Chromosome 9p21 and ABCA1 Genetic Variants and Their Interactions on Coronary Heart Disease and Ischemic Stroke in a Chinese Han Population.
ABSTRACT: The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to both coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke (IS) in Chinese individuals have not been identified definitely. This study was developed to evaluate the genetic susceptibility to CHD and IS on the chromosome 9p21 and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter A1 genes (ABCA1) in a Chinese Han population. Genotypes of the rs1333040, rs1333042, rs4977574, rs2066715 and rs2740483 SNPs were determined in 1134 unrelated patients (CHD, 565 and IS, 569) and 541 controls. The frequencies of the rs4977574 genotypes and alleles between CHD and control groups, and the rs2740483 genotypes and alleles between IS and control groups were different (p = 0.006-0.001). The subjects with rs1333042GG genotype and the carriers of the rs4977574G allele were associated with increased risk of CHD. The carriers of the rs4977574G allele were associated with increased risk of IS. However, the carriers of the rs2740483C allele had lower risk of IS than the non-carriers of the rs2740483C allele after controlling for potential confounders. The rs4977574GG-age (>60 year) interaction increased the risk of CHD (p = 0.022), whereas the rs2740483CG/CC-body mass index (>24 kg/m²) interaction decreased the risk of IS (p = 0.035). The interactions of rs1333040-rs1333042 on the risk of CHD and IS were relatively strong, whereas the interactions of rs1333040-rs1333042-rs2066715 and rs1333040-rs1333042-rs2066715-rs2740483 on the risk of CHD, and rs1333040-rs1333042-rs4977574 and rs1333040-rs1333042-rs4977574-rs2740483 on the risk of IS were relatively weak. These findings suggest that some common variants on the chromosome 9p21 and ABCA1 and their interactions may significantly modify the risk of CHD and IS independent of effects on serum lipid levels.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies have identified variants on chromosome 9p21 that are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). The relationship between these variants and the age of onset of CHD is less clear. The aim of this study was to examine the allelic frequencies and haplotype structure of eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 9p21 in ethnically diverse women. We also explored the relationship between 9p21 SNPs and the age of CHD onset.There was considerable interethnic allelic and haplotype diversity across the 9p21 locus with only two SNPs (rs10757274 and rs4977574) in perfect linkage disequilibrium in both races, and only a small proportion of the haplotypes shared between the racial groups. With the exception of rs1333040, whites with at least one copy of the 9p21 SNP risk alleles were found to have CHD from 1.45 (rs10116277) to 4.77 (rs2383206) years earlier than those with the wild-type alleles. Blacks carrying at least one copy of the risk allele (92%) for rs1333040 had a CHD age of onset that was 6.5 years earlier than those with the wild-type alleles.Different variants on chromosome 9p21 may influence CHD age of onset in whites and blacks.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The long noncoding RNAs have gradually been reported to be an important class of RNAs with pivotal roles in the development and progression of myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we hypothesized that genetic variant of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B antisense RNA (ANRIL) may affect the prognosis of MI patients. METHODS:A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies including 11,269 cases and 10,707 controls on the association of 5 ANRIL single nucleotide polymorphism and the overall risk of MI or coronary artery disease (CAD) was performed. RESULTS:In the meta-analysis, rs4977574 A?>?G, rs1333040?C?>?T, rs1333042 A?>?G and rs10757274 A?>?G ANRIL polymorphisms were correlated with overall MI or CAD risk. No significant associations were found between ANRIL rs1333049 G?>?C polymorphism and CAD risk. CONCLUSIONS:The results indicated that ANRIL polymorphism (rs4977574, rs1333040, rs1333042, and rs10757274) were more generally associated with CAD or MI risk. Further experimental studies to evaluate the limits of this hypothesis are warranted, and future functional studies are required to clarify the possible mechanisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rs4977574 (A?>?G) and Rs1333045 (C?>?T) are both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related with coronary artery disease, locating on chromosome 9p21.3. The study aimed to identify the correlation between rs4977574 and rs1333045 polymorphism genotypes and coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Chinese population. METHODS:Blood samples were collected from 855 subjects. A case-control study was used in this experiment, and 598 cases in the CHD group and 257 subjects in the control group were enrolled. Genotyping was identified by the Agena MassARRAY system. Statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS (Ver 16.0) and plink (Ver. 1.07, Shaun Purcell). Haplotype analysis was performed using Haploview software. RESULTS:Association analysis by plink indicated a significant difference in the allele distribution for single nucleotide polymorphisms between cases and controls (rs4977574 P?=?0.003, rs1333045 P?=?0.035). Fisher's exact test by plink proved that allele G may be associated with a higher risk of CHD (P?=?0.003, odds ratio (OR) =?1.371) and the T allele was likely to reduce the risk of coronary events (P?=?0.035, OR?=?0.798). The serum levels of apolipoprotein A (ApoA) were higher in subjects with the AG?+?AA genotype of rs4977574 compared to those with the GG genotype (P?=?0.028). In the dominant model of rs1333045, the levels of ApoA were higher and LDL levels were lower in the TC?+?TT genotype than in the CC genotype. CONCLUSIONS:The present study examined the association between the 9p21 chromosome rs4977574 and rs1333045 polymorphism genotypes and CHD in a population of Chinese patients. The G allele of rs4977574 and the C allele of rs1333045 are the susceptibility sites of CHD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chromosome 9p21 has recently been shown to be a risk region for a broad range of vascular diseases. Since carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque are independent predictors for vascular diseases, the association between 9p21 and these two phenotypes was investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Carotid segment-specific IMT and plaques were obtained in 1083 stroke- and myocardial infarction-free volunteers. We tested the genotypes and haplotypes of key single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 9p21 for the associations with carotid IMT and plaque. Multivariate permutation analyses demonstrated that carriers of the T allele of SNP rs1333040 were significantly associated with thicker common carotid artery (CCA) IMT (p=0.021) and internal carotid artery (ICA) IMT (p=0.033). The risk G allele of SNP rs2383207 was associated with ICA IMT (p=0.007). Carriers of the C allele of SNP rs1333049 were found to be significantly associated with thicker ICA IMT (p=0.010) and the greater risk for the presence of carotid plaque (OR=1.57 for heterozygous carriers; OR=1.75 for homozygous carriers). Haplotype analysis showed a global p value of 0.031 for ICA IMT and 0.115 for the presence of carotid plaque. Comparing with the other haplotypes, the risk TGC haplotype yielded an adjusted p value of 0.011 and 0.017 for thicker ICA IMT and the presence of carotid plaque respectively. Further analyzing the data separated by sex, the results were significant only in men but not in women. CONCLUSIONS: Chromosome 9p21 had a significant association with carotid atherosclerosis, especially ICA IMT. Furthermore, such genetic effect was in a gender-specific manner in the Han Chinese population.
Project description:We examined whether the variant at chromosome 9p21, rs4977574, was associated with long-term cardiovascular mortality in Han Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).Subjects who underwent coronary angiography for chest pain were consecutively enrolled. Fasting blood samples were collected for laboratory and genotype assessments. The information was correlated with data collected from the national death database.There were 925 cases with CAD and 634 without CAD enrolled in the present study. The G allele conferred a significant increase in risk of CAD (odds ratio?=?1.47, P = 0.003 in the dominant model; odds ratio?=?1.36, P = 0.018 in the recessive model). During a median of 11 years (inter-quartile range between 5.2 and 12.5 years) of follow-up, neither the total nor the cardiovascular mortality was different among CAD subjects with different genotypes. Using Cox regression analysis, genotypes of rs4977574 still failed to predict cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio?=?1.25, P = 0.138 in the dominant model; hazard ratio?=?1.05, P = 0.729 in the recessive model).The rs4977574 at chromosome 9p21 is associated with presence of CAD in Han Chinese. However, rs4977574 could not predict cardiovascular mortality in these CAD subjects during the eleven-year period of the study.
Project description:Chromosome 9p21 variants are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) but not with any of its known risk markers. However, recent studies have suggested that the risk associated with 9p21 variation is modified by a prudent dietary pattern and smoking. We tested if the increased risk of CVD by the 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphism rs4977574 is modified by intakes of vegetables, fruits, alcohol, or wine, and if rs4977574 interacts with environmental factors on known CVD risk markers.Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed in 23,949 individuals from the population-based prospective Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), of whom 3,164 developed CVD during 15 years of follow-up. The rs4977574 variant (major allele: A; minor allele: G) was genotyped using TaqMan® Assay Design probes. Dietary data were collected at baseline using a modified diet history method. Cross-sectional analyses were performed in 4,828 MDCS participants with fasting blood levels of circulating risk factors measured at baseline.Each rs4977574 G allele was associated with a 16% increased incidence of CVD (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.22). Higher vegetable intake (hazard ratio (HR), 0.95 [CI: 0.91-0.996]), wine intake (HR, 0.91 [CI: 0.86-0.96]), and total alcohol consumption (HR, 0.92 [CI: 0.86-0.98]) were associated with lower CVD incidence. The increased CVD incidence by the G allele was restricted to individuals with medium or high vegetable intake (Pinteraction?=?0.043), and to non- and low consumers of wine (Pinteraction?=?0.029). Although rs4977574 did not associate with any known risk markers, stratification by vegetable intake and smoking suggested an interaction with rs4977574 on glycated hemoglobin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Pinteraction?=?0.015 and 0.049, respectively).Our results indicate that rs4977574 interacts with vegetable and wine intake to affect the incidence of CVD, and suggest that an interaction may exist between environmental risk factors and rs4977574 on known risk markers of CVD.
Project description:Ischaemic stroke shares common traditional risk factors with coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI). This study evaluated whether genetic risk factors for CAD and MI also affect susceptibility to ischaemic stroke in Caucasians and African Americans.Included in the study were a Caucasian series (713 ischaemic stroke patients, 708 controls) and a small African American series (166 ischaemic stroke patients, 117 controls). Twenty single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously shown to be associated with CAD or MI were genotyped and assessed for association with ischaemic stroke and ischaemic stroke subtypes using odds ratios (ORs) from multivariable logistic regression models.In Caucasians, four SNPs on chromosome 9p21 were significantly associated with risk of cardioembolic stroke, the strongest of which was rs1333040 (OR 1.55, P = 0.0007); similar but weaker trends were observed for small vessel stroke, with no associations observed regarding large vessel stroke. Chromosome 9p21 SNPs were also associated with risk of ischaemic stroke in African Americans (rs1333040, OR 0.65, P = 0.023; rs1333042, OR 0.55, P = 0.070; rs2383207, OR 0.55, P = 0.070). The PSMA6 SNP rs1048990 on chromosome 14q13 was associated with overall ischaemic stroke in both Caucasians (OR 0.80, P = 0.036) and African Americans (OR 0.31, P = 0.020).Our results provide evidence that chromosome 9p21 variants are associated with cardioembolic ischaemic stroke in Caucasians and with overall ischaemic stroke in African Americans. The PSMA6 variant rs1048990 also appears to affect susceptibility to ischaemic stroke in both populations. These findings require validation, particularly the preliminary findings regarding African Americans given the small size of that series.
Project description:Variants at chromosome 9p21 are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the longitudinal effects of 9p21 variants on cardiovascular mortality remain controversial and may depend on whether the patient has CAD. We tested the hypothesis that the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4977574 is associated longitudinally with cardiovascular death in patients without detectable coronary lesions. We enrolled patients who underwent coronary angiography for angina pectoris but had normal angiographic findings. Laboratory analyses and rs4977574 TaqMan genotyping were performed using fasting blood samples collected during hospitalization. Cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates were acquired from a national database. Among the 679 enrolled subjects with neither myocardial infarction nor an angiographic coronary lesion, 28 (19.0%) of the 147 homozygous GG carriers suffered a cardiovascular death, compared with 63 (11.8%) of the 532 subjects with the AG or AA genotype during the median 12.3 years (interquartile range 8.6-12.7 years) of follow-up. In a recessive model, cardiovascular mortality was significantly higher in subjects with the GG genotype than in those with the other genotypes (hazard ratio, 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 2.64; P = 0.021). In this follow-up study, rs4977574, a tag SNP at chromosome 9p21, was shown to be associated with cardiovascular mortality in Taiwanese patients with angina pectoris but no coronary lesions.
Project description:The goal of our study was to explore the significant association between a non-protein coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4977574 of CDKN2BAS gene and coronary heart disease (CHD). A total of 590 CHD cases and 482 non-CHD controls were involved in the present association study. A strong association of rs4977574 with CHD was observed in females (genotype: p=0.002; allele: p=0.002, odd ratio (OR)=1.57, 95% confidential interval (CI)=1.18-2.08). Moreover, rs4977574 was more likely to be a risk variant of CHD under the recessive model in females (?2=10.29, p=0.003, OR=2.14, 95% CI=1.31-2.77). A breakdown analysis by age had shown that there was an 87% increased risk of CHD for females younger than 65 years (genotype: ?2=14.64, degrees of freedom (df)=2, p=0.0002; allele: ?2=11.31, df=1, p=0.0008, OR=1.87, 95% CI=1.30-2.70). Similar observation was also found in males younger than 65 years (genotype: ?2=8.63, df=2, p=0.04; allele: ?2=7.55, df=1, p=0.006, OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.11-1.90). p values were adjusted by age, sex, smoking, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Meta-analysis of 23 studies among 36,452 cases and 39,781 controls showed a strong association between rs4977574 and the risk of CHD (p<0.0001, OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.22-1.31).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Recent genome-wide association studies have established that polymorphisms within CDKN2B-AS1 of chr9p21.3 locus increased susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction. Common variants of CDKN2B-AS1 (including rs4977574 A>G and rs1333040 C>T) are determined to be directly associated with CADs in many populations worldwide and suggested biomarkers for the early detection of CAD. There is a lack of investigation for the association between CDKN2B-AS1 rs4977574 A>G and rs1333040 C>T genetic modifiers and CAD in a Turkish Cypriot population. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of these variants on susceptibility to developing CAD in a Turkish Cypriot population and their contribution to lipid metabolism. METHODS:Seventy-one patients with angiography-confirmed CAD were recruited to the CAD group, whereas 153 voluntary subjects without CAD symptoms were enrolled to the control group. Genotyping for the CDKN2B-AS1 gene polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. RESULTS:There is no statistical significant association observed between rs4977574 and rs1333040 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and two studied groups [odds ratio (OR): 0.763, p=0.185, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.511-1.139 and OR: 1.060, p=0.802, 95% CI: 0.672-1.671, respectively]. However, rs2977574 G and rs1333040 T alleles-the risk alleles-were found to be associated with higher level of serum total cholesterol and lower level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the CAD group (p=0.019, p=0.006 and p=0.022, p=0.031, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first study that establishes the effect of rs1333040 on lipid metabolism. CONCLUSION:The presence of rs4977574 G and rs1333040 T alleles and interaction may exist as environmental factors associated with lipid metabolism and might be responsible for the development of CAD in a Turkish Cypriot population.