A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing: Cessation Induction Among Smokers With Low Desire to Quit.
ABSTRACT: Despite limitations in evidence, the current Clinical Practice Guideline advocates Motivational Interviewing for smokers not ready to quit. This study evaluated the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing for inducing cessation-related behaviors among smokers with low motivation to quit.Randomized clinical trial.Two-hundred fifty-five daily smokers reporting low desire to quit smoking were recruited from an urban community during 2010-2011 and randomly assigned to Motivational Interviewing, health education, or brief advice using a 2:2:1 allocation. Data were analyzed from 2012 to 2014.Four sessions of Motivational Interviewing utilized a patient-centered communication style that explored patients' own reasons for change. Four sessions of health education provided education related to smoking cessation while excluding elements characteristic of Motivational Interviewing. A single session of brief advice consisted of brief, personalized advice to quit.Self-reported quit attempts; smoking abstinence (biochemically verified); use of cessation pharmacotherapies; motivation; and confidence to quit were assessed at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-ups.Unexpectedly, no significant differences emerged between groups in the proportion who made a quit attempt by 6-month follow-up (Motivational Interviewing, 52.0%; health education, 60.8%; brief advice, 45.1%; p=0.157). Health education had significantly higher biochemically verified abstinence rates at 6 months (7.8%) than brief advice (0.0%) (8% risk difference, 95% CI=3%, 13%, p=0.003), with the Motivational Interviewing group falling in between (2.9% abstinent, 3% risk difference, 95% CI=0%, 6%, p=0.079). Both Motivational Interviewing and health education groups showed greater increases in cessation medication use, motivation, and confidence to quit relative to brief advice (all p<0.05), and health education showed greater increases in motivation relative to Motivational Interviewing (Cohen's d=0.36, 95% CI=0.12, 0.60).Although Motivational Interviewing was generally more efficacious than brief advice in inducing cessation behaviors, health education appeared the most efficacious. These results highlight the need to identify the contexts in which Motivational Interviewing may be most efficacious and question recommendations to use Motivational Interviewing rather than other less complex cessation induction interventions.This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01188018.
Project description:Although the current Clinical Practice Guideline recommend Motivational Interviewing for use with smokers not ready to quit, the strength of evidence for its use is rated as not optimal. The purpose of the present study is to address key methodological limitations of previous studies by ensuring fidelity in the delivery of the Motivational Interviewing intervention, using an attention-matched control condition, and focusing on unmotivated smokers whom meta-analyses have indicated may benefit most from Motivational Interviewing. It is hypothesized that MI will be more effective at inducing quit attempts and smoking cessation at 6-month follow-up than brief advice to quit and an intensity-matched health education condition.A sample of adult community resident smokers (N = 255) who report low motivation and readiness to quit are being randomized using a 2:2:1 treatment allocation to Motivational Interviewing, Health Education, or Brief Advice. Over 6 months, participants in Motivational Interviewing and Health Education receive 4 individual counseling sessions and participants in Brief Advice receive one brief in-person individual session at baseline. Rigorous monitoring and independent verification of fidelity will assure the counseling approaches are distinct and delivered as planned. Participants complete surveys at baseline, week 12 and 6-month follow-up to assess demographics, smoking characteristics, and smoking outcomes. Participants who decide to quit are provided with a self-help guide to quitting, help with a quit plan, and free pharmacotherapy. The primary outcome is self-report of one or more quit attempts lasting at least 24 hours between randomization and 6-month follow-up. The secondary outcome is biochemically confirmed 7-day point prevalence cessation at 6-month follow-up. Hypothesized mediators of the presumed treatment effect on quit attempts are greater perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation. Use of pharmacotherapy is a hypothesized mediator of Motivational Interviewing's effect on cessation.This trial will provide the most rigorous evaluation to date of Motivational Interviewing's efficacy for encouraging unmotivated smokers to make a quit attempt. It will also provide effect-size estimates of MI's impact on smoking cessation to inform future clinical trials and inform the Clinical Practice Guideline.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01188018.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Executive function (EF) is considered an important mediator of health outcomes. It is hypothesized that those with better EF are more likely to succeed in turning their intentions into actual health behaviors. Prior studies indicate EF is associated with smoking cessation. Experimental and longitudinal studies, however, have yielded mixed results. Few studies have examined whether EF predicts post-treatment smoking behavior. Fewer still have done so prospectively in a large trial. We sought to determine if EF predicts quit attempts and cessation among community smokers in a large randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of motivational interventions for encouraging cessation. METHODS:Participants (N=255) completed a baseline assessment that included a cognitive battery to assess EF (Oral Trail Making Test B, Stroop, Controlled Oral Word Association Test). Participants were then randomized to 4 sessions of Motivational Interviewing or Health Education or one session of Brief Advice to quit. Quit attempts and cessation were assessed at weeks 12 and 26. RESULTS:In regression analyses, none of the EF measures were statistically significant predictors of quit attempts or cessation (all ps>0.20). CONCLUSIONS:Our data did not support models of health behavior that emphasize EF as a mediator of health outcomes. Methodological shortcomings weaken the existing support for an association between EF and smoking behavior. We suggest methodological improvements that could help move this potentially important area of research forward.
Project description:Background:Nearly 275 million individuals in India consume tobacco every day, with more than 1 million dying annually as a result. Few people in India have access to smoking cessation services, an essential component of combating tobacco use globally. We hypothesize that a strategy of systematic community health worker (CHW) based counseling that covers eligible people who smoke in a geographical area, combined with text messaging support, will result in improved quit rates. Methods:The study is a cluster randomized controlled trial that will be conducted at 2 sites in India. Sixteen clusters will be randomized into either an intervention or control arm. A total of 560 smokers between the age of 18 and 70 will be recruited from their home through CHWs. Smokers at all stages of change will be offered the intervention, which is based on the transtheoretical model of change. Results:Pre-contemplative participants will be offered health education and motivational interviewing through CHWs. They will also be offered a low frequency form of text messaging, focused on health education and the benefits of quitting. Participants who are actively contemplating quitting smoking will be offered a more intensive intervention, with more frequent visits by CHWs and more intensive text messaging support. Contemplative participants will be encouraged to set a quit date, and all participants will be assessed periodically for stage of change to provide the appropriate intervention. Participants who set a quit date will be encouraged to use NRT to help with quitting. Control group participants are provided with brief smoking cessation advice only, at the start of the trial. The primary outcome will be self-reported abstinence for the past 14 days, biochemically verified by exhaled CO levels (cut-off 10 ppm) assessed at the end of 1 year of the intervention. Conclusions:We will test whether a CHW-based intervention that incorporates motivational interviewing, text messaging and supportive counseling can prove effective in systematically helping smokers quit.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Motivational Interviewing (MI), Brief Advice (BA) and Health Education (HE) are established smoking cessation induction methods for smokers with low desire to quit. Although randomized controlled trials (RCT's) have been frequently used to assess these interventions the temporal efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions have been poorly elaborated. The present work endeavors to fill the gap by considering the full range of possible motivational outcomes for all of the participants. METHODS:As a two-step process, Markov Chain (MC) and Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) models were successively employed to examine the temporal efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions by computing the gradual movements of participants from an initial stage of unmotivated smoker to stages of increased motivation to quit and cessation. Specifically, in our re-analysis of data from the RCT we examined the proportion of participants in 4 stages of readiness to quit (unmotivated, undecided, motivated, former smokers) over 6 months, across treatment groups [MI (n?=?87), BA (n?=?43) and HE (n?=?91)]. RESULTS:Although HE had greater efficacy compared to MI and BA (i.e., the highest smoking cessation rates), it had lower effectiveness at certain time points. This was due to the fact that HE had the greatest proportion of motivated smokers who quit smoking but simultaneously a large proportion of the motivated smokers became unmotivated to quit. The effectiveness of HE dropped substantially in weeks 3-12 and remained below the effectiveness of BA from week 12 onward. The 2-year ODE model projections show that the prevalence of motivated smokers in HE group may fall below 5%. The prevalence of HE former smokers can reach an equilibrium of 26%, where the prevalence of both BA and MI former smokers exceeds this equilibrium. CONCLUSIONS:The methodology proposed in this paper strongly benefits from the capabilities of both MC and ODE modeling approaches, in the event of low observations over the time. Particularly, the temporal population sizes are first estimated by the MC model. Then they are used to parametrize the ODE model and predict future values. The methodology enabes us to determine and compare the temporal efficacy and effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions, yielding predictive and analytic insights related to temporal characteristics and capabilities of these interventions during the study period and beyond. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Testing Counseling Styles to Motivate Smokers to Quit, NCT01188018 , (July 4, 2012). This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01188018.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Tobacco use disorder is critical among people aged 16 to 25 years. College campuses are prime locations for smoking cessation interventions for young adults. The vast majority of the smoking research with college students has been epidemiological in nature. This study examined a novel motivational interviewing intervention designed for college students, and explored predictors of smoking behavior change. METHODS:A quasi-experimental one group pretest-posttest design with repeated measures was used to evaluate a novel text message-based brief motivational interviewing intervention. The data were collected from undergraduate students (N=33) who smoked cigarettes in Fall 2015. RESULTS:Students' level of autonomy and relatedness needs satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and smoking cessation self-efficacy increased (p < 0.05), and their rate of daily smoking declined (p <0 .05) over time. However, competence need satisfaction, readiness to quit smoking and severity of nicotine addiction remained unchanged. Smoking cessation self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of smoking behavior change in college students. CONCLUSIONS:This study adds to the knowledge on smoking behavior among college students. Preliminary evidence indicates that text message-based motivational interviewing and smoking cessation self-efficacy may help guide successful smoking behavior interventions for college students.
Project description:To assess the effects of adding motivational interviewing (MI) counseling to nicotine patch for smoking cessation among homeless smokers.Two-group randomized controlled trial with 26-week follow-up.A total of 430 homeless smokers from emergency shelters and transitional housing units in Minneapolis/St Paul, Minnesota, USA.All participants received 8-week treatment of 21-mg nicotine patch. In addition, participants in the intervention group received six individual sessions of MI counseling which aimed to increase adherence to nicotine patches and to motivate cessation. Participants in the standard care control group received one session of brief advice to quit smoking. Primary outcome was 7-day abstinence from cigarette smoking at 26 weeks, as validated by exhaled carbon monoxide and salivary cotinine.Using intention-to-treat analysis, verified 7-day abstinence rate at week 26 for the intervention group was non-significantly higher than for the control group (9.3% versus 5.6%, P?=?0.15). Among participants who did not quit smoking, reduction in number of cigarettes from baseline to week 26 was equally high in both study groups (-13.7?±?11.9 for MI versus -13.5?±?16.2 for standard care).Adding motivational interviewing counseling to nicotine patch did not increase smoking rate significantly at 26-week follow-up for homeless smokers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The recent development of smoking cessation interventions for smokers with chronic diseases has focused heavily on brief interventions. However, these interventions are too brief to make an impact on these smokers, especially when most of them are without any intention to quit. Previous studies showed that smokers who did not want to quit might be interested in changing other health behaviours. Also, once people engage in a health behaviour, they are found more likely to change other unhealthy habits. Hence, a general health promotion approach could be a feasible approach to motivate smokers who do not want to quit to first engage in any desirable health behaviour, and later quit smoking when they intend to do so. This study aims to determine the potential efficacy and effect size of such intervention approach in promoting smoking cessation for smokers with chronic diseases. METHODS:This is a randomized controlled trial. A convenience sample of 60 smokers with chronic diseases will be randomly assigned into either experimental (n?=?30) or control group (n?=?30). Smokers in the experimental group will receive an individual face-to-face brief motivational interviewing (MI) with generic advice on selected health behaviour. More brief MI messages will be delivered to them via WhatsApp/WeChat for 6?months. For subject in the control group, they will be asked to indicate their desirable health-related practice. However, no MI and booster interventions will be given. All subjects will complete a questionnaire at 1, 3, 6 and 12?months. Subjects abstinent from cigarettes at 12?months will perform a biochemical validation. The primary outcome is biochemically validated smoking abstinence at 12?months. Effect size of the intervention will be estimated by the odd ratios using intention-to-treat. DISCUSSION:This is the first study to determine the potential efficacy for the use of a personalized general health promotion approach in promoting smoking cessation for smokers with chronic diseases. If our proposed intervention is effective, we will able to assist smokers with chronic disease to quit smoking and change their health behaviour simultaneously. TRIAL REGISTRATION:CinicalTrials.gov NCT03983330 (Prospectively registered), registered on June 12, 2019.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Adherence to smoking cessation treatment is generally low, especially among socio-economically disadvantaged groups including individuals experiencing homelessness and those with mental illnesses. Despite the high smoking rates in homeless populations (~70%) no study to date has systematically examined predictors of adherence to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in this population. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this secondary analysis was to identify predictors of adherence to NRT in a smoking cessation trial conducted among homeless smokers. METHODS:Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial enrolling 430 persons who were homeless and current cigarette smokers. Participants were assigned to one of the two study conditions to enhance smoking cessation: Motivational Interviewing (MI; 6 sessions of MI + 8 weeks of NRT) or Standard Care (Brief advice to quit+ 8 weeks of NRT). The primary outcome for the current analysis was adherence to NRT at end of treatment (8 weeks following randomization). Adherence was defined as a total score of zero on a modified Morisky adherence scale). Demographic and baseline psychosocial, tobacco-related, and substance abuse measures were compared between those who did and did not adhere to NRT. RESULTS:After adjusting for confounders, smokers who were depressed at baseline (OR=0.58, 95% CI, 0.38-0.87, p=0.01), had lower confidence to quit (OR=1.10, 95% CI, 1.01-1.19, p=0.04), were less motivated to adhere (OR=1.04, 95% CI, 1.00-1.07, p=0.04), and were less likely to be adherent to NRT. Further, age of initial smoking was positively associated with adherence status (OR= 0.83, 95% CI, 0.69-0.99, p=0.04). CONCLUSION:These results suggest that smoking cessation programs conducted in this population may target increased adherence to NRT by addressing both depression and motivation to quit. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00786149.
Project description:Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable illness and mortality in the United States. Individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have smoking rates higher than that of others and fewer individuals with PTSD have quit smoking. This randomized controlled trial was designed to test the effectiveness of integrating telehealth care management and smoking cessation with motivational interviewing for Veterans with PTSD.All smokers with PTSD, regardless of their desire to quit, were invited to participate. Enrollment occurred between November 2009 and April 2013. Target enrollment was 120 participants. Enrolled participants were randomized to either the control group, receiving usual care including a telehealth PTSD program, with a device that delivered PTSD information and in-home care management, or the intervention group, which included (1) a telehealth PTSD program, (2) motivational interviewing-based smoking cessation curricula via the telehealth device, and (3) weekly motivational interviewing counseling phone calls. Outcomes are self-reported 24-hour quit attempts, progression along the stages of change and 7-day point prevalence quit smoking rates for the intervention group compared to usual care alone. Secondary outcomes include participants' perception of care coordination, patient satisfaction with motivational interviewing, PTSD symptoms, pain, depression and quality of life.Motivational interviewing has been shown to increase readiness for change and smoking cessation care has been shown to be more successful when incorporated into in-person mental health care. Our study builds on previous studies. It integrates a written smoking cessation curriculum and phone-based motivational interviewing counseling into an established PTSD home telehealth care coordination program. This paper describes the design and methods of our randomized control trial.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00908882, May 22, 2009.
Project description:Brief clinician delivered advice helps in tobacco cessation efforts. This study assessed the impact of our intervention on instances of advice given to dental patients during visits on tobacco use quit rates 6 months after the intervention.The intervention was cluster randomized trial at the dental practice level. Intervention dental practices were provided a longitudinal technology-assisted intervention, oralcancerprevention.org that included a series of interactive educational cases and motivational email cues to remind dental provides to complete guideline-concordant brief behavioral counseling at the point of care. In all dental practices, exit cards were given to the first 100 consecutive patients, in which tobacco users provided contact information for a six month follow-up telephone survey.A total of 564 tobacco using dental patients completed a six month follow-up survey. Among intervention patients, 55% reported receiving advice to quit tobacco, and 39% of control practice patients reported receiving advice to quit tobacco (p < 0.01). Six-month tobacco use quit rates were not significantly between the Intervention (9%) and Control (13%) groups, (p = 0.088).Although we increased rates of cessation advice delivered in dental practices, this study shows no evidence that brief advice by dentist's increases long-term abstinence in smokers.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00627185.