Relationship of optimism and suicidal ideation in three groups of patients at varying levels of suicide risk.
ABSTRACT: Optimism has been associated with reduced suicidal ideation, but there have been few studies in patients at high suicide risk. We analyzed data from three study populations (total N = 319) with elevated risk of suicide: (1) patients with a recent acute cardiovascular event, (2) patients hospitalized for heart disease who had depression or an anxiety disorder, and (3) patients psychiatrically hospitalized for suicidal ideation or following a suicide attempt. For each study we analyzed the association between optimism (measured by the Life-Orientation Test-Revised) and suicidal ideation, and then completed an exploratory random effects meta-analysis of the findings to synthesize this data. The meta-analysis of the three studies showed that higher levels of self-reported optimism were associated with a lower likelihood of suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] = .89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .85-.95, z = 3.94, p < .001), independent of age, gender, and depressive symptoms. This association held when using the subscales of the Life Orientation Test-Revised scale that measured higher optimism (OR = .84, 95% CI = .76-.92, z = 3.57, p < .001) and lower pessimism (OR = .83, 95% CI = .75-.92], z = 3.61, p < .001). These results also held when suicidal ideation was analyzed as an ordinal variable. Our findings suggest that optimism may be associated with a lower risk of suicidal ideation, above and beyond the effects of depressive symptoms, for a wide range of patients with clinical conditions that place them at elevated risk for suicide.
Project description:Positive psychological constructs have been associated with reduced suicidal ideation, and interventions to cultivate positive feelings have the potential to reduce suicide risk. This study compares the efficacy of a 6-week, telephone-based positive psychology (PP) intervention against a cognition-focused (CF) control intervention among patients recently hospitalized for depression and suicidal ideation or behavior.A total of 65 adults with a current major depressive episode reporting suicidal ideation or a recent suicide attempt were enrolled from participating in-patient psychiatric units. Prior to discharge, participants were randomized to the PP (n = 32) or CF (n = 33) intervention. In both interventions, participants received a treatment manual, performed weekly PP (e.g. gratitude letter) or CF (e.g. recalling daily events) exercises, and completed weekly one-on-one telephone sessions over 6 weeks. Between-group differences in hopelessness (primary outcome), depression, suicidality and positive psychological constructs at 6 and 12 weeks were tested using mixed-effects models accounting for intensity of post-hospitalization psychiatric treatment.Compared with PP, the CF intervention was associated with significantly greater improvements in hopelessness at 6 weeks (β = -3.15, 95% confidence interval -6.18 to -0.12, effect size = -0.84, p = 0.04), but not 12 weeks. Similarly, the CF intervention led to greater improvements in depression, suicidal ideation, optimism and gratitude at 6 and 12 weeks.Contrary to our hypothesis, the CF intervention was superior to PP in improving hopelessness, other suicide risk factors and positive psychological constructs during a key post-discharge period among suicidal patients with depression. Further study of this CF intervention is warranted in populations at high suicide risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Suicide remains poorly understood and unpredictable. Addressing this challenge, this study examined the independent contributions of several research domain criteria (RDoC) constructs in relation to suicidality in patients hospitalized for acute suicide risk. Specifically, we examined anhedonia, anxiety/entrapment, and attachment disturbances, reflecting disturbances in reward processes, negative valence systems, and social processes, respectively. METHODS:Anhedonia, anxiety, entrapment, and fearful attachment, were assessed quantitatively in 135 adults hospitalized for suicidality. Current suicidality and suicidal history were assessed with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Bivariate analyses (with significance threshold of p<.01 to account for multiple comparisons) and multivariate models examined relationships between symptom dimensions and severity of suicidal ideation (SI). We also assessed differences between patients with a history of suicide attempt and those who exhibited only suicidal ideations. RESULTS:Using bivariate analyses all symptoms except for fearful attachment correlated robustly with SI (r =.37-0.50, p<.001). However, when using multivariate analyses, only anhedonia (?=.28, p=.01) and entrapment (?=.19, p=.03) were independently associated with SI across the entire sample. No functional domain measures differed between patients with history of suicide attempt versus ideation only. LIMITATIONS:The reliance on self-report data and a cross-sectional design. CONCLUSIONS:Disturbances in reward and threat processing may represent independent factors in the development of suicidal ideation in this high suicide risk cohort. Future studies should assess their role as risk factors.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Suicide is a global public health concern. To inform the prevention and treatment of suicidality, it is crucial to identify transdiagnostic vulnerability factors for suicide and suicide-related conditions. One candidate factor is anxiety sensitivity (AS)-the fear of anxiety-related sensations-which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a host of mental health outcomes, including suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Importantly, AS is distinct from trait anxiety and negative affectivity, highlighting its potential incremental utility in the understanding of psychopathology. Despite a burgeoning body of literature demonstrating that AS is linked to suicidal thoughts and behaviors, this research has yet to be synthesized. METHOD:This meta-analysis includes 33 articles representing 34 nonredundant samples (N = 14,002) that examined at least one relationship between AS global or subfactor (i.e., cognitive, physical, social) scores and suicidal ideation and/or suicide risk. RESULTS:Findings revealed small-to-moderate and moderate associations between global AS and suicidal ideation (r = .24, 95% confidence interval (CI): [.21, .26], p < .001) and suicide risk (r = .35, 95% CI [.31, .38], p < .001), respectively. All AS subfactors evinced significant associations with suicidal ideation (rs = .13-.24) and suicide risk (rs = .22-.32). CONCLUSIONS:AS is related to suicidal ideation and global suicide risk. Research is needed to disentangle AS from other indices of distress in the prediction of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:Suicide is a leading cause of maternal death globally, and suicide prevalence rates have been shown to be increased in those with migraine. No previous study has examined the association between migraine and suicidal ideation during pregnancy.To examine the association between migraine and suicidal ideation among a cohort of pregnant women.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3372 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Suicidal ideation and depression were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale during early pregnancy. Migraine classification (including migraine and probable migraine) was based on International Classification of Headache Disorders-III beta criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).Suicidal ideation was more common among those with migraine (25.6%) as compared to those with probable migraine (22.1%, P?<?.001) or non-migraineurs (12.3%, P?<?.001). After adjusting for confounders, including depression, those with migraine or probable migraine had a 78% increased odds of suicidal ideation (OR?=?1.78; 95% CI: 1.46-2.17), as compared with non-migraineurs. Women with both migraine and depression had a 4.14-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (OR?=?4.14; 95% CI: 3.17-5.42) compared to those with neither condition.Migraine is associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation in pregnant women even when controlling for depression. These findings support the consideration of screening women with comorbid migraine and depression for suicidal behavior during pregnancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Suicide death rates in Australia are higher in rural than urban communities however the contributors to this difference remain unclear. Geographical differences in suicidal ideation and attempts were explored using two datasets encompassing urban and rural community residents to examine associations between socioeconomic, demographic and mental health factors. Differing patterns of association between psychiatric disorder and suicidal ideation and attempts as geographical remoteness increased were investigated. METHODS: Parallel cross-sectional analyses were undertaken using data from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (2007-NSMHWB, n = 8,463), under-representative of remote and very remote residents, and selected participants from the Australian Rural Mental Health Study (ARMHS, n = 634), over-representative of remote and very remote residents. Uniform measures of suicidal ideation and attempts and mental disorder using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-3.0) were used in both datasets. Geographic region was classified into major cities, inner regional and other. A series of logistic regressions were undertaken for the outcomes of 12-month and lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts, adjusting for age, gender and psychological distress. A sub-analysis of the ARMHS sample was undertaken with additional variables not available in the 2007-NSMHWB dataset. RESULTS: Rates and determinants of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts across geographical region were similar. Psychiatric disorder was the main determinant of 12-month and lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts across all geographical regions. For lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, marital status, employment status, perceived financial adversity and mental health service use were also important determinants. In the ARMHS sub-analysis, higher optimism and better perceived infrastructure and service accessibility tended to be associated with a lower likelihood of lifetime suicidal ideation, when age, gender, psychological distress, marital status and mental health service use were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: Rates and determinants of suicidal ideation and attempts did not differ according to geographical location. Psychiatric disorder, current distress, employment and financial adversity remain important factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempts across all regions in Australia. Regional characteristics that influence availability of services and lower personal optimism may also be associated with suicidal ideation in rural communities.
Project description:AIMS:Several authors claimed that expression of suicidal ideation is one of the most important predictors of completed suicide. However, the strength of the association between suicidal ideation and subsequent completed suicide has not been firmly established in different populations. Furthermore, the absolute suicide risk after expression of suicidal ideation is unknown. In this meta-analysis, we examined whether the expression of suicidal ideation predicted subsequent completed suicide in various populations, including both psychiatric and non-psychiatric populations. METHODS:A meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies that assessed suicidal ideation as determinant for completed suicide in adults. Two independent reviewers screened 5726 articles for eligibility and extracted data of the 81 included studies. Pooled risk ratios were estimated in a random effects model stratified for different populations. Meta-regression analysis was used to determine suicide risk during the first year of follow-up. RESULTS:The risk for completed suicide was clearly higher in people who had expressed suicidal ideation compared with people who had not, with substantial variation between the different populations: risk ratio ranging from 2.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-3.87) in affective disorder populations to 8.00 (95% CI 5.46-11.7) in non-psychiatric populations. In contrast, the suicide risk after expression of suicidal ideation in the first year of follow-up was higher in psychiatric patients (risk 1.40%, 95% CI 0.74-2.64) than in non-psychiatric participants (risk 0.23%, 95% CI 0.10-0.54). Past suicide attempt-adjusted risk ratios were not pooled due to large underreporting. CONCLUSIONS:Assessment of suicidal ideation is of priority in psychiatric patients. Expression of suicidal ideation in psychiatric patients should prompt secondary prevention strategies to reduce their substantial increased risk of suicide.
Project description:Middle-aged and older adults constitute a high suicide-risk group. Among adults aged 50 years old and older, suicide rates increased and suicide deaths almost doubled during the period from 2000 to 2015. Suicide rates are elevated for patients hospitalized for suicidality (i.e., active suicidal ideation or suicide attempt) and the 3 months post-hospitalization is the time of the highest suicide risk. Psychosocial interventions for middle-aged and older adults hospitalized for suicidality are sparse. In this article, we present the main aspects, stages, techniques and a clinical case study of Cognitive Reappraisal Intervention for Suicide Prevention (CRISP), a psychosocial intervention targeting cognitive reappraisal to reduce suicide risk in middle-aged and older adults who have been recently hospitalized for suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. CRISP is based on the theory that hospitalization for suicidality is preceded by an emotional crisis ("perfect storm"); this emotional crisis is related to personalized (patient- and situation-specific) triggers; and identifying these personalized triggers and the associated negative emotions and providing strategies for an adaptive response to these triggers and negative emotions will reduce suicidal ideation and improve suicide prevention. CRISP therapists identify these triggers of negative emotions and use cognitive reappraisal techniques to reduce these negative emotions. The cognitive reappraisal techniques have been selected from different psychosocial interventions and the affective neuroscience literature and have been simplified for use with middle-aged and older adults. CRISP may fill a treatment need for the post-discharge high-risk period for middle-aged and older adults hospitalized for suicidality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A limited number of studies have examined the differences in suicide-related social media use behaviors between suicide ideators and suicide attempters or have sought to elucidate how these social media usage behaviors contributed to the transition from suicidal ideation to suicide attempt. OBJECTIVE:Suicide attempts can be acquired through suicide-related social media use behaviors. This study aimed to propose 3 suicide-related social media use behaviors (ie, attending to suicide information, commenting on or reposting suicide information, or talking about suicide) based on social cognitive theory, which proposes that successive processes governing behavior transition include attentional, retention, production, and motivational processes. METHODS:We aimed to examine the mediating role of suicide-related social media use behaviors in Chinese social media users with suicidal risks. A sample of 569 Chinese social media users with suicidal ideation completed measures on suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide-related social media use behaviors. RESULTS:The results demonstrated that suicide attempters showed a significantly higher level of suicidal ideation (t563.64=5.04; P<.001; two-tailed) and more suicide-related social media use behaviors, which included attending to suicide information (t567=1.94; P=.05; two-tailed), commenting on or reposting suicide information (t567=2.12; P=.03; two-tailed), or talking about suicide (t542.22=5.12; P<.001; two-tailed). Suicidal ideation also affected suicide attempts through the mediational chains. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings thus support the social cognitive theory, and there are implications for population-based suicide prevention that can be achieved by identifying behavioral signals.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The authors report on a pilot study of an inpatient intervention for suicidal adolescents, As Safe as Possible (ASAP), supported by a smartphone app (BRITE) to reduce suicide attempts following hospital discharge. METHOD:Across two sites, 66 adolescents hospitalized for suicidal ideation (N=26) or a recent suicide attempt (N=40) were randomly assigned to the ASAP intervention program plus treatment as usual or to treatment as usual alone. ASAP, which focuses on emotion regulation and safety planning, is a 3-hour intervention delivered on the inpatient unit. The BRITE app prompted participants to rate their level of emotional distress on a daily basis and provided personalized strategies for emotion regulation and safety planning. A blind, independent evaluator assessed suicide attempts following hospital discharge and suicidal ideation at 4, 12, and 24 weeks after discharge. RESULTS:The ASAP intervention did not have a statistically significant effect on suicide attempt, although findings were in the hypothesized direction for occurrence of an attempt (16% compared with 31%; ?2=1.86, df=1, g=-0.36) and time to an attempt (hazard ratio=0.49, 95% CI=0.16, 1.47). Past history of a suicide attempt was a significant moderator of treatment outcome, with a stronger, albeit nonsignificant, effect of the ASAP intervention among participants with a history of suicide attempt (hazard ratio=0.23, 95% CI=0.05, 1.09). There were no treatment effects on suicidal ideation. The majority of participants (70%) used the BRITE app (median usage, 19 times). Participants reported high satisfaction with both the intervention and the app. CONCLUSIONS:The ASAP intervention program shows promise in reducing the incidence of postdischarge suicide attempts among adolescents hospitalized for suicidality and merits further study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Past research suggests self-harm/suicidality are more common among adults who have undergone bariatric surgery than the general population. OBJECTIVES:To compare prevalence of self-harm/suicidal ideation over time and identify presurgery risk factors for postsurgery self-harm/suicidal ideation. SETTING:The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is a cohort study with presurgery and annual postsurgery assessments conducted at 10 U.S. hospitals. METHODS:Adults with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery between March 2006 and April 2009 (n?=?2458). Five-year follow-up is reported. Self-reported history of suicidality assessed retrospectively via the Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) and self-reported self-harm/suicidal ideation assessed prospectively via the Beck Depression Inventory-Version 1 (BDI-1). RESULTS:The SBQ-R was completed by 1540 participants; 2217 completed the BDI-1 pre- and postsurgery. Over 75% of participants were female, with a median age of 46 years and body mass index of 45.9 kg/m2. Approximately one fourth of participants (395/1534) reported a presurgery history of suicidal thoughts or behavior (SBQ-R). The prevalence of self-harm/suicidal ideation (BDI-1) was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-6.8) presurgery and 3.8% (95% CI, 2.5-5.1) at year 1 postsurgery (P?=?.06). Prevalence increased over time postsurgery to 6.6% (95% CI, 4.6-8.6) at year 5 (P?=?.001) but was not significantly different than presurgery (P?=?.12). CONCLUSIONS:A large cohort of adults with severe obesity who underwent bariatric surgery had a prevalence of self-harm/suicidal ideation that may have decreased in the first postoperative year but increased over time to presurgery levels, suggesting screening for self-harm/suicidality is warranted throughout long-term postoperative care. Several risk factors were identified that may help with enhanced monitoring.