Gadoxetate Disodium enhanced spectral dual-energy CT for evaluation of cholangiocarcinoma: Preliminary data.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Evaluate Gadoxetate Disodium enhanced dual-energy CT for visualization of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma by exploiting the hepatobiliary uptake of Gadoxetate Disodium and viewing images at the k-edge of gadolinium on the spectrum of simulated monoenergetic energies available with Dual Energy CT. MATERIAL AND METHODS:In this prospective, IRB-approved study in patients with suspected cholangiocarcinoma, subjects who underwent a clinically indicated Gadoxetate Disodium liver MRI were immediately scanned without further IV contrast administration using rapid kVp-switching dual energy CT (rsDECT). Initial Gadoxetate Disodium dose was the FDA approved clinical dose, 0.025 mmol/kg; after additional IRB/FDA approval, 10 subjects were scanned with 0.05 mmol/kg. Both 50 keV and 70 keV simulated monoenergetic images as well as gadolinium(-water) material density images were viewed qualitatively and measured quantitatively for gadolinium uptake in the hepatic parenchyma and any focal lesions identified. RESULTS:Of 18 subjects (mean age 55 years, 10M, 8F, weight 84 kg), eight were scanned with 0.025 mmol/kg (Group 1) and 10 with 0.05 mmol/kg Gadoxetate Disodium (Group 2). Five patients had cholangiocarcinoma (all in Group 1). On synthetic monoenergetic images using standard and double Gadoxetate Disodium dose, the liver parenchyma did not appear enhanced qualitatively. Comparison of mean hepatic parenchymal HU at 50 and 70 keV showed a measurable increase in attenuation at the lower viewing energy, which corresponded to the k-edge of gadolinium. No statistically significant difference was observed on quantitative gadolinium measurement of hepatic parenchyma for single versus double Gadoxetate Disodium dose using rsDECT gadolinium material density images. Of the five cholangiocarcinomas, the tumor to nontumoral hepatic tissue HU differences were 51.1 (32.2) (mean and std dev) and 49.0(26.5) at 50 and 70 keV, respectively. CONCLUSION:In this small pilot population, evaluation of potential hilar/perihilar cholangiocarcinoma using dual energy CT at both the single FDA-approved dose and double dose of gadolinium demonstrated observed differences in attenuation between the hepatic parenchyma and lesions. However, small sample size and heterogeneity of lesions warrants further investigation.
Project description:The objective of this study was to assess the risk of gadoxetate disodium in liver imaging for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment.We performed a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label phase 4 study in 35 centers from May 2009 to July 2013. The study population consisted of patients with moderate to severe renal impairment scheduled for liver imaging with gadoxetate disodium. All patients received a single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025-mmol/kg body weight of liver-specific gadoxetate disodium. The primary target variable was the number of patients who develop NSF within a 2-year follow-up period.A total of 357 patients were included, with 85 patients with severe and 193 patients with moderate renal impairment, which were the clinically most relevant groups. The mean time period from diagnosis of renal disease to liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was 1.53 and 5.46 years in the moderate and severe renal impairment cohort, respectively. Overall, 101 patients (28%) underwent additional contrast-enhanced MRI with other gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents within 12 months before the start of the study or in the follow-up. No patient developed symptoms conclusive of NSF within the 2-year follow-up.Gadoxetate disodium in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment did not raise any clinically significant safety concern. No NSF cases were observed.
Project description:OATP1B3 is expressed de novo in primary prostate cancer tissue and to a greater degree in prostate cancer metastases. Gadoxetate disodium is a substrate of OATP1B3, and its uptake has been shown to correlate with OATP1B3 expression in other cancers. We aimed to evaluate use of gadoxetate disodium to image prostate cancer and to track its utility as a biomarker. A single center open-label non-randomized pilot study recruited men with (1) localized, and (2) metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI was performed at four timepoints post-injection. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare MRI contrast enhancement ratio (CER) pre-injection and post-injection. OATP1B3 expression was evaluated via immunohistochemistry (IHC) and a pharmacogenomic analysis of OATP1B3, NCTP and OATP1B1 was conducted. The mCRPC subgroup (n?=?9) demonstrated significant enhancement compared to pre-contrast images at 20-, 40- and 60-min timepoints (p?<?0.0078). The localized cancer subgroup (n?=?11) demonstrated earlier enhancement compared to the mCRPC group, but no retention over time (p?>?0.05). OATP1B3 expression on IHC trended higher contrast enhancement between 20-40 min (p???0.064) and was associated with contrast enhancement at 60 min (p?=?0.0422). OATP1B1 haplotype, with N130D and V174A substitutions, impacted enhancement at 40-60 min (p???0.038). mCRPC lesions demonstrate enhancement after injection of gadoxetate disodium on MRI and retention over 60 min. As inter-individual variability in OATP1B3 expression and function has both predictive and prognostic significance, gadoxetate disodium has potential as a biomarker in prostate cancer.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The aim of this study was to assess the objective and subjective image characteristics of monoenergetic images (MEI[+]), using a noise-optimized algorithm at different kiloelectron volts (keV) compared to polyenergetic images (PEI), in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).<h4>Methods</h4>This retrospective, institutional review board-approved study included 45 patients (18 male, 27 female; mean age 66 years; range, 42-96 years) with PDAC who had undergone a dual-energy CT (DECT) of the abdomen for staging. One standard polyenergetic image (PEI) and five MEI(+) images in 10-keV intervals, ranging from 40 to 80 keV, were reconstructed. Line-density profile analysis, as well as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the tumor, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the regular pancreas parenchyma and the tumor, and the CNR of the three main peripancreatic vessels, was calculated. For subjective quality assessment, two readers independently assessed the images using a 5-point Likert scale. Reader reliability was evaluated using an intraclass correlation coefficient.<h4>Results</h4>Line-density profile analysis revealed the largest gradient in attenuation between PDAC and regular tissue in MEI(+) at 40 keV. Low-keV MEI(+)reconstructions at 40 and 50 keV increased CNR and SNR compared to PEI (40 keV: CNR 46.8 vs. 7.5; SNR<sub>Pankreas</sub> 32.5 vs. 15.7; SNR<sub>Lesion</sub> 13.5 vs. 8.6; p?<?0.001). MEI(+) at 40 keV and 50 keV were consistently preferred by the observers (p?<?0.05), showing a high intra-observer 0.937 (0.92-0.95) and inter-observer 0.911 (0.89-0.93) agreement.<h4>Conclusion</h4>MEI(+) reconstructions at 40 keV and 50 keV provide better objective and subjective image quality compared to conventional PEI of DECT in patients with PDAC.<h4>Key points</h4>• Low-keV MEI(+) reconstructions at 40 and 50 keV increase tumor-to-pancreas contrast compared to PEI. • Low-keV MEI(+) reconstructions improve objective and subjective image quality parameters compared to PEI. • Dual-energy post-processing might be a valuable tool in the diagnostic workup of patients with PDAC.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To evaluate the potential value of advanced monoenergetic images (AMEIs) on early gastric cancer (EGC) using dual-energy CT (DECT).<h4>Methods</h4>31 EGC patients (19 men, 12 women; age range, 38-81 years; mean age, 57.19 years) were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Conventionally reconstructed polyenergetic images (PEIs) at 120 kV and virtual monoenergetic images (MEIs) and AMEIs at six different kiloelectron volt (keV) levels (from 40 to 90 keV) were evaluated from the 100 and Sn 140 kV dual energy image data, respectively. The visibility and stage migration of EGC for all three image data sets were evaluated and statistically analyzed. The objective and subjective image qualities were also evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>AMEIs at 40 keV showed the best visibility (80.7 %) and the lowest stage migration (35.5 %) for EGC. The stage migration for AMEIs at 40 keV was significantly lower than that for PEIs (p?=?0.026). AMEIs at 40 keV had statistically higher CNR in the arterial and portal phases, gastric-specific diagnostic performance and visual sharpness compared with other AMEIs, MEIs and PEIs (all p?<?0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>AMEIs at 40 keV with MPR increase the CNR of EGC and thus potentially lower the stage migration of EGC.<h4>Key points</h4>• AMEIs benefits from the recombination of low-keV images and medium energies. • AMEIs could receive better CNR results than MEIs. • AMEIs at 40 keV potentially lower the stage migration of EGC.
Project description:The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy.The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement.Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range. Compared with no sinogram smoothing, sinogram smoothing can dramatically reduce noise in the DECT-derived attenuation map. Through appropriate selection of tube currents for high and low kVp scans, DECT can deliver roughly the same amount of radiation dose as that of a single kVp CT scan, but could be used for PET attenuation correction with reduced bias in contrast agent regions by a factor of ≈ 2.6 and slightly reduced RMSE for the total image.When DECT is used for attenuation correction at higher energies, there is a noise amplification that is dependent on the energy of the synthesized monoenergetic image of linear attenuation coefficients. Sinogram smoothing reduces the noise amplification in DECT-derived attenuation maps without increasing bias. With an appropriate selection of CT techniques, a DECT scan with the same radiation dose as a single CT scan can result in a PET image with improved quantitative accuracy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to explore the performance of Revolution CT virtual monoenergetic images (VMI) combined with the multi-material artifact reduction (MMAR) technique in reducing metal artifacts in oral and maxillofacial imaging. RESULTS:There were significant differences in image quality scores between VMI + MMAR images and VMI+MARS (multiple artifact reduction system) images at each monochromatic energy level (p = 0.000). Compared with the MARS technology, the MMAR technology further reduced metal artifacts and improved the image quality. At VMI90 keV and VMI110 keV, the SD, CNR, and AI in the Revolution CT group were significantly lower than in the Discovery CT, but no significant differences in these parameters were found between two groups at VMI50 keV, VMI70 keV, and VMI130 keV (p > 0.05). The attenuation was comparable between two groups at any energy level (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Compared with the MARS reconstruction technique of Discovery CT, the MMAR technique of Revolution CT is better to reduce the artifacts of dental implants in oral and maxillofacial imaging, which improves the image quality and the diagnostic value of surrounding soft tissues.
Project description:Diabetes is associated with hepatic metabolic dysfunction predisposing patients to drug-induced liver injury. Mouse models of type 2 diabetes (T2D) have dramatically reduced expression of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1A1, a transporter expressed in hepatocytes and in the kidneys. The effects of diabetes on OATP1B2 expression are less studied and less consistent. OATP1A1 and OATP1B2 both transport endogenous substrates such as bile acids and hormone conjugates as well as numerous drugs including gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA). As master pharmacokinetic regulators, the altered expression of OATPs in diabetes could have a profound and clinically significant influence on drug therapies. Here, we report a method to noninvasively measure OATP activity in T2D mice by quantifying the transport of hepatobiliary-specific gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) within the liver and kidneys using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). By comparing GBCA uptake in control and OATP knockout mice, we confirmed liver clearance of the hepatobiliary-specific GBCAs, Gd-EOB-DTPA, and gadobenate dimeglumine, primarily though OATP transporters. Then, we measured a reduction in the hepatic uptake of these hepatobiliary GBCAs in T2D <i>ob</i>/<i>ob</i> mice, which mirrored significant reductions in the mRNA and protein expression of OATP1A1 and OATP1B2. As these GBCAs are U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved agents and DCE-MRI is a standard clinical protocol, studies to determine OATP1B1/1B3 deficiencies in human individuals with diabetes can be easily envisioned.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of using a universal abdominal acquisition protocol on a photon-counting detector computed tomography (PCD-CT) system and to compare its performance to that of single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) CT using energy-integrating detectors (EIDs). METHODS:Iodine inserts of various concentrations and sizes were embedded into different sizes of adult abdominal phantoms. Phantoms were scanned on a research PCD-CT and a clinical EID-CT with SE and DE modes. Virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs) were generated from PCD-CT and DE mode of EID-CT. For each image type and phantom size, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured for each iodine insert and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for iodine detectability was calculated using a channelized Hotelling observer. The optimal energy (in kiloelectrovolt) of VMIs was determined separately as the one with highest CNR and the one with the highest AUC. The PCD-CT VMIs at the optimal energy were then compared with DE VMIs and SE images in terms of CNR and AUC. RESULTS:Virtual monoenergetic image at 50 keV had both the highest CNR and highest AUC for PCD-CT and DECT. For 1.0 mg I/mL iodine and 35 cm phantom, the CNRs of 50 keV VMIs from PCD-CT (2.01 ± 0.67) and DE (1.96 ± 0.52) were significantly higher (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test) than SE images (1.11 ± 0.35). The AUC of PCD-CT (0.98 ± 0.01) was comparable to SE (0.98 ± 0.01), and both were slightly lower than DE (0.99 ± 0.01, P < 0.01, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). A similar trend was observed for other phantom sizes and iodine concentrations. CONCLUSIONS:Virtual monoenergetic images at a fixed energy from a universal acquisition protocol on PCD-CT demonstrated higher iodine CNR and comparable iodine detectability than SECT images, and similar performance compared with DE VMIs.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To compare image quality and metal artifact reduction between virtual monochromatic spectral imaging (VMSI), linearly blended dual-energy (DE) and single-energy (SE) images, each with and without dedicated iterative metal artifact reduction (iMAR) for CT-guided biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A biopsy trocar was positioned in the liver of six pigs. DE (Sn140/100kVp) and SE (120kVp/200mAs) acquisitions were performed with equivalent dose. From dual-energy datasets DE Q30-3 images and VMSI between 40-180 keV in steps of 20 keV were generated. From SE datasets I30-3 images were reconstructed. All images were reconstructed with and without iMAR. Objective image quality was analyzed applying density measurements at standardized positions (e.g. trocar tip and liver parenchyma adjacent to the trocar tip) and semi-automated threshold based segmentation. Subjective image quality was performed using semi-quantitative scores. Analyses were performed by two observers. RESULTS:At the trocar tip quantitative image analysis revealed significant difference in CT numbers between reconstructions with iMAR compared to reconstructions without iMAR for VMSI at lower keV levels (80 and 100 keV; p = 0.03) and DE (p = 0.03). For liver parenchyma CT numbers were significantly higher in VMSI at high keV compared to low keV (p?0.01). VMSI at high keV also showed higher CT numbers compared to DE and SE images, though not the level of statistical significance. The best signal-to-noise ratio for VMSI was at 80 keV and comparable to DE and SE. Noise was lowest at 80 keV and lower than in DE and SE. Subjective image quality was best with VMSI at 80 keV regardless of the application of iMAR. iMAR significantly improved image quality at levels of 140 keV and 160 keV. Interreader-agreement was good for quantitative and qualitative analysis. CONCLUSION:iMAR improved image quality in all settings. VMSI with iMAR provided metal artifact reduction and better image quality at 80 keV and thus could improve the accurate positioning in CT-guided needle biopsy. In comparison, DE imaging did not improve image quality compared to SE.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic computed tomography (CT) and gadoxetate-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for characterization of hepatic lesions by using the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) in a multicenter, off-site evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this retrospective multicenter study, we evaluated 231 hepatic lesions (114 hepatocellular carcinomas [HCCs], 58 non-HCC malignancies, and 59 benign lesions) confirmed histologically in 217 patients with chronic liver disease who underwent both gadoxetate-enhanced MRI and dynamic CT at one of five tertiary hospitals. Four radiologists at different institutes independently reviewed all MR images first and the CT images 4 weeks later. They evaluated the major and ancillary imaging features and categorized each hepatic lesion according to the LI-RADS v2014. Diagnostic performance was calculated and compared using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS:MRI showed higher sensitivity and accuracy than CT for diagnosing hepatic malignancies; the pooled sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies for categorizing LR-5/5V/M were 59.0% vs. 72.4% (CT vs. MRI; p < 0.001), 83.5% vs. 83.9% (p = 0.906), and 65.3% vs. 75.3% (p < 0.001), respectively. CT and MRI showed comparable capabilities for differentiating between HCC and other malignancies, with pooled accuracies of 79.9% and 82.4% for categorizing LR-M, respectively (p = 0.139). CONCLUSION:Gadoxetate-enhanced MRI showed superior accuracy for categorizing LR-5/5V/M in hepatic malignancies in comparison with dynamic CT. Both modalities had comparable accuracies for distinguishing other malignancies from HCC.