Diversity, distribution, and antagonistic activities of rhizobacteria of Panax notoginseng.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Rhizobacteria play an important role in plant defense and could be promising sources of biocontrol agents. This study aimed to screen antagonistic bacteria and develop a biocontrol system for root rot complex of Panax notoginseng. METHODS:Pure-culture methods were used to isolate bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of notoginseng plants. The identification of isolates was based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. RESULTS:A total of 279 bacteria were obtained from rhizosphere soils of healthy and root-rot notoginseng plants, and uncultivated soil. Among all the isolates, 88 showed antagonistic activity to at least one of three phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Phoma herbarum mainly causing root rot disease of P. notoginseng. Based on the 16S rRNA sequencing, the antagonistic bacteria were characterized into four clusters, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetesi. The genus Bacillus was the most frequently isolated, and Bacillus siamensis (Hs02), Bacillus atrophaeus (Hs09) showed strong antagonistic activity to the three pathogens. The distribution pattern differed in soil types, genera Achromobacter, Acidovorax, Brevibacterium, Brevundimonas, Flavimonas, and Streptomyces were only found in rhizosphere of healthy plants, while Delftia, Leclercia, Brevibacillus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Rhizobium, and Stenotrophomonas only exist in soil of diseased plant, and Acinetobacter only exist in uncultivated soil. CONCLUSION:The results suggest that diverse bacteria exist in the P. notoginseng rhizosphere soil, with differences in community in the same field, and antagonistic isolates may be good potential biological control agent for the notoginseng root-rot diseases caused by F. oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Panax herbarum.
Project description:Root-rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum is a growing problem in agriculture for commercial cultivation of Panax notoginseng. Diverse microbes colonize plant roots, and numerous earlier studies have characterized the rhizospheric microbiome of P. notoginseng; nevertheless, the function of probiotic consortia on the rhizospheric microbiome against the root-rot disease remain elusive. We have compared and described the rhizospheric microbiome of lightly and severely diseased P. notoginseng as well as the interactions of the probiotic consortia and rhizospheric microbiome, and their function to alleviate the plant diseases were explored by inoculating probiotic consortia in bulk soil. From the perspective of microbial diversity, the rhizospheric dominant bacterial and fungal genera were utterly different between lightly and severely diseased plants. Through inoculating assembled probiotic consortia to diseased plant roots, we found that the application of probiotic consortia reshaped the rhizosphere microbiome, increasing the relative abundance of bacteria and fungi, while the relative abundance of potential pathogens was decreased significantly. We developed a microcosm system that provides a preliminary ecological framework for constructing an active probiotic community to reshape soil microbiota and restrain the disease. Microbial community structure differs between lightly and seriously diseased plants. The application of probiotic consortia changes the imbalance of micro-ecology to a state of relative health, reducing plant mortality. Plant disease suppression may be achieved by seeking and applying antagonistic microbes based on their direct inhibitory capability or by restructuring the soil microbiome structure and function.
Project description:Endophytic fungi play an important role in balancing the ecosystem and boosting host growth. In the present study, we investigated the endophytic fungal diversity of healthy Panax notoginseng and evaluated its potential antimicrobial activity against five major phytopathogens causing root-rot of P. notoginseng.A culture-dependent technique, combining morphological and molecular methods, was used to analyze endophytic fungal diversity. A double-layer agar technique was used to challenge the phytopathogens of P. notoginseng.A total of 89 fungi were obtained from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of P. notoginseng, and 41 isolates representing different morphotypes were selected for taxonomic characterization. The fungal isolates belonged to Ascomycota (96.6%) and Zygomycota (3.4%). All isolates were classified to 23 genera and an unknown taxon belonging to Sordariomycetes. The number of isolates obtained from different tissues ranged from 12 to 42 for leaves and roots, respectively. The selected endophytic fungal isolates were challenged by the root-rot pathogens Alternaria panax, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Phoma herbarum, and Mycocentrospora acerina. Twenty-six of the 41 isolates (63.4%) exhibited activity against at least one of the pathogens tested.Our results suggested that P. notoginseng harbors diversified endophytic fungi that would provide a basis for the identification of new bioactive compounds, and for effective biocontrol of notoginseng root rot.
Project description:Rehmannia glutinosa, a perennial medicinal plant, suffers from severe replant disease under consecutive monoculture. The rhizosphere microbiome is vital for soil suppressiveness to diseases and for plant health. Moreover, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing (QS) regulates diverse behavior in rhizosphere-inhabiting and plant pathogenic bacteria. The dynamics of short-chain AHL-mediated QS bacteria driven by consecutive monoculture and its relationships with R. glutinosa replant disease were explored in this study. The screening of QS bacteria showed that 65 out of 200 strains (32.5%) randomly selected from newly planted soil of R. glutinosa were detected as QS bacteria, mainly consisting of Pseudomonas spp. (55.4%). By contrast, 34 out of 200 (17%) strains from the diseased replant soil were detected as QS bacteria, mainly consisting of Enterobacteriaceae (73.5%). Functional analysis showed most of the QS bacteria belonging to the Pseudomonas genus showed strong antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum or Aspergillus flavus, two main causal agents of R. glutinosa root rot disease. However, the QS strains dominant in the replant soil caused severe wilt disease in the tissue culture seedlings of R. glutinosa. Microbial growth assays demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of beneficial QS bacteria (i.e., Pseudomonas brassicacearum) by a phenolic acid mixture identified in the root exudates of R. glutinosa, but the opposite was true for harmful QS bacteria (i.e., Enterobacter spp.). Furthermore, it was found that the population of quorum quenching (QQ) bacteria that could disrupt the beneficial P. brassicacearum SZ50 QS system was significantly higher in the replant soil than in the newly planted soil. Most of these QQ bacteria in the replant soil were detected as Acinetobacter spp. The growth of specific QQ bacteria could be promoted by a phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the R. glutinosa rhizosphere. Moreover, these quorum-quenching bacteria showed strong pathogenicity toward the tissue culture seedlings of R. glutinosa. In conclusion, consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa contributed to the imbalance between beneficial and harmful short-chain AHL-mediated QS bacteria in the rhizosphere, which was mediated not only by specific root exudates but also by the QQ bacterial community.
Project description:Root rot of Panax notoginseng has received great attention due to its threat on the plantation and sustainable utilization of P. notoginseng. To suppress the root-rot disease, natural ingredients are of great importance because of their environment friendly properties. In this study, we found that the methanol extract from Artemisia annua leaves has strong antifungal effects on the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani resulting into root-rot disease. Essential oil (EO) thereof was found to be the most active. GC-MS analysis revealed 58 ingredients and camphor, camphene, ?-caryophyllene, and germacrene D were identified as the major ingredients. Further antifungal assays showed that the main compounds exhibit various degrees of inhibition against all the fungi tested. In addition, synergistic effects between A. annua EO and chemical fungicides were examined. Finally, in vivo experiments were conducted and disclosed that P. notoginseng root rot could be largely inhibited by the petroleum ether extract from A. annua, indicating that A. annua could be a good source for controlling P. notoginseng root-rot.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rhizospheric fungi play an essential role in the plant-soil ecosystem, affecting plant growth and health. In this study, we evaluated the fungal diversity in the rhizosphere soil of 2-yr-old healthy Panax notoginseng cultivated in Wenshan, China. METHODS:Culture-independent Illumina MiSeq and culture-dependent techniques, combining molecular and morphological characteristics, were used to analyze the rhizospheric fungal diversity. A diffusion test was used to challenge the phytopathogens of P. notoginseng. RESULTS:A total of 16,130 paired-end reads of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 were generated and clustered into 860 operational taxonomic units at 97% sequence similarity. All the operational taxonomic units were assigned to five phyla and 79 genera. Zygomycota (46.2%) and Ascomycota (37.8%) were the dominant taxa; Mortierella and unclassified Mortierellales accounted for a large proportion (44.9%) at genus level. The relative abundance of Fusarium and Phoma sequences was high, accounting for 12.9% and 5.5%, respectively. In total, 113 fungal isolates were isolated from rhizosphere soil. They were assigned to five classes, eight orders (except for an Incertae sedis), 26 genera, and 43 species based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer. Fusarium was the most isolated genus with six species (24 isolates, 21.2%). The abundance of Phoma was also relatively high (8.0%). Thirteen isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against at least one test fungus. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that diverse fungi including potential pathogenic ones exist in the rhizosphere soil of 2-yr-old P. notoginseng and that antagonistic isolates may be useful for biological control of pathogens.
Project description:There is a concerted understanding of the accumulation of soil pathogens as the major driving factor of negative plant-soil feedback (NPSF). However, our knowledge of the connection between plant growth, pathogen build-up and soil microbiome assemblage is limited. In this study, significant negative feedback between the soil and sanqi (Panax notoginseng) was found, which were caused by the build-up of the soil-borne pathogens Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Monographella cucumerina. Soil microbiome analysis revealed that the rhizospheric fungal and bacterial communities were changed with the growth of sanqi. Deep analysis of the phylum and genus levels corroborated that rhizospheric fungal Ascomycota, including the soil-borne pathogens F. oxysporum, F. solani, and especially M. cucumerina, were significantly enriched with the growth of sanqi. However, the bacteria Firmicutes and Acidobacteria, including the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Burkholderia, were significantly suppressed with the growth of sanqi. Using microbial isolation and in vitro dual culture tests, we found that most isolates derived from the suppressed bacterial genera showed strong antagonistic ability against the growth of sanqi soil-borne pathogens. Interestingly, inoculation of these suppressed isolates in consecutively cultivated soil could significantly alleviate NPSF. In summary, sanqi growth can suppress antagonistic bacteria through re-assemblage of the rhizosphere microbiome and cause the accumulation of soil-borne pathogens, eventually building negative feedback loops between the soil and plants.
Project description:Crop rotation and intercropping with Allium plants suppresses Fusarium wilt in various crops. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to assess the role of microorganisms inhabiting Allium rhizospheres and antifungal compounds produced by Allium roots in Fusarium wilt suppression by Allium cultivation. Suppression of cucumber Fusarium wilt and the pathogen multiplication by Allium (Welsh onion and/or onion)-cultivated soils were eliminated by heat treatment at 60?°C, whereas those by Welsh onion-root extract were lost at 40?°C. The addition of antibacterial antibiotics eliminated the suppressive effect of Welsh onion-cultivated soil on pathogen multiplication, suggesting the contribution of antagonistic gram-negative bacteria to the soil suppressiveness. The Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that genus Flavobacterium was the predominant group that preferentially accumulated in Allium rhizospheres. Flavobacterium species recovered from the rhizosphere soils of these Allium plants suppressed Fusarium wilt on cucumber seedlings. Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that Flavobacterium isolates inhibited the multiplication of the pathogen in soil. Taken together, we infer that the accumulation of antagonistic Flavobacterium species plays a key role in Fusarium wilt suppression by Allium cultivation.
Project description:The biomass and quality of Pseudostellariae heterophylla suffers a significant decline under monoculture. Since rhizosphere miobiome plays crucial roles in soil health, deep pyrosequencing combined with qPCR was applied to characterize the composition and structure of soil bacterial community under monoculture and different amendments. The results showed compared with the 1st-year planted (FP), 2nd-year monoculture of P. heterophylla (SP) led to a significant decline in yield and resulted in a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum but a decline in Burkholderia spp. Bio-organic fertilizer (MT) formulated by combining antagonistic bacteria with organic matter could significantly promote the yield by regulating rhizosphere bacterial community. However, organic fertilizer (MO) without antagonistic bacteria could not suppress Fusarium wilt. Multivariate statistics analysis showed a distinct separation between the healthy samples (FP and MT) and the unhealthy samples (SP and MO), suggesting a strong relationship between soil microbial community and plant performance. Furthermore, we found the application of bio-organic fertilizer MT could significantly increase the bacterial community diversity and restructure microbial community with relatively fewer pathogenic F. oxysporum and more beneficial Burkholderia spp. In conclusion, the application of novel bio-organic fertilizer could effectively suppress Fusarium wilt by enriching the antagonistic bacteria and enhancing the bacterial diversity.
Project description:Gom-chwi (Ligularia fischeri) is severely infected with Phytophthora drechsleri, the causal organism of Phytophthora root rot, an economically important crop disease that needs management throughout the cultivation period. In the present study, Phytophthora root rot was controlled by using bacterial isolates from rhizosphere soils collected from various plants and screened for antagonistic activity against P. drechsleri. A total of 172 bacterial strains were isolated, of which, 49 strains showed antagonistic activities by dual culture assay. In the seedling assay, six out of the 49 strains showed a predominant effect on suppressing P. drechsleri. Among the six strains, the ObRS-5 strain showed remarkable against P. drechsleri when treated with seed dipping or soil drenching. The ObRS-5 strain was identified as Enterobacter asburiae based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences analysis. The bacterial cells of E. asburiae ObRS-5 significantly suppressed sporangium formation and zoospore germination in P. drechsleri by 87.4% and 66.7%, respectively. In addition, culture filtrate of E. asburiae ObRS-5 also significantly inhibited sporangium formation and zoospore germination by 97.0% and 67.6%, respectively. Soil drenched bacterial cells, filtrate, and culture solution of E. asburiae ObRS-5 effectively suppressed Phytophthora root rot by 63.2%, 57.9%, and 81.1%, respectively. Thus, E. asburiae ObRS-5 could be used as a potential agent for the biological control of Phytophthora root rot infecting gom-chwi.
Project description:Production of medicinal tubers of Rehmannia glutinosa is severely hindered by replanting issues. However, a mechanistic understanding of the plant-soil factors associated with replant problems is currently limited. Thus, we aimed to identify the R. glutinosa root exudates, evaluate their potential phytotoxicity and profile the interactions between the plant and its associated rhizobiome. Stereomicroscopy and liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometer were used to monitor and identify secreted metabolites, respectively. Seedling bioassays were used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of R. glutinosa root exudates. Two complimentary experiments were performed to investigate allelochemical fate in rhizosphere soil and profile the associated microbiota. Root specific microbes were further isolated from R. glutinosa rhizosphere. Impacts of isolated strains were evaluated by co-cultivation on plate and on seedlings in tissue culture, with a focus on their pathogenicity. Interactions between key R. glutinosa root exudates and isolated rhizobiomes were investigated to understand the potential for plant-soil feedbacks. Quantification and phytotoxic analysis of metabolites released from R. glutinosa indicated catalpol was the most abundant and bioactive metabolite in root exudates. Subsequent microbial profiling in soil containing accumulated and ecologically significant levels of catalpol identified several taxa (e.g., Agromyces, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, Fusarium) that were specifically shifted. Isolation of R. glutinosa rhizobiomes obtained several root specific strains. A significant antagonistic effect between strain Rh7 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two pathogenic strains Rf1 (Fusarium oxysporum) and Rf2 (Fusarium solani) was observed. Notably, the growth of strain Rh7 and catalpol concentration showed a hormesis-like effect. Field investigation further indicated catalpol was increasingly accumulated in the rhizosphere of replanted R. glutinosa, suggesting that interactions of biocontrol agents and pathogens are likely regulated by the presence of bioactive root exudates and in turn impact the rhizo-ecological process. In summary, this research successfully monitored the release of R. glutinosa root exudates, identified several abundant bioactive R. glutinosa secreted metabolites, profiled associated root specific microbes, and investigated the plant-soil feedbacks potentially regulated by catalpol and associated rhizobiomes. Our findings provide new perspectives toward an enhanced understanding R. glutinosa replant problems.