Variants Within TSC2 Exons 25 and 31 Are Very Unlikely to Cause Clinically Diagnosable Tuberous Sclerosis.
ABSTRACT: Inactivating mutations in TSC1 and TSC2 cause tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The 2012 international consensus meeting on TSC diagnosis and management agreed that the identification of a pathogenic TSC1 or TSC2 variant establishes a diagnosis of TSC, even in the absence of clinical signs. However, exons 25 and 31 of TSC2 are subject to alternative splicing. No variants causing clinically diagnosed TSC have been reported in these exons, raising the possibility that such variants would not cause TSC. We present truncating and in-frame variants in exons 25 and 31 in three individuals unlikely to fulfil TSC diagnostic criteria and examine the importance of these exons in TSC using different approaches. Amino acid conservation analysis suggests significantly less conservation in these exons compared with the majority of TSC2 exons, and TSC2 expression data demonstrates that the majority of TSC2 transcripts lack exons 25 and/or 31 in many human adult tissues. In vitro assay of both exons shows that neither exon is essential for TSC complex function. Our evidence suggests that variants in TSC2 exons 25 or 31 are very unlikely to cause classical TSC, although a role for these exons in tissue/stage specific development cannot be excluded.
Project description:The TSC1 and TSC2 gene products interact to form the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an important negative regulator of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). Inactivating mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 cause TSC, and the identification of a pathogenic TSC1 or TSC2 variant helps establish a diagnosis of TSC. However, it is not always clear whether TSC1 and TSC2 variants are inactivating. To determine whether TSC1 and TSC2 variants of uncertain clinical significance affect TSC complex function and cause TSC, in vitro assays of TORC1 activity can be employed. Here we combine genetic, functional, and structural approaches to try and classify a series of 15 TSC2 VUS. We investigated the effects of the variants on the formation of the TSC complex, on TORC1 activity and on TSC2 pre-mRNA splicing. In 13 cases (87%), the functional data supported the hypothesis that the identified TSC2 variant caused TSC. Our results illustrate the benefits and limitations of functional testing for TSC.
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic condition characterized by the occurrence of hamartomatous wounds stemming from the dysfunction of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. We investigated the clinical phenotypes and genetic variants in 243 unrelated probands and their families in China. Exome sequencing, targeted sequencing or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed in 174 children with TSC, among whom 31 (17.82%) patients/families were identified as having pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in the TSC1 gene, 120 (68.97%) as having pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in the TSC2 gene and 23 (13.21%) as having no pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants identified (NMI). In the 31 patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic TSC1 variants, 10 novel variants were detected among 26 different variants. In all 120 patients with TSC2 variants, 39 novel variants were found among a total of 107 different variants. We compared the phenotypes of the individuals with TSC1 pathogenic variants, TSC2 pathogenic variants and NMI. Patients with TSC2 variants were first diagnosed at a younger age (p = 0.003) and had more retinal hamartomas (p = 0.003) and facial angiofibromas (p = 0.027) (age ? 3 years) than individuals with TSC1 variants. Compared with individuals with TSC1/TSC2 pathogenic variants, NMI individuals had fewer cortical tubers (p = 0.003). Compared with individuals with TSC1 pathogenic variants, NMI patients had more retinal hamartomas (p = 0.035), and compared with individuals with TSC2 pathogenic variants, they had less epilepsy (p = 0.003) and fewer subependymal nodules (SENs) (p = 0.004).
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis (TSC [MIM 191090 and MIM 191100]) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hamartomas in many organs. Two thirds of cases are sporadic and are thought to represent new mutations. TSC is caused by mutations affecting either of the presumed tumor-suppressor genes, TSC1 and TSC2. Both appear to function as tumor suppressors, because somatic loss or intragenic mutation of the corresponding wild-type allele is seen in the associated hamartomas. Here we report the first comprehensive mutation analysis of TSC1 and TSC2 in a cohort of 150 unrelated TSC patients and their families, using heteroduplex and SSCP analysis of all coding exons and using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and conventional Southern blot analysis and long PCR to screen for large rearrangements. Mutations were characterized in 120 (80%) of the 150 cases, affecting TSC1 in 22 cases and TSC2 in 98 cases. TSC1 mutations were significantly underrepresented in sporadic cases (P=. 000185). Twenty-two patients had TSC2 missense mutations that were found predominantly in the GAP-related domain (eight cases) and in a small region encoded in exons 16 and 17, between nucleotides 1849 and 1859 (eight cases), consistent with the presence of residues performing key functions at these sites. In contrast, all TSC1 mutations were predicted to be truncating, consistent with a structural or adapter role for the encoded protein. Intellectual disability was significantly more frequent in TSC2 sporadic cases than in TSC1 sporadic cases (P=.0145). These data provide the first representative picture of the distribution and spectrum of mutations across the TSC1 and TSC2 loci in clinically ascertained TSC and support a difference in severity of TSC1- and TSC2-associated disease.
Project description:The tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) tumor suppressors form the TSC1-TSC2 complex, which limits cell growth in response to poor growth conditions. Through its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity toward Rheb, this complex inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), a key promoter of cell growth. Here, we identify and biochemically characterize TBC1D7 as a stably associated and ubiquitous third core subunit of the TSC1-TSC2 complex. We demonstrate that the TSC1-TSC2-TBC1D7 (TSC-TBC) complex is the functional complex that senses specific cellular growth conditions and possesses Rheb-GAP activity. Sequencing analyses of samples from TSC patients suggest that TBC1D7 is unlikely to represent TSC3. TBC1D7 knockdown decreases the association of TSC1 and TSC2 leading to decreased Rheb-GAP activity, without effects on the localization of TSC2 to the lysosome. Like the other TSC-TBC components, TBC1D7 knockdown results in increased mTORC1 signaling, delayed induction of autophagy, and enhanced cell growth under poor growth conditions.
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hamartomas in the skin and other organs, including brain, heart, lung, kidney and bones. TSC is caused by mutations in TSC1 and TSC2. Here, we present the TSC1 and TSC2 variants identified in 168 Danish individuals out of a cohort of 327 individuals suspected of TSC. A total of 137 predicted pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified: 33 different TSC1 variants in 42 patients, and 104 different TSC2 variants in 126 patients. In 40 cases (24%), the identified predicted pathogenic variant had not been described previously. In total, 33 novel variants in TSC2 and 7 novel variants in TSC1 were identified. To assist in the classification of 11 TSC2 variants, we investigated the effects of these variants in an in vitro functional assay. Based on the functional results, as well as population and genetic data, we classified 8 variants as likely to be pathogenic and 3 as likely to be benign.
Project description:Ninety patients with tuberous-sclerosis complex (TSC) were tested for subtle mutations in the TSC2 gene, by means of single-strand conformational analysis (SSCA) of genomic DNA. Patients included 56 sporadic cases and 34 familial probands. For all patients, SSCA was performed for each of the 41 exons of the TSC2 gene. We identified 32 SSCA changes, 22 disease-causing mutations, and 10 polymorphic variants. Interestingly, we detected mutations at a much higher frequency in the sporadic cases (32%) than in the multiplex families (9%). Among the eight families for which linkage to the TSC2 region had been determined, only one mutation was found. Mutations were distributed equally across the gene; they included 5 deletions, 3 insertions, 10 missense mutations, 2 nonsense mutations, and 2 tandem duplications. We did not detect an increase in mutations either in the GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-related domains of TSC2 or in the activating domains that have been identified in rat tuberin. We did not detect any mutations in the exons (25 and 31) that are spliced out in the isoforms. There was no evidence for correspondence between variability of phenotype and type of mutation (missense versus early termination). Diagnostic testing will be difficult because of the genetic heterogeneity of TSC (which has at least two causative genes: TSC1 and TSC2), the large size of the TSC2 gene, and the variety of mutations. More than half of the mutations that we identified (missense, small in-frame deletion, and tandem duplication) are not amenable to the mutation-detection methods, such as protein-truncation testing, that are commonly employed for genes that encode proteins with tumor-suppressor function.
Project description:The TSC1 and TSC2 genes are connected to multiple syndromes from Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with uncertainty if genetic variants cause all or subsets of phenotypes based on the location and type of change. For TSC1, few have addressed if non-TSC associated genetic variants have direct contributions to changes in neurological genotype-to-phenotype impacts, including elevated rates of ASD and seizures. Dominant variants cause TSC, yet TSC1 has many heritable variants not dominant for TSC that are poorly understood in neurological function, with some associated with ASD. Herein, we examined how missense variants in TSC1, R336W, T360N, T393I, S403L, and H732Y, impacted the development of cortical inhibitory interneurons, cell-types whose molecular, cellular, and physiological properties are altered after the loss of mouse TSC1. We found these variants complemented a known phenotype caused by loss of TSC1, increased cell size. However, distinct variants, particularly S403L showed deficits in complementing an increase in parvalbumin levels and exhibited smaller amplitude after hyperpolarizations. Overall, these data show that subtle phenotypes can be induced by some TSC1 missense variants and provide an in vivo system to assess TSC1 variants’ neurological impact better.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in TSC1 and TSC2. Conventional DNA diagnostic screens identify a TSC1 or TSC2 mutation in 75 - 90% of individuals categorised with definite TSC. The remaining individuals either have a mutation that is undetectable using conventional methods, or possibly a mutation in another as yet unidentified gene. METHODS: Here we apply a targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach to screen the complete TSC1 and TSC2 genomic loci in 7 individuals fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria for definite TSC in whom no TSC1 or TSC2 mutations were identified using conventional screening methods. RESULTS: We identified and confirmed pathogenic mutations in 3 individuals. In the remaining individuals we identified variants of uncertain clinical significance. The identified variants included mosaic changes, changes located deep in intronic sequences and changes affecting promoter regions that would not have been identified using exon-only based analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted NGS of the TSC1 and TSC2 loci is a suitable method to increase the yield of mutations identified in the TSC patient population.
Project description:Mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 cause tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the occurrence of benign tumors in various vital organs and tissues. TSC1 and TSC2, the TSC1 and TSC2 gene products, form the TSC protein complex that senses specific cellular growth conditions to control mTORC1 signaling. TBC1D7 is the third subunit of the TSC complex, and helps to stabilize the TSC1-TSC2 complex through its direct interaction with TSC1. Homozygous inactivation of TBC1D7 causes intellectual disability and megaencephaly. Here we report the crystal structure of a TSC1-TBC1D7 complex and biochemical characterization of the TSC1-TBC1D7 interaction. TBC1D7 interacts with the C-terminal region of the predicted coiled-coil domain of TSC1. The TSC1-TBC1D7 interface is largely hydrophobic, involving the α4 helix of TBC1D7. Each TBC1D7 molecule interacts simultaneously with two parallel TSC1 helices from two TSC1 molecules, suggesting that TBC1D7 may stabilize the TSC complex by tethering the C-terminal ends of two TSC1 coiled-coils.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the development of hamartomas in a variety of organs and tissues. The disease is caused by mutations in either the TSC1 gene on chromosome 9q34, or the TSC2 gene on chromosome 16p13.3. The TSC1 and TSC2 gene products, TSC1 and TSC2, form a protein complex that inhibits signal transduction to the downstream effectors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Recently it has been shown that missense mutations to the TSC1 gene can cause TSC.<h4>Methods</h4>We have used in vitro biochemical assays to investigate the effects on TSC1 function of TSC1 missense variants submitted to the Leiden Open Variation Database.<h4>Results</h4>We identified specific substitutions between amino acids 50 and 190 in the N-terminal region of TSC1 that result in reduced steady state levels of the protein and lead to increased mTOR signalling.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results suggest that amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of TSC1 are important for TSC1 function and for maintaining the activity of the TSC1-TSC2 complex.