Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain SO3 (Sequence Type 302) Isolated from a Baby with Meningitis in Mexico.
ABSTRACT: The complete genome of ITALIC! Salmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium strain SO3 (sequence type 302), isolated from a fatal meningitis infection in Mexico, was determined using PacBio technology. The chromosome hosts six complete prophages and is predicted to harbor 51 genomic islands, including 13 pathogenicity islands (SPIs). It carries the ITALIC! Salmonellavirulence plasmid (pSTV).
Project description:The complete genome ofSalmonella entericasubsp.entericaserovar Typhimurium sequence type 19 (ST19) strain YU15, isolated in Yucatán, Mexico, from a human baby stool culture, was determined using PacBio technology. The chromosome contains five intact prophages and theSalmonellagenomic island 1 (SGI1). This strain carries theSalmonellavirulence plasmid pSTV.
Project description:Sulfur trioxide (SO3) is a crucial compound for atmospheric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) formation, acid rain formation, and other atmospheric physicochemical processes. During the daytime, SO3 is mainly produced from the photo-oxidation of SO2 by OH radicals. However, the sources of SO3 during the early morning and night, when OH radicals are scarce, are not fully understood. We report results from two field measurements in urban Beijing during winter and summer 2019, using a nitrate-CI-APi-LTOF (chemical ionization-atmospheric pressure interface-long-time-of-flight) mass spectrometer to detect atmospheric SO3 and H2SO4. Our results show the level of SO3 was higher during the winter than during the summer, with high SO3 levels observed especially during the early morning (?05:00 to ?08:30) and night (?18:00 to ?05:00 the next day). On the basis of analysis of SO2, NO x , black carbon, traffic flow, and atmospheric ions, we suggest SO3 could be formed from the catalytic oxidation of SO2 on the surface of traffic-related black carbon. This previously unidentified SO3 source results in significant H2SO4 formation in the early morning and thus promotes sub-2.5 nm particle formation. These findings will help in understanding urban SO3 and formulating policies to mitigate secondary particle formation in Chinese megacities.
Project description:Despite the high abundance in the atmosphere, alcohols in general and methanol in particular are believed to play a small role in atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) largely due to the weak binding abilities of alcohols with the major nucleation precursors, e.g., sulfuric acid (SA) and dimethylamine (DMA). Herein, we identify a catalytic reaction that was previously overlooked, namely, the reaction between methanol and SO3, catalyzed by SA, DMA, or water. We found that alcohols can have unexpected quenching effects on the NPF process, particularly in dry and highly polluted regions with high concentrations of alcohols. Specifically, the catalytic reaction between methanol and SO3 can convert methanol into a less-volatile species--methyl hydrogen sulfate (MHS). The latter was initially thought to be a good nucleation agent for NPF. However, our simulation results suggest that the formation of MHS consumes an appreciable amount of atmospheric SO3, disfavoring further reactions of SO3 with H2O. Indeed, we found that MHS formation can cause a reduction of SA concentration up to 87%, whereas the nucleation ability of MHS toward new particles is not as good as that of SA. Hence, a high abundance of methanol in the atmosphere can lower the particle nucleation rate by as much as two orders of magnitude. Such a quenching effect suggests that the recently identified catalytic reactions between alcohols and SO3 need to be considered in atmospheric modeling in order to predict SA concentration from SO2, while also account for their potentially negative effect on NPF.
Project description:Strains of Staphylococcus aureus, an important human pathogen, display up to 20% variability in their genome sequence, and most sequence information is available for human clinical isolates that have not been subjected to genetic analysis of virulence attributes. S. aureus strain Newman, which was also isolated from a human infection, displays robust virulence properties in animal models of disease and has already been extensively analyzed for its molecular traits of staphylococcal pathogenesis. We report here the complete genome sequence of S. aureus Newman, which carries four integrated prophages, as well as two large pathogenicity islands. In agreement with the view that S. aureus Newman prophages contribute important properties to pathogenesis, fewer virulence factors are found outside of the prophages than for the highly virulent strain MW2. The absence of drug resistance genes reflects the general antibiotic-susceptible phenotype of S. aureus Newman. Phylogenetic analyses reveal clonal relationships between the staphylococcal strains Newman, COL, NCTC8325, and USA300 and a greater evolutionary distance to strains MRSA252, MW2, MSSA476, N315, Mu50, JH1, JH9, and RF122. However, polymorphism analysis of two large pathogenicity islands distributed among these strains shows that the two islands were acquired independently from the evolutionary pathway of the chromosomal backbones of staphylococcal genomes. Prophages and pathogenicity islands play central roles in S. aureus virulence and evolution.
Project description:The complete genome sequence ofSalmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium strain SO2, isolated from an asymptomatic child in Mexico, was determined using PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. Strain SO2 has six complete chromosomal prophages, namely, ST104, Gifsy-2, ST64B, Gifsy-1, ELPhiS, and FSL SP-004, and carries aSalmonellavirulence plasmid.
Project description:ITALIC! Bacillus cereusis an opportunistic foodborne pathogen. The phage vB_BceS-MY192 was isolated from ITALIC! B. cereus192 in a cooked rice sample. The temperate phage belongs to the ITALIC! Siphoviridaefamily, ITALIC! Caudoviralesorder. Here we announce the phage genome sequence and its annotation, which may expand the understanding of ITALIC! B. cereussiphophages.
Project description:We present the draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae InDRE 3140 recovered in 2013 during a cholera outbreak in Mexico. The genome showed the Vibrio 7th pandemic islands VSP1 and VSP2, the pathogenic islands VPI-1 and VPI-2, the integrative and conjugative element SXT/R391 (ICE-SXT), and both prophages CTX? and RS1?.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis ?6 is a genome-reduced strain that was cured from six prophages and AT-rich islands. This strain is of great interest for biotechnological applications. Here, we announce the full-genome sequence of this strain. Interestingly, the conjugative element ICEBs1 has most likely undergone self-excision in B. subtilis ?6.
Project description:The Columnea latent viroid (CLV) occurs latently in certain Columnea erythrophae plants grown commercially. In potato and tomato, CLV causes potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV)-like symptoms. Its nucleotide sequence and proposed secondary structure reveal that CLV consists of a single-stranded circular RNA of 370 nucleotides which can assume a rod-like structure with extensive base-pairing characteristic of all known viroids. The electrophoretic mobility of circular CLV under nondenaturing conditions suggests a potential tertiary structure. CLV contains extensive sequence homologies to the PSTV group of viroids but contains a central conserved region identical to that of hop stunt viroid (HSV). CLV also shares some biological properties with each of the two types of viroids. Most probably, CLV is the result of intracellular RNA recombination between an HSV-type and one or more PSTV-type viroids replicating in the same plant.
Project description:ITALIC! Rickettsia raoultiiis a tick-associated spotted fever group (SFG) organism, causing scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after tick bite (SENLAT) in humans. We report here the genome sequence of ITALIC! R. raoultiistrain Khabarovsk(T)(CSUR R3(T), ATCC VR-1596(T)), which was isolated from a ITALIC! Dermacentor silvarumtick collected in Russia.