PBRM1 Regulates the Expression of Genes Involved in Metabolism and Cell Adhesion in Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Polybromo-1 (PBRM1) is a component of the PBAF (Polybromo-associated-BRG1- or BRM-associated factors) chromatin remodeling complex and is the second most frequently mutated gene in clear-cell renal cell Carcinoma (ccRCC). Mutation of PBRM1 is believed to be an early event in carcinogenesis, however its function as a tumor suppressor is not understood. In this study, we have employed Next Generation Sequencing to profile the differentially expressed genes upon PBRM1 re-expression in a cellular model of ccRCC. PBRM1 re-expression led to upregulation of genes involved in cellular adhesion, carbohydrate metabolism, apoptotic process and response to hypoxia, and a downregulation of genes involved in different stages of cell division. The decrease in cellular proliferation upon PBRM1 re-expression was confirmed, validating the functional role of PBRM1 as a tumor suppressor in a cell-based model. In addition, we identified a role for PBRM1 in regulating metabolic pathways known to be important for driving ccRCC, including the regulation of hypoxia response genes, PI3K signaling, glucose uptake, and cholesterol homeostasis. Of particular novelty is the identification of cell adhesion as a major downstream process uniquely regulated by PBRM1 expression. Cytoskeletal reorganization was induced upon PBRM1 reexpression as evidenced from the increase in the number of cells displaying cortical actin, a hallmark of epithelial cells. Genes involved in cell adhesion featured prominently in our transcriptional dataset and overlapped with genes uniquely regulated by PBRM1 in clinical specimens of ccRCC. Genes involved in cell adhesion serve as tumor suppressor and maybe involved in inhibiting cell migration. Here we report for the first time genes linked to cell adhesion serve as downstream targets of PBRM1, and hope to lay the foundation of future studies focusing on the role of chromatin remodelers in bringing about these alterations during malignancies.
Project description:Most clear cell renal carcinomas (ccRCCs) are initiated by somatic inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor gene. The VHL gene product, pVHL, is the substrate recognition unit of an ubiquitin ligase that targets the HIF transcription factor for proteasomal degradation; inappropriate expression of HIF target genes drives renal carcinogenesis. Loss of pVHL is not sufficient, however, to cause ccRCC. Additional cooperating genetic events, including intragenic mutations and copy number alterations, are required. Common examples of the former are loss-of-function mutations of the PBRM1 and BAP1 tumor suppressor genes, which occur in a mutually exclusive manner in ccRCC and define biologically distinct subsets of ccRCC. PBRM1 encodes the Polybromo- and BRG1-associated factors-containing complex (PBAF) chromatin remodeling complex component BRG1-associated factor 180 (BAF180). Here we identified ccRCC lines whose ability to proliferate in vitro and in vivo is sensitive to wild-type BAF180, but not a tumor-associated BAF180 mutant. Biochemical and functional studies linked growth suppression by BAF180 to its ability to form a canonical PBAF complex containing BRG1 that dampens the HIF transcriptional signature.
Project description:We investigated the mechanisms affecting tumor progression and survival outcomes in <i>Polybromo-1</i>-mutated (<i>PBRM1</i><sup>MUT</sup>) clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients. <i>PBRM1</i><sup>MUT</sup> ccRCC tissues contained higher numbers of mast cells and lower numbers of CD8<sup>+</sup> and CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells than tissues from <i>PBRM1</i><sup>WT</sup> ccRCC patients. Hierarchical clustering, pathway enrichment and GSEA analyses demonstrated that <i>PBRM1</i> mutations promote tumor progression by activating hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-related signaling pathways and increasing expression of vascular endothelial growth factor family genes. <i>PBRM1</i><sup>MUT</sup> ccRCC tissues also show increased expression of C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5). PBRM1-silenced ccRCC cells exhibited greater Matrigel tube formation and cell proliferation than controls. In addition, HMC-1 human mast cells exhibited CCL5-dependent <i>in vitro</i> migration on Transwell plates. High CCL5 expression in <i>PBRM1</i><sup>MUT</sup> ccRCC patients correlated with increased expression of genes encoding IFN-?, IFN-?, IL-6, JAK-STAT3, TNF-?, and NF-?B. Moreover, high CCL5 expression was associated with poorer survival outcomes in ccRCC patients. These findings demonstrate that CCL5-dependent mast cell infiltration promotes immunosuppression within the tumor microenvironment, resulting in tumor progression and adverse survival outcomes in <i>PBRM1</i><sup>MUT</sup> ccRCC patients.
Project description:A subset of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tumors exhibit a HIF1A gene mutation, yielding two ccRCC tumor types, H1H2 type expressing both HIF1? and HIF2?, and H2 type expressing HIF2?, but not functional HIF1? protein. However, it is unclear how the H1H2 type ccRCC tumors escape HIF1's tumor-suppressive activity. The polybromo-1 (PBRM1) gene coding for the BAF180 protein, a component of the SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex, is inactivated in 40% ccRCCs, the function and mechanism of BAF180 mutation is unknown. Our previous study indicates that BAF180-containing SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is a co-activator for transcription factor HIF to induce HIF target genes. Thus, our questions are if BAF180 is involved in HIF-mediated hypoxia response and if PBRM1/BAF180 mutation has any association with the HIF1A retention in H1H2 type ccRCC. We report here that BAF180 is mutated in H1H2 ccRCC cell lines and tumors, and BAF180 re-expression in H1H2 ccRCC cell lines reduced cell proliferation/survival, indicating that BAF180 has tumor-suppressive role in these cells. However, BAF180 is expressed in HIF1-deficient H2 ccRCC cell lines and tumors, and BAF180 knockdown in H2 type ccRCC cell lines reduced cell proliferation/survival, indicating that BAF180 has tumor-promoting activity in these cells. In addition, our data show that BAF180 functions as co-activator for HIF1- and HIF2-mediated transcriptional response, and BAF180's tumor-suppressive and -promoting activity in ccRCC cell lines depends on co-expression of HIF1 and HIF2, respectively. Thus, our studies reveal that BAF180 function in ccRCC is context dependent, and that mutation of PBRM1/BAF180 serves as an alternative strategy for ccRCC tumors to reduce HIF1 tumor-suppressive activity in H1H2 ccRCC tumors. Our studies define distinct functional subgroups of ccRCCs based on expression of BAF180, and suggest that BAF180 inhibition may be a novel therapeutic target for patients with H2, but not H1H2, ccRCC tumors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recurrent mutations in polybromo-1 (PBRM1, ~40%) and BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1, ~10%) occur in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), but their prevalence in non-ccRCC or renal oncocytoma (RO) is unknown. We evaluated loss of PBRM1 and BAP1 staining in ccRCC, papillary RCC (pRCC), chromophobe RCC (chRCC), and RO tumors using an immunohistochemistry assay in which negative staining was associated with loss-of-function mutations. METHODS:We identified 458 patients treated surgically for ccRCC, pRCC, chRCC, and RO between 2004 and 2012. We performed immunohistochemistry assays to evaluate PBRM1 and BAP1 protein expression to classify tumors as PBRM1 or BAP1 negative. We compared loss of staining of these 2 proteins in ccRCC and non-ccRCC using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS:For the total cohort of 458 patients, we successfully stained both PBRM1 and BAP1 in 408 tumor samples. Consistent with the mutation rate, loss of PBRM1 and BAP1 staining occurred in 43% (80/187) and 10% (18/187) of ccRCC cases, respectively. However, loss of PBRM1 staining occurred in only 3% (2/59), 6% (1/17), and 0% (0/34) of pRCC, chRCC, and RO tumors, respectively (P<0.0001). BAP1 loss was not observed in any of the pRCC (n = 61), chRCC (n = 17), or RO (n = 34) tumors, (P = 0.00021). CONCLUSION:Our data suggest that biallelic inactivation of PBRM1 or BAP1 is less common in non-ccRCC when compared with ccRCC tumors. These findings suggest that loss of PBRM1 or BAP1 are key events in ccRCC, whereas other pathways may support tumorigenesis in non-ccRCC subtypes.
Project description:Chromatin remodelers use bromodomains (BDs) to recognize histones. Polybromo 1 (PBRM1 or BAF180) is hypothesized to function as the nucleosome-recognition subunit of the PBAF chromatin-remodeling complex and is frequently mutated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Previous studies have applied in vitro methods to explore the binding specificities of the six individual PBRM1 BDs. However, BD targeting to histones and the influence of neighboring BD on nucleosome recognition have not been well characterized. Here, using histone microarrays and intact nucleosomes to investigate the histone-binding characteristics of the six PBRM1 BDs individually and combined, we demonstrate that BD2 and BD4 of PBRM1 mediate binding to acetylated histone peptides and to modified recombinant and cellular nucleosomes. Moreover, we show that neighboring BDs variably modulate these chromatin interactions, with BD1 and BD5 enhancing nucleosome interactions of BD2 and BD4, respectively, whereas BD3 attenuated these interactions. We also found that binding pocket missense mutations in BD4 observed in ccRCC disrupt PBRM1-chromatin interactions and that these mutations in BD4, but not similar mutations in BD2, in the context of full-length PBRM1, accelerate ccRCC cell proliferation. Taken together, our biochemical and mutational analyses have identified BD4 as being critically important for maintaining proper PBRM1 function and demonstrate that BD4 mutations increase ccRCC cell growth. Because of the link between PBRM1 status and sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment, these data also suggest the relevance of BD4 as a potential clinical target.
Project description:Kidney cancer is one of the most lethal cancer types worldwide. The most common subtype of kidney cancer is clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), and the somatic mutations of ccRCC have been identified through the development of large databases. The present study aimed to validate the status of the associated gene mutations in a Taiwanese cohort. Targeted sequencing was used to validate the mutation status of genes related to ccRCC in Taiwanese patients who had nephrectomy for kidney cancer. The top eight mutated genes in the Catalogue Of Somatic Mutations In Cancer (COSMIC) were selected. These genes were <i>VHL</i>, protein polybromo-1 (<i>PBRM1</i>), histone-lysine N-methyltransferase <i>SETD2</i>, BRCA1-associated protein-1 (<i>BAP1</i>), lysine-specific demethylase 5C (<i>KDM5C</i>), <i>TP53, MTOR</i> and <i>PTEN</i>. The association between the gene mutation status of <i>VHL, PBRM1, SETD2</i> and <i>BAP1</i> was validated with clinicopathological parameters as well as overall survival time. Tumor cells from 96 patients with ccRCC were target sequenced. The order of mutation rate of the eight aforementioned genes was similar to that reported within COSMIC. The present Taiwanese cohort exhibited lower <i>PBRM1</i> and <i>BAP1</i> mutation rates compared with average, with increased mutation rates for <i>SETD2</i> and <i>KDM5C</i>. <i>BAP1</i> mutation was associated with the tumor and cancerous stage. None of these four genes were positively associated with the overall survival of patients. The <i>PBRM1</i> and <i>SETD2</i> mutations were mutually exclusive to <i>BAP1</i> mutation. Overall, the present study provided data confirming gene alteration in Taiwanese patients with ccRCC and showed some differences when compared with Western countries. Further comprehensive genomic and epigenomic studies, as well as downstream validation, are necessary to evaluate the impact of these differences.
Project description:Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibits some unusual features and genes commonly mutated in cancer are rarely mutated in clear-cell RCC (ccRCC), the most common type. The most prevalent genetic alteration in ccRCC is the inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene VHL. Using whole-genome and exome sequencing we discovered BAP1 as a novel tumor suppressor in ccRCC that shows little overlap with mutations in PBRM1, another recent tumor suppressor. Whereas VHL was mutated in 81% of the patients (142/176), PBRM1 was lost in 58% and BAP1 in 15% of the patients analyzed. All these tumor suppressor genes are located in chromosome 3p, which is partially or completely lost in most ccRCC patients. However, BAP1 but not PBRM1 loss was associated with higher Fuhrman grade and, therefore, poorer outcome. Xenograft tumors (tumorgrafts) implanted orthotopically in mice exhibited similar gene expression profiling to corresponding primary tumors. Gene expression profiling of tumors and tumorgrafts displayed different signatures for BAP1- and PBRM1-deficient samples. Thus, after inactivation of VHL, the acquisition of a mutation in BAP1 or PBRM1 defines a different program that might alter the fate of the patient. Our results establish the foundation for an integrated pathological and molecular genetic classification of about 70% of ccRCC patients, paving the way for subtype-specific treatments exploiting genetic vulnerabilities. The RNA of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) primary tumors, tumors growing in immunodeficient mice (tumorgrafts), and normal kidney cortices were labeled and hybridized to Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays.
Project description:Clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) is due to loss of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene and at least one out of three chromatin regulating genes BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1), Polybromo-1 (PBRM1) and Set domain-containing 2 (SETD2). More than 350, 700 and 500 mutations are known respectively for BAP1, PBRM1 and SETD2 genes. Each variation damages these genes with different severity levels. Unfortunately for most of these mutations the molecular effect is unknown, so precluding a severity classification. Moreover, the huge number of these gene mutations does not allow to perform experimental assays for each of them. By bioinformatic tools, we performed predictions of the molecular effects of all mutations lying in BAP1, PBRM1 and SETD2 genes. Our results allow to distinguish whether a mutation alters protein function directly or by splicing pattern destruction and how much severely. This classification could be useful to reveal correlation with patients' outcome, to guide experiments, to select the variations that are worth to be included in translational/association studies, and to direct gene therapies.
Project description:Technological advances in genome sequencing have led to the identification of novel driver genes mutated in renal cancer. Hitherto, 1 gene was known to be frequently mutated in renal cell carcinoma of clear cell type (ccRCC), the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. VHL was identified by positional cloning as the gene responsible for a familial syndrome with renal cancer predisposition, von Hippel-Lindau. Subsequently, VHL was found to be inactivated in approximately 90% of sporadic ccRCC. The discovery of VHL, together with the elucidation of its function, transformed the treatment of ccRCC leading to the introduction of 5 new drugs into the clinic. However, no other familial ccRCC predisposing genes are frequently mutated in sporadic ccRCC. With the development of massively parallel sequencing, a plethora of somatically mutated genes has been identified. Most genes are mutated at low frequencies, but 3 genes are mutated in more than 10% of ccRCC, PBRM1 (mutated in ~50%), BAP1 (~15%), and SETD2 (~15%). Like VHL, all 3 genes are 2-hit tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, these 3 genes are within a 50-Mb region on the short arm of chromosome 3p that encompasses VHL and is deleted in ~90% of ccRCC. We discovered that PBRM1 mutations tend to anticorrelate with BAP1 mutations in ccRCC and that PBRM1- and BAP1-mutated tumors exhibit different biology and are associated with markedly different outcomes. This established the foundation for the first molecular genetic classification of sporadic ccRCC. Herein, I review the evidence that implicated PBRM1 and BAP1 as renal cancer driver genes, provide an update on the function of the gene products, and speculate on how mutations in these genes may be exploited therapeutically.
Project description:The genetics of renal cancer is dominated by inactivation of the VHL tumour suppressor gene in clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the commonest histological subtype. A recent large-scale screen of ?3,500 genes by PCR-based exon re-sequencing identified several new cancer genes in ccRCC including UTX (also known as KDM6A), JARID1C (also known as KDM5C) and SETD2 (ref. 2). These genes encode enzymes that demethylate (UTX, JARID1C) or methylate (SETD2) key lysine residues of histone H3. Modification of the methylation state of these lysine residues of histone H3 regulates chromatin structure and is implicated in transcriptional control. However, together these mutations are present in fewer than 15% of ccRCC, suggesting the existence of additional, currently unidentified cancer genes. Here, we have sequenced the protein coding exome in a series of primary ccRCC and report the identification of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex gene PBRM1 (ref. 4) as a second major ccRCC cancer gene, with truncating mutations in 41% (92/227) of cases. These data further elucidate the somatic genetic architecture of ccRCC and emphasize the marked contribution of aberrant chromatin biology.