HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment Naive and Experienced Panamanian Subjects: Impact on National Use of EFV-Based Schemes.
ABSTRACT: The use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected subjects prevents AIDS-related illness and delayed occurrence of death. In Panama, rollout of ART started in 1999 and national coverage has reached 62.8% since then. The objective of this study was to determine the level and patterns of acquired drug resistance mutations of clinical relevance (ADR-CRM) and surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) from 717 HIV-1 pol gene sequences obtained from 467 ARV drug-experienced and 250 ARV drug-naïve HIV-1 subtypes B infected subjects during 2007-2013, respectively. The overall prevalence of SDRM and of ADR-CRM during the study period was 9.2% and 87.6%, respectively. The majority of subjects with ADR-CRM had a pattern of mutations that confer resistance to at least two classes of ARV inhibitors. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations K103N and P225H were more prevalent in both ARV drug-naïve and ARV drug-experienced subjects. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation M184V was more frequent in ARV drug-experienced individuals, while T215YFrev and M41L were more frequent in ARV drug-naïve subjects. Prevalence of mutations associated to protease inhibitors (PI) was lower than 4.1% in both types of subjects. Therefore, there is a high level of resistance (>73%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine, Lamivudine and Azidothymidine in ARV drug-experienced subjects, and an intermediate to high level of resistance (5-10%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine in ARV drug-naïve subjects. During the study period, we observed an increasing trend in the prevalence of ADR-CRM in subjects under first-line schemes, but not significant changes in the prevalence of SDRM. These results reinforce the paramount importance of a national surveillance system of ADR-CRM and SDRM for national management policies of subjects living with HIV.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Seventeen years after the start of the IBAARV (Beninese initiative for access to antiretrovirals), transmitted drug resistance mutations in ARV-naïve patients and HIV-1 genetic diversity were investigated in Benin. RESULTS:Drug resistance mutations were detected in (27/248; 10.9%) according to the WHO SDRM 2009 list, with a predominance of mutations directed against NNRTIs drugs (24/248; 10%). Phylogenetic and recombination analyses showed a predominance of CRF02_AG strains (165/248; 66.5%) and a high genetic diversity with five other variants and 39 URFs (15.7%) which contained portions of strains that co-circulate in Benin. Eight recent transmission chains revealed active ongoing transmission of HIV-1 strains among ARV-naïve patients. Our study showed a moderate primary drug resistance mutations rate and also provided recent data on the HIV-1 variants that circulate in Benin. Regular monitoring of primary drug resistance is required to adapt HIV-1 treatment strategies and adoption of new WHO recommendations in Benin.
Project description:We assessed HIV drug resistance (DR) in individuals failing ART (acquired DR, ADR) and in ART-naïve individuals (pre-ART DR, PDR) in Honduras, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART.365 HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and 381 ART-experienced Honduran individuals were enrolled in 5 reference centres in Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba, and Choluteca between April 2013 and April 2015. Plasma HIV protease-RT sequences were obtained. HIVDR was assessed using the WHO HIVDR mutation list and the Stanford algorithm. Recently infected (RI) individuals were identified using a multi-assay algorithm.PDR to any ARV drug was 11.5% (95% CI 8.4-15.2%). NNRTI PDR prevalence (8.2%) was higher than NRTI (2.2%) and PI (1.9%, p<0.0001). No significant trends in time were observed when comparing 2013 and 2014, when using a moving average approach along the study period or when comparing individuals with >500 vs. <350 CD4+ T cells/?L. PDR in recently infected individuals was 13.6%, showing no significant difference with PDR in individuals with longstanding infection (10.7%). The most prevalent PDR mutations were M46IL (1.4%), T215 revertants (0.5%), and K103NS (5.5%). The overall ADR prevalence in individuals with <48 months on ART was 87.8% and for the ?48 months on ART group 81.3%. ADR to three drug families increased in individuals with longer time on ART (p = 0.0343). M184V and K103N were the most frequent ADR mutations. PDR mutation frequency correlated with ADR mutation frequency for PI and NNRTI (p<0.01), but not for NRTI. Clusters of viruses were observed suggesting transmission of HIVDR both from ART-experienced to ART-naïve individuals and between ART-naïve individuals.The global PDR prevalence in Honduras remains at the intermediate level, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART. Evidence of ADR influencing the presence of PDR was observed by phylogenetic analyses and ADR/PDR mutation frequency correlations.
Project description:The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends periodic surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in communities in which antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been scaled-up for greater than 3 years. We conducted a survey of TDR mutations among newly detected HIV-infected antiretroviral (ARV)-naive pregnant women. From May 2010 to March 2012, 38 ARV-naive pregnant women were recruited in three hospitals in Jos, Plateau state, north central Nigeria. Eligible subjects were recruited using a modified version of the binomial sequential sampling technique recommended by WHO. HIV-1 genotyping was performed and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were characterized according to the WHO 2009 surveillance drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list. HIV subtypes were determined by phylogenetic analysis. The women's median age was 25.5 years; the median CD4(+) cell count was 317 cells/?l and the median viral load of 16 was 261 copies/ml. Of the 38 samples tested, 34 (89%) were successfully genotyped. The SDRM rate was <5% for all ART drug classes, with 1/34 (2.9%) for NRTIs/NNRTIs and none for protease inhibitors 0/31 (0%). The specific SDRMs detected were M41L for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and G190A for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). HIV-1 subtypes detected were CRF02_AG (38.2%), G' (41.2%), G (14.7%), CRF06-CPX (2.9%), and a unique AG recombinant form (2.9%). The single ARV-native pregnant woman with SDRMs was infected with HIV-1 subtype G'. Access to ART has been available in the Jos area for over 8 years. The prevalence of TDR lower than 5% suggests proper ART administration, although continued surveillance is warranted.
Project description:Introduction:The present study investigated the HIV-1 subtype classification in addition to prevalence of drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced and ART-naïve residents of Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Methods:Whole blood samples collected from 30 HIV-1-infected individuals, comprising 19 ART-experienced and 11 ART-naïve individuals, were subjected to RNA and DNA extraction, followed by HIV-1 genes amplification and sequencing analysis. HIV-1 subtyping was classified on viral pol genes encoding reverse transcriptase (RT gene) and protease (PR gene) accompanied by the env and gag genes. DRMs in the RT and PR genes were also analyzed. Results:CRF01_AE was identified as the predominant circulating recombinant form (CRF) of HIV-1 in both ART-experienced and ART-naïve individuals. In addition, CRF02_AG, subtype B, recombinant virus expressing CRF01_AE and subtype B viral genomic fragments, also recombinant virus containing CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG genomic fragments were also identified. Acquired drug resistance (ADR) was identified in 28.5% of ART-experienced individuals, while no transmitted drug resistance was identified in ART-naïve individuals. Conclusions:This study identified CRF01_AE as the most predominant HIV-1 CRF distributing in Pontianak, Indonesia. The prevalence of ADR is considered to be high; thus, further surveillance is needed in this region.
Project description:The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integrase enzyme has recently emerged as a primary alternative target to block viral replication, and integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are now considered an alternative 'third agent' class of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Dolutegravir is the first next-generation INSTI showing some novel and intriguing characteristics: it has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with a prolonged intracellular halflife, rendering feasible a once daily dosing without the need for pharmacokinetic boosting. Secondly, it is largely metabolized via uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase-1A1 with a minor component of cytochrome P450 isoforms, thus allowing a low grade of drug-drug interactions, so that its metabolic profile consents co-administration with the majority of the other ARV drugs without dose adjustments. Lastly, but no less important, virological studies have clearly demonstrated that dolutegravir has a significant activity against HIV-1 isolates showing raltegravir and/or elvitegravir associated resistance mutations. The attributes of once daily administration and the potential to treat INSTI-resistant viruses make dolutegravir an interesting and promising new agent in the treatment of both naïve and experienced HIV-1 subjects. In this review, the main concerns on dolutegravir efficacy are focused through the analysis of the currently available data from clinical studies in naïve and experienced patients, evaluating its possible place within the anti-HIV-1 drug armamentarium. The development of newer once daily, single tablet coformulations improved drug adherence and maximized the success of ARV therapy. Pharmacokinetic studies and dose-ranging trials suggested that dolutegravir is a good candidate for a single tablet regimen in one or more new coformulated pills that will be available in the near future.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The implementation of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy caused a significant decrease in HIV-associated mortality worldwide. Nevertheless, mortality is still high among people living with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). ARV-naïve HIV patients coinfected with tuberculosis (TB) have more options to treat both diseases concomitantly. Nevertheless, some TB-HIV patients undertaking ARVs (ARV-experienced) are already failing the first line efavirenz-based regimen and seem to display different response to second line ARV therapy and exhibit other predictors of mortality. METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study including 273 patients diagnosed with TB-HIV and treated at a referral center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2008 and 2016. Multivariate analysis and Cox regression models were used to evaluate the effectiveness of ARV therapy regimens (viral load [VL] <80 copies from the 4th to 10th months after TB therapy introduction) and to identify predictors of early mortality (100 days after TB therapy initiation) considering ARV-naïve and ARV-experienced patients adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic covariates. FINDINGS:Survival analysis included 273 patients, out of whom 154 (56.4%) were ARV-naïve and 119 (43.6%) were ARV-experienced. Seven deaths occurred within 6 months of anti-TB treatment, 4 in ARV-naïve and 3 in ARV-experienced patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that in ARV-naïve patients, the chance of death was substantially higher in patients who developed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome during the study follow up (HR = 40.6, p<0.01). For ARV-experienced patients, similar analyses failed to identify factors significantly associated with mortality. Variables independently associated with treatment failure for the ARV-naïve group were previous TB (adjusted OR [aOR] = 6.1 p = 0.03) and alcohol abuse (aOR = 3.7 p = 0.01). For ARV-experienced patients, a ritonavir boosted. Protease Inhibitor-based regimen resulted in a 2.6 times higher risk of treatment failure compared to the use of efavirenz based ARV regimens (p = 0.03) and High baseline HIV VL (p = 0.03) were predictors of treatment failure. CONCLUSIONS:Risk factors for mortality and ARV failure were different for ARV-naïve and ARV-experienced patients. The latter patient group should be targeted for trials with less toxic and rifampicin-compatible drugs to improve TB-HIV treatment outcomes and prevent death.
Project description:To assess the utility of cost-effective dried blood spot (DBS) field sampling for incidence and drug resistance surveillance of persons at high risk for HIV infection.We evaluated DBS collected in 2007-2010 in non-clinical settings by finger-stick from HIV-positive heterosexuals at increased risk of HIV infection (n = 124), men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 110), and persons who inject drugs (PWID, n = 58). Relative proportions of recent-infection findings among risk groups were assessed at avidity index (AI) cutoffs of ?25%, ?30%, and ?35%, corresponding to an infection mean duration of recency (MDR) of 220.6, 250.4, and 278.3 days, respectively. Drug resistance mutation prevalence was compared among the risk groups and avidity indices.HIV antibody avidity testing of all self-reported ARV-naïve persons (n = 186) resulted in 9.7%, 11.3% and 14.0% with findings within the 221, 250, and 278-day MDRs, respectively. The proportion of ARV-naïve MSM, heterosexuals, and PWID reporting only one risk category who had findings below the suggested 30% AI was 23.1%, 6.9% and 3.6% (p<0.001), respectively. MSM had the highest prevalence of drug resistance and the only cases of transmitted multi-class resistance. Among the ARV-experienced, MSM had disproportionately more recent-infection results than did heterosexuals and PWID.The disproportionately higher recent-infection findings for MSM as compared to PWID and heterosexuals increased as the MDR window increased. Unreported ARV use might explain greater recent-infection findings and drug resistance in this MSM population. DBS demonstrated utility in expanded HIV testing; however, optimal field handling is key to accurate recent-infection estimates.
Project description:Introduction: Resistance to antiretroviral drugs can complicate the management of HIV-1 infection and impair control of its spread. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance among 106 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients diagnosed in Iceland (1996-2012). Methods: HIV-1 polymerase sequences were analysed using the Calibrated Population Resistance tool. Domestic spread of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was investigated through maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Results: Among ART-naïve patients, the prevalence of TDR to any of the following classes (NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs) was 8.5% (95% CI: 4.5%- 15.4%): 6.6% to NRTIs, 0.9% to NNRTIs, and 1.9% to PIs. The most frequent NRTI mutation detected was T215C/D (n=7, 5.7%). The only NNRTI mutation detected was K103N (n=1, 0.9%). PI mutations detected were M46I (n=1, 0.9%) and L90M (n=1, 0.9%). Six patients harbouring T215C/D, were linked in a supported phylogenetic cluster. No significant association was found between TDR and demographic or risk groups. Trend analysis showed a decrease in the prevalence of TDR (1996-2012, p=0.003). Conclusions: TDR prevalence in Iceland was at a moderate level and decreased during 1996-2012. Screening for TDR is recommended to limit its local spread and to optimize HIV-1 therapy. Abbreviations: ART: Anti-retroviral therapy; ARV: antiretroviral; ATV/r: atazanavir/ritonavir; AZT: azidothymidine; BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees; CI: confidence interval; CPR: calibrated population resistance; CRF: circulating recombinant form; d4T: stavudine; EFV: efavirenz; FET: Fishers' exact test; FPV/r: fosamprenavir/ritonavir; HET: heterosexual; IDU: injection drug use; IDV/r: indinavir/ritonavir; LPV/r: lopinavir/ritonavir; MSM: men who have sex with men; M-W: Mann-Whitney U test; NFV: nelfinavir; NNRTIs: non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; NRTIs: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; NVP: nevirapine; PIs: protease inhibitors; pol: polymerase gene; SDRM: surveillance drug resistance mutation; SQV/r: saquinavir/ritonavir; TDR: transmitted drug resistance.
Project description:Baseline plasma samples of 490 randomly selected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve patients from seven hospitals participating in the first nationwide Ethiopian HIV-1 cohort were analysed for surveillance drug resistance mutations (sDRM) by population based Sanger sequencing (PBSS). Also next generation sequencing (NGS) was used in a subset of 109 baseline samples of patients. Treatment outcome after 6- and 12-months was assessed by on-treatment (OT) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was detected in 3.9% (18/461) of successfully sequenced samples by PBSS. However, NGS detected sDRM more often (24%; 26/109) than PBSS (6%; 7/109) (p = 0.0001) and major integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) DRMs were also found in minor viral variants from five patients. Patients with sDRM had more frequent treatment failure in both OT and ITT analyses. The high rate of TDR by NGS and the identification of preexisting INSTI DRMs in minor wild-type HIV-1 subtype C viral variants infected Ethiopian patients underscores the importance of TDR surveillance in low- and middle-income countries and shows added value of high-throughput NGS in such studies.
Project description:To describe socioeconomic and antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance profiles among young pregnant women infected with HIV-1.A public health antenatal programme responsible for screening ?90?000 pregnant women per year for nine different infectious diseases in Central Western Brazil.96 young pregnant women (15-24?years) infected with HIV-1.Standard interviews and blood samples were taken at the time of recruitment, at the first medical appointment after confirmation of diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, and before ARV prophylaxis initiation. Clinical and laboratory data were retrieved from medical files. HIV-1 pol gene sequences (entire protease/PR, partial reverse transcriptase/RT) were obtained from plasma RNA. ARV resistance mutations (CPR/Stanford HIV-1; International AIDS Society-USA databases) were identified.The median age was 21?years; most reported <8?years education; 73% were recently diagnosed. Approximately 20% (19/96) presented late for antenatal care (after 26 gestational weeks), while 49% reported ?2 previous pregnancies. Possible heterosexual transmission by an HIV-1 infected partner (17%) and commercial sex work (2%) were reported. The median of CD4 cell count was 526 cells/mm(3); the median viral load was: 10?056 copies/mL in ARV-naïve (48/96) patients and 5881 copies/mL in ARV-exposed (48/96) patients. Two probable seroconversion cases during pregnancy were identified in adolescents. One mother-to-child transmission case (1.0%) was observed. Transmitted drug resistance among ARV-naïve patients was 9.3% (CI 95% 3.3% to 19.6%); secondary drug resistance among ARV-exposed patients was 12.5% (CI 95% 4.7% to 25.6%).Despite high access to antenatal care, the low socioeconomic-educational profiles seen in these young HIV-1-infected women highlight the necessity of improved public health educational and preventive strategies regarding HIV infection and early unplanned pregnancy.