Lovastatin causes FaDu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell death via AMPK-p63-survivin signaling cascade.
ABSTRACT: Statins are used widely to lower serum cholesterol and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Growing evidence shows that statins also exhibit beneficial effects against cancers. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in lovastatin-induced cell death in Fadu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Lovastatin caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in FaDu cells. Lovastatin increased p21(cip/Waf1) level while the survivin level was decreased in the presence of lovastatin. Survivin siRNA reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in FaDu cells. Lovastatin induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and transcription factor p63. Lovastatin also caused p63 acetylation and increased p63 binding to survivin promoter region in FaDu cells. AMPK-p38MAPK signaling blockade abrogated lovastatin-induced p63 phosphorylation. Lovastatin's enhancing effect on p63 acetylation was reduced in HDAC3- or HDAC4- transfected cells. Moreover, transfection of cells with AMPK dominant negative mutant (AMPK-DN), HDAC3, HDAC4 or p63 siRNA significantly reduced lovastatin's effects on p21(cip/Waf1) and survivin. Furthermore, lovastatin inhibited subcutaneous FaDu xenografts growth in vivo. Taken together, lovastatin may activate AMPK-p38MAPK-p63-survivin cascade to cause FaDu cell death. This study establishes, at least in part, the signaling cascade by which lovastatin induces hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell death.
Project description:Hydroxamate derivatives have attracted considerable attention due to their broad pharmacological properties and have been extensively investigated. We recently demonstrated that WMJ-S-001, a novel aliphatic hydroxamate derivative, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanisms by which WMJ-S-001 induces HCT116 colorectal cancer cell death. WMJ-S-001 inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in HCT116 cells. These actions were associated with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, p53 phosphorylation and acetylation, as well as the modulation of p21(cip/Waf1), cyclin D1, survivin and Bax. AMPK-p38MAPK signaling blockade reduced WMJ-S-001-induced p53 phosphorylation. Transfection with AMPK dominant negative mutant (DN) reduced WMJ-S-001's effects on p53 and Sp1 binding to the survivn promoter region. Transfection with HDAC3-Flag or HDAC4-Flag also abrogated WMJ-S-001's enhancing effect on p53 acetylation. WMJ-S-001's actions on p21(cip/Waf1), cyclin D1, survivin, Bax were reduced in p53-null HCT116 cells. Furthermore, WMJ-S-001 was shown to suppress the growth of subcutaneous xenografts of HCT116 cells in vivo. In summary, the death of HCT116 colorectal cancer cells exposed to WMJ-S-001 may involve AMPK-p38MAPK-p53-survivin cascade. These results support the role of WMJ-S-001 as a potential drug candidate and warrant the clinical development in the treatment of cancer.
Project description:Growing evidence shows that hydroxamate-based compounds exhibit broad-spectrum pharmacological properties including anti-tumor activity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying hydroxamate derivative-induced cancer cell death remain incomplete understood. In this study, we explored the anti-tumor mechanisms of a novel aliphatic hydroxamate-based compound, WMJ-J-09, in FaDu head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. WMJ-J-09 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in FaDu cells. These actions were associated with liver kinase B1 (LKB1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activation, transcription factor p63 phosphorylation, as well as modulation of p21 and survivin. LKB1-AMPK-p38MAPK signaling blockade reduced WMJ-J-09's enhancing effects in p63 phosphorylation, p21 elevation and survivin reduction. Moreover, WMJ-J-09 caused an increase in ?-tubulin acetylation and interfered with microtubule assembly. Furthermore, WMJ-J-09 suppressed the growth of subcutaneous FaDu xenografts in vivo. Taken together, WMJ-J-09-induced FaDu cell death may involve LKB1-AMPK-p38MAPK-p63-survivin signaling cascade. HDACs inhibition and disruption of microtubule assembly may also contribute to WMJ-J-09's actions in FaDu cells. This study suggests that WMJ-J-09 may be a potential lead compound and warrant the clinical development in the treatment of HNSCC.
Project description:The cortactin oncoprotein is frequently overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), often due to amplification of the encoding gene (CTTN). While cortactin overexpression enhances invasive potential, recent research indicates that it also promotes cell proliferation, but how cortactin regulates the cell cycle machinery is unclear. In this article we report that stable short hairpin RNA-mediated cortactin knockdown in the 11q13-amplified cell line FaDu led to increased expression of the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) and inhibition of S-phase entry. These effects were associated with increased binding of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) to cyclin D1- and E1-containing complexes and decreased retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. Cortactin regulated expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, respectively. The direct roles of p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) downstream of cortactin were confirmed by the transient knockdown of each CDKI by specific small interfering RNAs, which led to partial rescue of cell cycle progression. Interestingly, FaDu cells with reduced cortactin levels also exhibited a significant diminution in RhoA expression and activity, together with decreased expression of Skp2, a critical component of the SCF ubiquitin ligase that targets p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) for degradation. Transient knockdown of RhoA in FaDu cells decreased expression of Skp2, enhanced the level of Cip/Kip CDKIs, and attenuated S-phase entry. These findings identify a novel mechanism for regulation of proliferation in 11q13-amplified HNSCC cells, in which overexpressed cortactin acts via RhoA to decrease expression of Cip/Kip CDKIs, and highlight Skp2 as a downstream effector for RhoA in this process.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that statins, which are widely used in lowering serum cholesterol and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, also exhibits anti-tumour properties. The underlying mechanisms by which statins-induced cancer cell death, however, remain incompletely understood. In this study, we explored the anti-tumour mechanisms of a lipophilic statin, lovastatin, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Lovastatin inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. Lovastatin caused p21 elevation while reduced cyclin D1 and survivin levels. Lovastatin also increased p53 phosphorylation, acetylation and its reporter activities. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that p53 binding to the survivin promoter region was increased, while Sp1 binding to the region was decreased, in MCF-7 cells after lovastatin exposure. These actions were associated with liver kinase B1 (LKB1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activation. Lovastatin's enhancing effects on p53 activation, p21 elevation and survivin reduction were significantly reduced in the presence of p38MAPK signalling inhibitor. Furthermore, LKB1-AMPK signalling blockade abrogated lovastatin-induced p38MAPK and p53 phosphorylation. Together these results suggest that lovastatin may activate LKB1-AMPK-p38MAPK-p53-survivin cascade to cause MCF-7 cell death. The present study establishes, at least in part, the signalling cascade by which lovastatin induces breast cancer cell death.
Project description:The T-box transcription factor family member TBX3 has been demonstrated to participate in the development of various types of cancer, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, little is currently known about its role in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. In the present study, the involvement of TBX3 in hypopharyngeal carcinoma was investigated. Immunohistochemical assays revealed that TBX3 levels were increased in hypopharyngeal carcinoma compared with normal tissue samples, accompanied by upregulated N-cadherin and downregulated E-cadherin. Lentivirus-mediated TBX3 knockdown efficiently suppressed its expression and inhibited the proliferation of FaDu cells. The opposite was observed in TBX3-overexpressing FaDu cells. These results indicate that TBX3 is essential for FaDu cell proliferation. Furthermore, TBX3 silencing led to a disturbance of the cell cycle, leading to a decrease in the G1 phase and an increase in the S phase. In addition, apoptosis was enhanced following TBX3 knockdown. The present results suggest TBX3 as a potential therapeutic target in hypopharyngeal carcinoma.
Project description:The anti-proliferative effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1alpha,25(OH)2D3] converge via the interaction of un-liganded vitamin D receptor (VDR) with co-repressors recruiting multiprotein complexes containing HDACs and via the induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) genes of the INK4 and Cip/Kip family. We investigated the effects of the HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) and 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 on the proliferation and CDKI gene expression in malignant and non-malignant mammary epithelial cell lines. TSA induced the INK4-family genes p18 and p19, whereas the Cip/Kip family gene p21 was stimulated by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA inhibition assays showed that the co-repressor NCoR1 and some HDAC family members complexed un-liganded VDR and repressed the basal level of CDKI genes, but their role in regulating CDKI gene expression by TSA and 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 were contrary. HDAC3 and HDAC7 attenuated 1alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent induction of the p21 gene, for which NCoR1 is essential. In contrast, TSA-mediated induction of the p18 gene was dependent on HDAC3 and HDAC4, but was opposed by NCoR1 and un-liganded VDR. This suggests that the attenuation of the response to TSA by NCoR1 or that to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 by HDACs can be overcome by their combined application achieving maximal induction of anti-proliferative target genes.
Project description:Through measuring expression levels of lncRNAs/mRNAs in RS-FaDu vs. FaDu cells at 0, 24 and 48 h after 4 Gy radiation, we identified a number of lncRNAs/mRNAs with dysregulation. And the microarray data were verified by qRT-PCR assays. By informatics analyses, we predicted pathways, which were potentially associated with radioresistance of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Overall design: The radioresistant hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (RS-FaDu) was estabished from its parental human hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (FaDu) by multi-fractioned radiation. Time-course differential lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in RS-FaDu vs. FaDu cells were detected by microarray approach, at 0, 2, 48 h after 4 Gy radiation.
Project description:RNA binding motif protein 17 (RBM17) is a protein-coding gene. The protein encoded by RBM17 is involved in the regulation of alternative splicing and is overexpressed in cancer. The present study aimed to determine the effect of RBM17-knockdown in hypopharyngeal carcinoma FaDu cells using the lentivirus-mediated shRNA method. Cell proliferation was detected by an MTT assay. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The results of the present study demonstrated that RBM17 expression was significantly decreased in FaDu cells infected with lentivirus-shRNA. Knockdown of RBM17 expression by shRNA significantly reduced cell proliferation, augmented cell apoptosis and arrested cells at the G2/M phase in FaDu cells. The results of the present study indicate that RBM17 serves a notable role in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Project description:Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are signal-dependent modulators of transcription with established roles in muscle differentiation and neuronal survival. We show here that in liver, class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, and 7) are phosphorylated and excluded from the nucleus by AMPK family kinases. In response to the fasting hormone glucagon, class IIa HDACs are rapidly dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus where they associate with the promoters of gluconeogenic enzymes such as G6Pase. In turn, HDAC4/5 recruit HDAC3, which results in the acute transcriptional induction of these genes via deacetylation and activation of FOXO family transcription factors. Loss of class IIa HDACs in murine liver results in inhibition of FOXO target genes and lowers blood glucose, resulting in increased glycogen storage. Finally, suppression of class IIa HDACs in mouse models of type 2 diabetes ameliorates hyperglycemia, suggesting that inhibitors of class I/II HDACs may be potential therapeutics for metabolic syndrome.
Project description:Histone deacetylases (HDACs) act as corepressors in gene transcription by altering the acetylation of histones, resulting in epigenetic gene silencing. We previously reported that HDAC3 acts as a coactivator of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Although HDAC3 forms complexes with class II HDACs, their potential role in the transcriptional activity of MR is unclear. We hypothesized that HDAC4 of the class II family stimulates the transcriptional activity of MR. The expression of MR target genes was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. MR and RNA polymerase II recruitment to promoters of MR target genes was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The association of MR with HDACs was investigated by co-immunoprecipitation. MR acetylation was determined with an anti-acetyl-lysine antibody after immunoprecipitation with an anti-MR antibody. Among the class II HDACs, HDAC4 interacted with both MR and HDAC3 after aldosterone stimulation. The nuclear translocation of HDAC4 was mediated by protein kinase A (PKA) and protein phosphatases (PP). The transcriptional activity of MR was significantly decreased by inhibitors of PKA (H89), PP1/2 (calyculin A), class I HDACs (MS-275), but not class II HDACs (MC1568). MR acetylation was increased by H89, calyculin A, and MS-275, but not by MC1568. Interaction between MR and HDAC3 was significantly decreased by H89, calyculin A, and HDAC4 siRNA. A non-genomic effect of MR via PKA and PP1/2 induced nuclear translocation of HDAC4 to facilitate the interaction between MR and HDAC3. Thus, we have uncovered a crucial role for a class II HDAC in the activation of MR-dependent transcription.