasion, and schizonts in the life cycle of E. tenella. Besides, B. pilosa boosted T cell-mediated immunity. Finally, we characterized the related anti-coccidial phytochemicals and their mode of action. One of three potent polyynes present in B. pilsoa, Compound 1 (cytopiloyne), acted against coccidiosis in chickens in a similar manner to B. pilosa. These data illustrate the anti-coccidial potency and mechanism of B. pilosa and one of its active compounds, and provide a cornerstone for development of novel herbal remedies for avian coccidiosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Coccidiosis represents a serious threat to the poultry industry, affecting production and causing high morbidity, mortality and significant costs resulting from treatment and prophylaxis. In-feed anticoccidials have been used for decades for managing avian coccidiosis and were very effective until drug resistance emerged. The use of natural remedies has become a promising alternative in combating coccidiosis in chickens. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficiency of a commercial herbal formula (H), as oral liquid preparations, in experimental chicken coccidiosis. METHODS:Two independent controlled battery experiments (BE1 and BE2) were designed and the product was tested in 3 different formulas (H1, H2 and H3): H1 contained a propylene glycol extract of Allium sativum and Thymus serpyllum; H2 contained Origanum vulgare, Satureja hortensis and Chelidonium majus; and H3 contained Allium sativum, Urtica dioica, Inula helenium, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Thymus serpyllum, Tanacetum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum. Chickens were divided into five groups for each BE as follows: (i) uninfected untreated control (UU1, UU2); (ii) infected untreated control (IU1, IU2); (iii) infected treated with amprolium (ITA1, ITA2); and (iv, v) two experimental groups infected treated with H1 (ITH1) and H2 (ITH2) formulas in the BE1 and with H3 (ITH3-5 and ITH3-10) formula in the BE2. The chickens from infected groups were challenged with 5000 (BE1) and 50,000 (BE2) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. (E. acervulina, E. tenella and E. maxima), respectively. The anticoccidial efficacy was assessed by recording the following: oocysts output (OPG), lesion score (LS), weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and anticoccidial index (ACI). Additionally, polyphenolics and flavonoids (caffeic-chlorogenic acid, apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercitin, quercitrin) from herb extracts found in H3 formula were determined by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. RESULTS:H1 and H2 reduced the WG, and increased the FCR and OPG compared with controls. H1 reduced the duodenal lesions, whilst H2 reduced the caecal lesions, compared with control. H3 decreased the OPG of Eimeria spp., reduced the total lesion score and improved the zootechnical performance (weight gain and feed conversion ratio). According to ACI value, H1 and H2 had no efficacy on Eimeria spp. infection, but H3 had good to marked anticoccidial effect, the ACI being slightly greater in the group ITH3-5. According to the results of LC-MS/MS, the concentration of polyphenols in H3 formula was the highest, the sum of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid being 914.9 µg/ml. CONCLUSIONS:H3 formula is a promising natural anticoccidial and field trials are recommended in order to validate the obtained data.
Project description:Chicken coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria sp., occurs in almost all poultry farms and causes huge economic losses in the poultry industry. Although this disease could be controlled by vaccination, the reduced feed conservation ratio limits the widespread application of anticoccidial vaccines in broilers because some intermediate and/or low immunogenic Eimeria sp. only elicit partial protection. It is of importance to enhance the immunogenicity of these Eimeria sp. by adjuvants for more effective prevention of coccidiosis. Cytokines have remarkable effects on the immunogenicity of antigens. Interleukin 2 (IL-2), for example, significantly stimulates the activation of CD8+ T cells and other immune cells. In this study, we constructed a transgenic Eimeria mitis line (EmiChIL-2) expressing chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) to investigate the adjuvant effect of ChIL-2 to enhance the immunogenicity of E. mitis against its infection. Stable transfected EmiChIL-2 population was obtained by pyrimethamine selection and verified by PCR, genome walking, western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Cellular immune response, E. mitis-specific IFN-? secretion lymphocytes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, stimulated by EmiChIL-2 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). The results showed that EmiChIL-2 stimulated a higher cellular immune response compared with that of the wild-type parasite infection in chickens. Moreover, after the immunization with EmiChIL-2, elevated cellular immune response as well as reduced oocyst output were observed These results indicated that ChIL-2 expressed by Eimeria sp. functions as adjuvant and IL-2 expressing Eimeria parasites are valuable vaccine strains against coccidiosis.
Project description:Obesity and its complications are a major global health problem. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of an edible plant, Bidens pilosa, and its active constituent. We first assessed the long-term effect of B. pilosa on body composition, body weight, blood parameters in ICR mice. We observed that it significantly decreased fat content and increased protein content in ICR mice. Next, we verified the anti-obesity effect of B. pilosa in ob/ob mice. It effectively and dose-dependently reduced fat content, adipocyte size and/or body weight in mice. Moreover, mechanistic studies showed that B. pilosa inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) and Egr2 in adipose tissue. Finally, we examined the effect of 2-?-D-glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne (GHT) on adipogenesis in adipocytes. We found that B. pilosa significantly decreased the adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. This decrease was associated with the down-regulation of expression of Egr2, C/EBPs, PPAR?, adipocyte Protein 2 (aP2) and adiponectin. In summary, this work demonstrated that B. pilosa and GHT suppressed adipogenesis and lipid content in adipocytes and/or animals via the down-regulation of the Egr2, C/EBPs and PPAR? pathways, suggesting a novel application of B. pilosa and GHT against obesity.
Project description:Coccidiosis is a deadly disease that hampers chicken's productivity and welfare. Thus, the disease is a major menace to the global poultry industry. Coccidiosis which is caused by the apicomplexan parasite of the genus Eimeria has seven known species which affect the different parts of the intestinal tract of chickens. The disease which occurs by ingestion of sporulated oocyst has been associated with poor poultry management system. Mixed infection among the species of this parasite contributes to both pathogenicity and misdiagnosis of the disease. A progress in identification and diagnosis approach which cuts across pathological, morphological and molecular has been reported for this parasite. Control measures which include anticoccidial drugs, vaccines and natural products have dominated literature for this disease. However, the emergence of genetic and antigenic diversity with implication on resistance to anticoccidials among different strains of Eimeria parasite has generated concerns on the effectiveness of the current anticoccidial vaccines. A new look on the control strategy therefore becomes imperative. This study reviews the current trends on the identification and control of chicken coccidiosis with focus on (1) Avian coccidiosis (2) Epidemiology of chicken coccidiosis (3) Eimeria parasite and distribution in poultry (4) Diagnosis of Eimeria parasite (5) Control measures of coccidiosis (6) Threats posed by genetic and antigenic diversity of Eimeria parasite on coccidiosis control. Genomic study on diversity of Eimeria parasite becomes imperative for effective vaccine design against coccidiosis.