Intestinal Microbiota and Microbial Metabolites Are Changed in a Pig Model Fed a High-Fat/Low-Fiber or a Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet.
ABSTRACT: The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host's health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P<0.001) and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P<0.05) were higher in the LF pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae were more abundant in the HF pigs (P<0.001). Higher numbers of proteins affiliated to Enterobacteriaceae were also present in the HF samples. Proteins for polysaccharide breakdown did almost exclusively originate from Prevotellaceae. Total and individual fecal SCFA concentrations were higher for pigs of the LF treatment (P<0.05), whereas fecal ammonia concentrations did not differ between treatments (P>0.05). Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05), while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003447.
Project description:Background:The independent and interactive effects of dietary fiber (DF) and threonine (Thr) were investigated in growing pigs challenged with either systemic E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or enteric Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) to characterise their effect on intestinal barrier function. Results:In experiment 1, intestinal barrier function was assessed via oral lactulose and mannitol (L:M) gavage and fecal mucin analysis in pigs challenged with E. coli LPS and fed low fiber (LF) or high fiber (HF) diets with graded dietary Thr. Urinary lactulose recovery and L:M ratio increased (P?<?0.05) during the LPS inoculation period in LF fed pigs but not in HF fed pigs. Fecal mucin output was increased (P?<?0.05) in pigs fed HF compared to LF fed pigs. In experiment 2, RT-qPCR, ileal morphology, digesta volatile fatty acid (VFA) content, and fecal mucin output were measured in Salmonella Typhimurium challenged pigs, fed LF or HF diets with standard or supplemented dietary Thr. Salmonella inoculation increased (P?<?0.05) fecal mucin output compared to the unchallenged period. Supplemental Thr increased fecal mucin output in the HF-fed pigs (Fib × Thr; P?<?0.05). Feeding HF increased (P?<?0.05) VFA concentration in cecum and colon. No effect of either Thr or fiber on expression of gene markers was observed except a tendency (P?=?0.06) for increased MUC2 expression with the HF diet. Feeding HF increased goblet cell numbers (P?<?0.05). Conclusion:Dietary fiber appears to improve barrier function through increased mucin production capacity (i.e., goblet cell numbers, MUC2 gene expression) and secretion (i.e., fecal mucin output). The lack of effect of dietary Thr in Salmonella-challenged pigs provides further evidence that mucin secretion in the gut is conserved and, therefore, Thr may be limiting for growth under conditions of increased mucin production.
Project description:Microbial population in the gastrointestinal tract plays a central role in health and nutrient digestion. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships between microbiota and apparent digestibility coefficients with respect to age and diet. Pigs from Large-White, Duroc or Pietrain breeds were raised under the same housing conditions and fed alternately a low-fiber (LF) and a high-fiber diet (HF) during 4 successive 3-week periods. Data collection for digestibility measurements was achieved during the last week of each period. At the end of each period, fecal microbiota was collected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The microbiota remained stable across periods whereas digestibility of energy, crude proteins and cell wall components increased. The microbiota was resilient to diet effect and pigs fed the LF diet were discriminated to those fed the HF diet using 31 predicting OTUs with a mean classification error-rate of 3.9%. Clostridiaceae and Turicibacter were negatively correlated whereas Lactobacillus was positively correlated with protein and energy digestibility coefficients in the LF group. In addition, Lachnospiraceae and Prevotella were negatively correlated with cell wall component digestibility. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between microbiota composition and digestibility coefficients when pigs were fed the HF diet. Interestingly, it was also no longer possible to distinguish animals from different breeds once the animals were fed a HF diet, so that the microbiota could only trace the breed origin in the first period and in the LF group. In our experimental conditions, 3 weeks of adaptation to a new diet seems to be sufficient to observe resilience in growing pigs' microbiota. We demonstrated that fecal microbiota can be used to classify pigs according to their dietary treatment. Some bacteria are favorable or unfavorable to digestibility. This suggests that manipulations of bacterial populations can improve digestibility and feed efficiency.
Project description:Dietary fibre (DF) and fermentable crude protein (fCP) are dietary factors which affect nutrient utilization and intestinal health in pigs. A nitrogen (N)-balance study was conducted to determine the impact of DF and fCP on threonine (Thr) requirement for protein deposition (PD) and indicators of intestinal health. A total of 160 growing pigs (25 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 20 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 × 5 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with dietary fibre (low (LF) or high fibre (HF)], fCP [low (LfCP) or high fCP (HfCP)) and Thr (0.52, 0.60, 0.68, 0.76, or 0.82% standardized ileal digestible) as factors. Then, 4-day total urine and fecal collection was conducted, and pigs were euthanized for intestinal tissue and digesta sampling. Feeding high DF, regardless of fCP content, increased Thr requirement for PD (p < 0.05). High fCP, regardless of DF content, reduced Thr requirement for PD. Serum antioxidant capacity increased as dietary Thr level increased (p < 0.05). Cecal digesta short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) increased (p < 0.05) with HF and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) increased with HfCP and reduced with HF (p < 0.05). HfCP reduced (p < 0.05) mucin-2 (MUC2) expression in the colon of the HF but not the LF fed pigs and HF increased MUC2 in the LfCP but not the HfCP fed pigs. Feeding HF diet increased (p < 0.05) expression of zonula occludens-1 in the LfCP with no effect on HfCP fed pigs. Ammonia concentration in both cecum and colon increased (p < 0.05) in the HfCP fed pigs. Overall, high DF reduced the negative impact of HfCP on intestinal health, as indicated by alterations in SCFA and BCFA production and gut barrier gene expression. While increased dietary Thr content is required for PD in pigs fed high DF, feeding high fCP reduced Thr requirements.
Project description:Apples contain bioactive compounds with the potential to alleviate clinical signs associated with obesity, a phenomenon likely related to the composition and function of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple supplementation on the fecal microbiota and gut metabolites of Dawley Sprague rats fed a high-fat (HF group) or a low-fat (LF group) diet. The fecal microbiota was examined using 16S marker sequencing targeting the V4 region in a MiSeq instrument (Illumina). With the exception of Blautia, which was higher in supplemented rats compared to controls within the LF group, significant differences in fecal microbiota between supplemented rats and controls were only found in the HF group. This suggests that the effect of apple supplementation on the gut microbiota is strongly dependent on the composition of the diet, a phenomenon with potential consequences for obese human patients. Principal Coordinate Analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed a clear strong separation of bacterial communities based on diet (HF and LF, P = 0.001, R = 0.69, ANOSIM test) and based on apple supplementation within the HF group, albeit less strongly (P = 0.006, R = 0.27, ANOSIM test). No differences were found for fecal SCFAs but proteomics and metabolomics analyses showed differential expression of both proteins and metabolites between supplemented rats and controls in the HF group. The results of this study can guide future explorations of the effect of apple supplementation on human health.
Project description:Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is a significant health concern which has been linked to structural and functional changes in the gut microbiota. Exercise (Ex) is effective in preventing obesity, but whether Ex alters the gut microbiota during development with high fat (HF) feeding is unknown.Determine the effects of voluntary Ex on the gastrointestinal microbiota in LF-fed mice and in HF-DIO.Male C57BL/6 littermates (5 weeks) were distributed equally into 4 groups: low fat (LF) sedentary (Sed) LF/Sed, LF/Ex, HF/Sed and HF/Ex. Mice were individually housed and LF/Ex and HF/Ex cages were equipped with a wheel and odometer to record Ex. Fecal samples were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks and used for bacterial DNA isolation. DNA was subjected both to quantitative PCR using primers specific to the 16S rRNA encoding genes for Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to sequencing for lower taxonomic identification using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Data were analyzed using a one or two-way ANOVA or Pearson correlation.HF diet resulted in significantly greater body weight and adiposity as well as decreased glucose tolerance that were prevented by voluntary Ex (p<0.05). Visualization of Unifrac distance data with principal coordinates analysis indicated clustering by both diet and Ex at week 12. Sequencing demonstrated Ex-induced changes in the percentage of major bacterial phyla at 12 weeks. A correlation between total Ex distance and the ?Ct Bacteroidetes: ?Ct Firmicutes ratio from qPCR demonstrated a significant inverse correlation (r2?=?0.35, p?=?0.043).Ex induces a unique shift in the gut microbiota that is different from dietary effects. Microbiota changes may play a role in Ex prevention of HF-DIO.
Project description:The experimental objective was to investigate the impact of xylanase on the bioavailability of energy, oxidative status, and gut function of growing pigs fed a diet high in insoluble fiber and given a longer adaptation time than typically reported. Three replicates of 20 gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 25.43 ± 0.88 kg were blocked by BW, individually housed, and randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments: a low-fiber control (LF) with 7.5% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), a 30% corn bran without solubles high-fiber control (HF; 21.9% NDF), HF + 100 mg/kg xylanase (HF + XY; Econase XT 25P), and HF + 50 mg/kg arabinoxylan-oligosaccharide (HF + AX). Gilts were fed ad libitum for 36 d across two dietary phases. Pigs and feeders were weighed on days 0, 14, 27, and 36. On day 36, pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 10-d period, limit fed (80% of average ad libitum intake), and feces and urine were collected the last 72 h to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME). On day 46, serum and ileal and colonic tissue were collected. Data were analyzed as a linear mixed model with block and replication as random effects, and treatment, time, and treatment × time as fixed effects. There was a significant treatment × time interaction for BW, average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed (G:F; P < 0.001). By design, BW at day 0 did not differ; at day 14, pigs fed LF were 3.5% heavier, and pigs fed HF + XY, when compared with HF, were 4% and 4.2% heavier at days 27 and 36, respectively (P < 0.001). From day 14 to 27 and day 27 to 36, when compared with HF, HF + XY improved ADG by 12.4% and 10.7% and G:F by 13.8% and 8.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with LF, HF decreased DE and ME by 0.51 and 0.42 Mcal/kg, respectively, but xylanase partially mitigated that effect by increasing DE and ME by 0.15 and 0.12 Mcal/kg, over HF, respectively (P < 0.05). Pigs fed HF + XY had increased total antioxidant capacity in the serum and ileum (P < 0.05) and tended to have less circulating malondialdehyde (P = 0.098). Pigs fed LF had increased ileal villus height, and HF + XY and HF + AX had shallower intestinal crypts (P < 0.001). Pigs fed HF + XY had increased ileal messenger ribonucleic acid abundance of claudin 4 and occludin (P < 0.05). Xylanase, but not AX, improved the growth performance of pigs fed insoluble corn-based fiber. This was likely a result of the observed increase in ME, improved antioxidant capacity, and enhanced gut barrier integrity, but it may require increased adaptation time to elicit this response.
Project description:Dietary fat is known to modulate the hindgut microbiota in rodents; however, there is no clear evidence on the impact of high-fat diets on canine gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding of diets differing in the amount of ME provided by fat and starch on the composition and activity of canine fecal microbiota. Twelve adult (3 to 7 yr of age) spayed Beagle dogs received a low-fat-high-starch diet (LF-HS; approximately 23%, 42%, and 25% ME provided by fat, starch, and CP, respectively) and a high-fat-low-starch diet (HF-LS; approximately 43%, 22%, and 25% ME provided by fat, starch, and CP, respectively) following a 2-period crossover arrangement. The higher amount of fat in the HF-LS diet was provided by lard, whereas the higher amount of starch in the LF-HS diet was provided primarily by maize and broken rice. Each period lasted 7 wk and included 4 wk for diet adaptation. Dogs were fed to meet their daily energy requirements (set at 480 kJ ME/kg BW0.75). Fecal samples were collected on weeks 5 and 6 of each period for the analysis of bacterial richness, diversity, and composition [by Ion-Torrent next-generation sequencing], bile acids, ammonia, and VFA. Additional fecal samples were collected from four dogs per diet and period to use as inocula for in vitro fermentation using xylan and pectin as substrates. Gas production was measured at 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h of incubation. On week 7, blood samples were collected at 0- and 180-min postfeeding for the analysis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Feeding the HF-LS diet led to a greater (P < 0.05) fecal bile acid concentration compared with the LF-HS diet. Bacterial richness and diversity did not differ between diets (P > 0.10). However, dogs showed a lower relative abundance of Prevotella (P < 0.01), Solobacterium (P < 0.05), and Coprobacillus (P ? 0.05) when fed of the HF-LS diet. Fecal ammonia and VFA contents were not affected by diet (P > 0.10). Relative to the LF-HS diet, in vitro fermentation of xylan using feces of dogs fed the HF-LS diet produced less gas at 6 h (P < 0.01) and 9 h (P < 0.05). Blood LPS did not increase at 180-min postfeeding with either diet (P < 0.10). These findings indicate that feeding a HF-LS diet to dogs does not affect bacterial diversity or fermentative end products in feces, but may have a negative impact on Prevotella and xylan fermentation.
Project description:Background:Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been linked to obesity-associated chronic inflammation. Microbiota manipulation may therefore affect obesity-related comorbidities. Blueberries are rich in anthocyanins, which have anti-inflammatory properties and may alter the gut microbiota. Objective:We hypothesized that blueberry supplementation would alter the gut microbiota, reduce systemic inflammation, and improve insulin resistance in high-fat (HF)-diet-fed rats. Methods:Twenty-four male Wistar rats (260-270 g; n = 8/group) were fed low-fat (LF; 10% fat), HF (45% fat), or HF with 10% by weight blueberry powder (HF_BB) diets for 8 wk. LF rats were fed ad libitum, whereas HF and HF_BB rats were pair-fed with diets matched for fiber and sugar contents. Glucose tolerance, microbiota composition (16S ribosomal RNA sequencing), intestinal integrity [villus height, gene expression of mucin 2 (Muc2) and ?-defensin 2 (Defb2)], and inflammation (gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines) were assessed. Results:Blueberry altered microbiota composition with an increase in Gammaproteobacteria abundance (P < 0.001) compared with LF and HF rats. HF feeding led to an ?15% decrease in ileal villus height compared with LF rats (P < 0.05), which was restored by blueberry supplementation. Ileal gene expression of Muc2 was ?150% higher in HF_BB rats compared with HF rats (P < 0.05), with expression in the LF group not being different from that in either the HF or HF_BB groups. Tumor necrosis factor ? (Tnfa) and interleukin 1? (Il1b) gene expression in visceral fat was increased by HF feeding when compared with the LF group (by 300% and 500%, respectively; P < 0.05) and normalized by blueberry supplementation. Finally, blueberry improved markers of insulin sensitivity. Hepatic insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) phosphorylation at serine 307:IRS1 ratio was ?35% higher in HF rats compared with LF rats (P < 0.05) and HF_BB rats. Conclusion:In HF-diet-fed male rats, blueberry supplementation led to compositional changes in the gut microbiota associated with improvements in systemic inflammation and insulin signaling.
Project description:Rapeseed meal (RSM) is an alternative feed ingredient to soybean meal (SBM) in pig diets. However, knowledge on the effect of RSM on gut health, especially in relation to changes in gut microbiota is still limited. In our study, Norwegian Landrace weaner pigs were fed with either a control diet (CON) based on wheat, barley and SBM, or a high-fiber experimental diet where SBM was replaced by RSM (RSF). We found no large differences in the gut microbiota of pigs fed the two diets, suggesting that RSF does not disturb the gut microbiota and the normal gut function. The relative abundance of SCFA-producing phylotypes and colon-health related phylotypes increased in the large intestine of RSF-fed pigs. Among them, Lachnospira and Coprococcus were negatively associated with the presence of neutrophils in the colon wall. The higher abundance of these bacteria in colon of RSF pigs may suggest an anti-inflammatory stimulus effect of the RSF diet. The gut microbiota of RSF-fed pigs was relatively unaltered following episodes of diarrhea suggesting that the RSF diet may promote robustness in weaner pigs and reduce the risk of dysbiosis.
Project description:Agavins consumption has led to accelerated body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated with body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5) or high-fat (HF5) diet for five weeks. Secondly, overweight mice were shifted to standard diet alone (HF-ST10) or supplemented with agavins (HF-ST + A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST + O10), for five more weeks. Cecal contents were collected before and after supplementation to determine microbiota and SCFA concentrations. At the end of first phase, HF5 mice showed a significant increase of body weight, which was associated with reduction of cecal microbiota diversity (PD whole tree; non-parametric t test, p < 0.05), increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and reduced SCFA concentrations (t test, p < 0.05). After diet shifting, HF-ST10 normalized its microbiota, increased its diversity, and SCFA levels, whereas agavins (HF-ST + A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST + O10) led to partial microbiota restoration, with normalization of the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio, as well as higher SCFA levels (p < 0.1). Moreover, agavins noticeably enriched Klebsiella and Citrobacter (LDA > 3.0); this enrichment has not been reported previously under a prebiotic treatment. In conclusion, agavins or oligofructose modulated cecal microbiota composition, reduced the extent of diversity, and increased SCFA. Furthermore, identification of bacteria enriched by agavins opens opportunities to explore new probiotics.