Lovastatin causes FaDu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell death via AMPK-p63-survivin signaling cascade.
ABSTRACT: Statins are used widely to lower serum cholesterol and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Growing evidence shows that statins also exhibit beneficial effects against cancers. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in lovastatin-induced cell death in Fadu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Lovastatin caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in FaDu cells. Lovastatin increased p21(cip/Waf1) level while the survivin level was decreased in the presence of lovastatin. Survivin siRNA reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in FaDu cells. Lovastatin induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and transcription factor p63. Lovastatin also caused p63 acetylation and increased p63 binding to survivin promoter region in FaDu cells. AMPK-p38MAPK signaling blockade abrogated lovastatin-induced p63 phosphorylation. Lovastatin's enhancing effect on p63 acetylation was reduced in HDAC3- or HDAC4- transfected cells. Moreover, transfection of cells with AMPK dominant negative mutant (AMPK-DN), HDAC3, HDAC4 or p63 siRNA significantly reduced lovastatin's effects on p21(cip/Waf1) and survivin. Furthermore, lovastatin inhibited subcutaneous FaDu xenografts growth in vivo. Taken together, lovastatin may activate AMPK-p38MAPK-p63-survivin cascade to cause FaDu cell death. This study establishes, at least in part, the signaling cascade by which lovastatin induces hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell death.
Project description:Growing evidence shows that hydroxamate-based compounds exhibit broad-spectrum pharmacological properties including anti-tumor activity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying hydroxamate derivative-induced cancer cell death remain incomplete understood. In this study, we explored the anti-tumor mechanisms of a novel aliphatic hydroxamate-based compound, WMJ-J-09, in FaDu head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. WMJ-J-09 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in FaDu cells. These actions were associated with liver kinase B1 (LKB1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activation, transcription factor p63 phosphorylation, as well as modulation of p21 and survivin. LKB1-AMPK-p38MAPK signaling blockade reduced WMJ-J-09's enhancing effects in p63 phosphorylation, p21 elevation and survivin reduction. Moreover, WMJ-J-09 caused an increase in ?-tubulin acetylation and interfered with microtubule assembly. Furthermore, WMJ-J-09 suppressed the growth of subcutaneous FaDu xenografts in vivo. Taken together, WMJ-J-09-induced FaDu cell death may involve LKB1-AMPK-p38MAPK-p63-survivin signaling cascade. HDACs inhibition and disruption of microtubule assembly may also contribute to WMJ-J-09's actions in FaDu cells. This study suggests that WMJ-J-09 may be a potential lead compound and warrant the clinical development in the treatment of HNSCC.
Project description:Hydroxamate derivatives have attracted considerable attention due to their broad pharmacological properties and have been extensively investigated. We recently demonstrated that WMJ-S-001, a novel aliphatic hydroxamate derivative, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanisms by which WMJ-S-001 induces HCT116 colorectal cancer cell death. WMJ-S-001 inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in HCT116 cells. These actions were associated with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, p53 phosphorylation and acetylation, as well as the modulation of p21(cip/Waf1), cyclin D1, survivin and Bax. AMPK-p38MAPK signaling blockade reduced WMJ-S-001-induced p53 phosphorylation. Transfection with AMPK dominant negative mutant (DN) reduced WMJ-S-001's effects on p53 and Sp1 binding to the survivn promoter region. Transfection with HDAC3-Flag or HDAC4-Flag also abrogated WMJ-S-001's enhancing effect on p53 acetylation. WMJ-S-001's actions on p21(cip/Waf1), cyclin D1, survivin, Bax were reduced in p53-null HCT116 cells. Furthermore, WMJ-S-001 was shown to suppress the growth of subcutaneous xenografts of HCT116 cells in vivo. In summary, the death of HCT116 colorectal cancer cells exposed to WMJ-S-001 may involve AMPK-p38MAPK-p53-survivin cascade. These results support the role of WMJ-S-001 as a potential drug candidate and warrant the clinical development in the treatment of cancer.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that statins, which are widely used in lowering serum cholesterol and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, also exhibits anti-tumour properties. The underlying mechanisms by which statins-induced cancer cell death, however, remain incompletely understood. In this study, we explored the anti-tumour mechanisms of a lipophilic statin, lovastatin, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Lovastatin inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. Lovastatin caused p21 elevation while reduced cyclin D1 and survivin levels. Lovastatin also increased p53 phosphorylation, acetylation and its reporter activities. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that p53 binding to the survivin promoter region was increased, while Sp1 binding to the region was decreased, in MCF-7 cells after lovastatin exposure. These actions were associated with liver kinase B1 (LKB1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activation. Lovastatin's enhancing effects on p53 activation, p21 elevation and survivin reduction were significantly reduced in the presence of p38MAPK signalling inhibitor. Furthermore, LKB1-AMPK signalling blockade abrogated lovastatin-induced p38MAPK and p53 phosphorylation. Together these results suggest that lovastatin may activate LKB1-AMPK-p38MAPK-p53-survivin cascade to cause MCF-7 cell death. The present study establishes, at least in part, the signalling cascade by which lovastatin induces breast cancer cell death.
Project description:The cortactin oncoprotein is frequently overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), often due to amplification of the encoding gene (CTTN). While cortactin overexpression enhances invasive potential, recent research indicates that it also promotes cell proliferation, but how cortactin regulates the cell cycle machinery is unclear. In this article we report that stable short hairpin RNA-mediated cortactin knockdown in the 11q13-amplified cell line FaDu led to increased expression of the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) and inhibition of S-phase entry. These effects were associated with increased binding of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) to cyclin D1- and E1-containing complexes and decreased retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. Cortactin regulated expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, respectively. The direct roles of p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) downstream of cortactin were confirmed by the transient knockdown of each CDKI by specific small interfering RNAs, which led to partial rescue of cell cycle progression. Interestingly, FaDu cells with reduced cortactin levels also exhibited a significant diminution in RhoA expression and activity, together with decreased expression of Skp2, a critical component of the SCF ubiquitin ligase that targets p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) for degradation. Transient knockdown of RhoA in FaDu cells decreased expression of Skp2, enhanced the level of Cip/Kip CDKIs, and attenuated S-phase entry. These findings identify a novel mechanism for regulation of proliferation in 11q13-amplified HNSCC cells, in which overexpressed cortactin acts via RhoA to decrease expression of Cip/Kip CDKIs, and highlight Skp2 as a downstream effector for RhoA in this process.
Project description:The T-box transcription factor family member TBX3 has been demonstrated to participate in the development of various types of cancer, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, little is currently known about its role in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. In the present study, the involvement of TBX3 in hypopharyngeal carcinoma was investigated. Immunohistochemical assays revealed that TBX3 levels were increased in hypopharyngeal carcinoma compared with normal tissue samples, accompanied by upregulated N-cadherin and downregulated E-cadherin. Lentivirus-mediated TBX3 knockdown efficiently suppressed its expression and inhibited the proliferation of FaDu cells. The opposite was observed in TBX3-overexpressing FaDu cells. These results indicate that TBX3 is essential for FaDu cell proliferation. Furthermore, TBX3 silencing led to a disturbance of the cell cycle, leading to a decrease in the G1 phase and an increase in the S phase. In addition, apoptosis was enhanced following TBX3 knockdown. The present results suggest TBX3 as a potential therapeutic target in hypopharyngeal carcinoma.
Project description:Through measuring expression levels of lncRNAs/mRNAs in RS-FaDu vs. FaDu cells at 0, 24 and 48 h after 4 Gy radiation, we identified a number of lncRNAs/mRNAs with dysregulation. And the microarray data were verified by qRT-PCR assays. By informatics analyses, we predicted pathways, which were potentially associated with radioresistance of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Overall design: The radioresistant hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (RS-FaDu) was estabished from its parental human hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (FaDu) by multi-fractioned radiation. Time-course differential lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in RS-FaDu vs. FaDu cells were detected by microarray approach, at 0, 2, 48 h after 4 Gy radiation.
Project description:RNA binding motif protein 17 (RBM17) is a protein-coding gene. The protein encoded by RBM17 is involved in the regulation of alternative splicing and is overexpressed in cancer. The present study aimed to determine the effect of RBM17-knockdown in hypopharyngeal carcinoma FaDu cells using the lentivirus-mediated shRNA method. Cell proliferation was detected by an MTT assay. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The results of the present study demonstrated that RBM17 expression was significantly decreased in FaDu cells infected with lentivirus-shRNA. Knockdown of RBM17 expression by shRNA significantly reduced cell proliferation, augmented cell apoptosis and arrested cells at the G2/M phase in FaDu cells. The results of the present study indicate that RBM17 serves a notable role in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Project description:Radioresistance remains a major problem in the treatment of patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important roles in the development, invasion, and metastasis of various tumors, including HSCC, but little is known about the role of lncRNAs in cancer radioresistance. The aim of this study was to identify radioresistance-related lncRNAs and mRNAs in radioresistant (RS) hypopharyngeal cancer subclone RS-FaDu cells. In this study, we performed microarray analysis to find the differences in time-course lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles between RS-FaDu and parent FaDu cells after 4 Gy radiation therapy, whose reliability was confirmed by validation experiment. Among these consistently dysregulated lncRNAs, we found that some lncRNAs (e.g., TCONS_00018436) might control resistance of HSCC cells to radiation. Furthermore, our bioinformatics analyses from mRNA/lncRNA microarray data showed that certain lncRNAs or mRNAs potentially are involved in radioresistance of HSCC. Our results from this study laid the foundation for further investigating the roles of these lncRNAs and mRNAs as promising candidates in the occurrence and development of HSCC radioresistance.
Project description:Purpose:The expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is common in various solid human cancers and it is an important therapeutic target. However, the expression pattern, clinical significance and potential mechanism of PD-L1 in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) are still lacking. Methods:PD-L1 expression in HSCC tumor tissues and paired adjacent hypopharyngeal mucosal tissues was detected using immunohistochemistry assay, and the clinical significance of PD-L1 in HSCC was characterized. In vitro assays including cell viability assays, migration assays, invasion assays as well as Western blot assays were performed to illuminate the biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of PD-L1 in HSCC development. Results:PD-L1 expression was detected in HSCC samples but we found no positive expression in matched normal hypopharyngeal mucosal tissues. The levels of PD-L1 expression were significantly correlated with advanced clinical progression and poor patient survival. Multivariable analysis of Cox model showed that PD-L1 expression was an independent predictor for the prognosis of HSCC patients. Functional experiments showed that the ectopic expression of PD-L1 markedly influenced the proliferation, migration and invasion of FaDu cells in vitro. Mechanistically, investigations demonstrated that PD-L1 could promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of FaDu cells. Meanwhile, PD-L1 knockdown inhibited, while PD-L1 overexpression activated the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway in FaDu cells. The EMT induced by PD-L1 overexpression could be reversed by the Akt inhibitor. Conclusion:In summary, the expression of PD-L1 can act as a significant biomarker for the adverse clinicopathological features and poor prognosis of patients with HSCC. PD-L1 can promote the proliferation, migration and invasion of FaDu cells and consequently enhance the aggressiveness. Moreover, PD-L1 induces EMT through AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. These suggest that PD-L1 has important tumor-intrinsic functions independent of its immunopathogenic effects.
Project description:Cellular stress responses trigger signaling cascades that inhibit proliferation and protein translation to help alleviate the stress or if the stress cannot be overcome induce apoptosis. In recent studies, we demonstrated the ability of lovastatin, an inhibitor of mevalonate synthesis, to induce the Integrated Stress Response as well as inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation.In this study, we evaluated the effects of lovastatin on the activity of the LKB1/AMPK pathway that is activated upon cellular energy shortage and can interact with the above pathways. In the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines SCC9 and SCC25, lovastatin treatment (1-25 µM, 24 hrs) induced LKB1 and AMPK activation similar to metformin (1-10 mM, 24 hrs), a known inducer of this pathway. Lovastatin treatment impaired mitochondrial function and also decreased cellular ADP/ATP ratios, common triggers of LKB1/AMPK activation. The cytotoxic effects of lovastatin were attenuated in LKB1 null MEFs indicating a role for this pathway in regulating lovastatin-induced cytotoxicity. Of clinical relevance, lovastatin induces synergistic cytotoxicity in combination with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib. In LKB1 deficient (A549, HeLa) and expressing (SCC9, SCC25) cell lines, metformin enhanced gefitinib cytotoxicity only in LKB1 expressing cell lines while both groups showed synergistic cytotoxic effects with lovastatin treatments. Furthermore, the combination of lovastatin with gefitinib induced a potent apoptotic response without significant induction of autophagy that is often induced during metabolic stress inhibiting cell death.Thus, targeting multiple metabolic stress pathways including the LKB1/AMPK pathway enhances lovastatin's ability to synergize with gefitinib in SCC cells.