Liver-Specific Deletion of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 Significantly Ameliorates Chronic EtOH-Induced Increases in Hepatocellular Damage.
ABSTRACT: Alcoholic liver disease is a significant contributor to global liver failure. In murine models, chronic ethanol consumption dysregulates PTEN/Akt signaling. Hepatospecific deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTENLKO) mice possess constitutive activation of Akt(s) and increased de novo lipogenesis resulting in increased hepatocellular steatosis. This makes PTENLKO a viable model to examine the effects of ethanol in an environment of preexisting steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic ethanol consumption and the absence of PTEN (PTENLKO) compared to Alb-Cre control mice (PTENf/f) on hepatocellular damage as evidenced by changes in lipid accumulation, protein carbonylation and alanine amino transferase (ALT). In the control PTENf/f animals, ethanol significantly increased ALT, liver triglycerides and steatosis. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption in PTENLKO mice decreased hepatocellular damage when compared to PTENLKO pair-fed controls. Consumption of ethanol elevated protein carbonylation in PTENf/f animals but had no effect in PTENLKO animals. In PTENLKO mice, overall hepatic mRNA expression of genes that contribute to GSH homeostasis as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations were significantly elevated compared to respective PTENf/f counterparts. These data indicate that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and steatosis, increased GSH homeostasis assists in mitigation of ethanol-dependent induction of oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, data herein suggest a divergence in EtOH-induced hepatocellular damage and increases in steatosis due to polyunsaturated fatty acids downstream of PTEN.
Project description:Hepatospecific deletion of PTEN results in constitutive activation of Akt and increased lipogenesis. In mice, the addition of a high fat diet (HFD) downregulates lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a HFD on hepatocellular damage induced by deletion of PTEN.12 Week old male flox/flox hepatospecific PTEN mice (PTENf/f) or Alb-Cre controls were fed a HFD composed of 45% fat-derived calories (from corn oil) or a normal chow. Animals were then analyzed for hepatocellular damage, oxidative stress and expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism.In the Alb-Cre animals, the addition of a HFD resulted in a significant increase in liver triglycerides and altered REDOX capacity as evidenced by increased GPX activity, decreased GST activity and decreased hepatic concentrations of GSSG. In addition, SCD2, ACLY and FASN were all downregulated by the addition of HFD. Furthermore, expression of PPAR? and PPAR?-dependent proteins Cyp4a and ACSL1 were upregulated. In the PTENf/f mice, HFD resulted in significant increased in ALT, serum triglycerides and decreased REDOX capacity. Although expression of fatty acid synthetic enzymes was elevated in the chow fed PTENf/f group, the addition of HFD resulted in SCD2, ACLY and FASN downregulation. Compared to the Alb-Cre HFD group, expression of PGC1?, PPAR? and its downstream targets ACSL and Cyp4a were upregulated in PTENf/f mice.These data suggest that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and increased steatosis, the addition of a HFD enhances hepatocellular damage due to increased CD36 expression and altered REDOX status. In addition, this work indicates HFD-induced hepatocellular damage occurs in part, independently of Akt signaling.
Project description:The production of reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is a key event in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which ranges from simple steatosis to fibrosis. The lipid phosphatase PTEN plays a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver. In this study, the effects of chronic ethanol feeding and carbonylation on the PTEN signaling pathway were examined in a 9-week mouse feeding model for ALD. Chronic ethanol consumption resulted in altered redox homeostasis as evidenced by decreased GSH, decreased Trx1, and increased GST activity. Both PTEN expression and PTEN phosphorylation were significantly increased in the livers of ethanol-fed mice. Carbonylation of PTEN increased significantly in the ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed control animals, corresponding to decreased PTEN 3-phosphatase activity. Concomitantly, increased expression of Akt2 along with increased Akt phosphorylation at residues Thr(308), Thr(450), and Ser(473) was observed resulting in increased Akt2 activity in the ethanol-fed animals. Akt2 activation corresponded to a decrease in cytosolic SREBP and ChREBP. Subsequent LC/MS/MS analysis of 4-HNE-modified recombinant human PTEN identified Michael addition adducts of 4-HNE on Cys(71), Cys(136), Lys(147), Lys(223), Cys(250), Lys(254), Lys(313), Lys(327), and Lys(344). Computational-based molecular modeling analysis of 4-HNE adducted to Cys(71) near the active site and Lys(327) in the C2 domain of PTEN suggested inhibition of enzyme catalysis via either stearic hindrance of the active-site pocket or prevention of C2 domain-dependent PTEN function. We hypothesize that 4-HNE-mediated PTEN inhibition contributes to the observed activation of Akt2, suggesting a possible novel mechanism of lipid accumulation in response to increased reactive aldehyde production during chronic ethanol administration in mice.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Chronic ethanol consumption in the Long-Evans (LE) rat has been associated with hepatic p53 activation, and inhibition of the insulin/PI3K/AKT signal transduction cascade due to increased expression of PTEN. We hypothesize that p53 activation and altered insulin signaling may influence the susceptibility of rats to ethanol-induced liver damage. Furthermore, p53 not only activates programmed cell death pathways and suppresses hepatocellular survival signals, but also promotes gluconeogenesis to increase systemic insulin resistance due to a novel metabolic function. METHODS:Fischer (F), Sprague-Dawley (SD) and LE rats were fed ethanol-containing or control liquid diet for 8 weeks. Histopathological and biochemical changes were assessed. RESULTS:Here, we demonstrate that chronic ethanol feeding in rats promotes p53 activation, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, PUMA, and PTEN expression, which contribute to hepatocellular death and diminished insulin signaling in the liver. Such changes are pronounced in the LE, less prominent in SD, and virtually absent in the F rat strain. More importantly, there is activation of Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) in the ethanol-fed LE rat. This event generates low hepatic fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P?) levels, reduced lactate/pyruvate ratio and may contribute to increased basal glucose turnover and high residual hepatic glucose production during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. CONCLUSIONS:p53 activation correlates with the susceptibility to ethanol-induced liver damage in different rat strains. p53 not only orchestrates apoptosis and suppresses cell survival, but by activating TIGAR and decreasing hepatic Fru-2,6-P?) levels it promotes insulin resistance and therefore, contributes to the metabolic abnormalities associated with hepatic steatosis.
Project description:Chronic alcohol consumption induces hepatic oxidative stress resulting in production of highly reactive electrophilic ?/?-unsaturated aldehydes that have the potential to modify proteins. A primary mechanism of reactive aldehyde detoxification by hepatocytes is through GSTA4-driven enzymatic conjugation with GSH. Given reports that oxidative stress initiates GSTA4 translocation to the mitochondria, we hypothesized that increased hepatocellular damage in ethanol (EtOH)-fed GSTA4(-/-) mice is due to enhanced mitochondrial protein modification by reactive aldehydes. Chronic ingestion of EtOH increased hepatic protein carbonylation in GSTA4(-/-) mice as evidenced by increased 4-HNE and MDA immunostaining in the hepatic periportal region. Using mass spectrometric analysis of biotin hydrazide conjugated carbonylated proteins, a total of 829 proteins were identified in microsomal, cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions. Of these, 417 were novel to EtOH models. Focusing on mitochondrial fractions, 1.61-fold more carbonylated proteins were identified in EtOH-fed GSTA4(-)(/-) mice compared to their respective WT mice ingesting EtOH. Bioinformatic KEGG pathway analysis of carbonylated proteins from the mitochondrial fractions revealed an increased propensity for modification of proteins regulating oxidative phosphorylation, glucose, fatty acid, glutathione and amino acid metabolic processes in GSTA4(-/-) mice. Additional analysis revealed sites of reactive aldehyde protein modification on 26 novel peptides/proteins isolated from either SV/GSTA4(-/-) PF or EtOH fed mice. Among the peptides/proteins identified, ACSL, ACOX2, MTP, and THIKB contribute to regulation of fatty acid metabolism and ARG1, ARLY, and OAT, which regulate nitrogen and ammonia metabolism having direct relevance to ethanol-induced liver injury. These data define a role for GSTA4-4 in buffering hepatic oxidative stress associated with chronic alcohol consumption and that this GST isoform plays an important role in protecting against carbonylation of mitochondrial proteins.
Project description:Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is the major enzyme that metabolizes acetaldehyde produced from alcohol metabolism. Approximately 40-50% of East Asians carry an inactive ALDH2 gene and exhibit acetaldehyde accumulation after alcohol consumption. However, the role of ALDH2 deficiency in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury remains obscure. In the present study, wild-type and ALDH2(-/-) mice were subjected to ethanol feeding and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) treatment, and liver injury was assessed. Compared with wild-type mice, ethanol-fed ALDH2(-/-) mice had higher levels of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adduct and greater hepatic inflammation, with higher hepatic interleukin (IL)-6 expression but surprisingly lower levels of steatosis and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Higher IL-6 levels were also detected in ethanol-treated precision-cut liver slices from ALDH2(-/-) mice and in Kupffer cells isolated from ethanol-fed ALDH2(-/-) mice than those levels in wild-type mice. In vitro incubation with MAA enhanced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated stimulation of IL-6 production in Kupffer cells. In agreement with these findings, hepatic activation of the major IL-6 downstream signaling molecule signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was higher in ethanol-fed ALDH2(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. An additional deletion of hepatic STAT3 increased steatosis and hepatocellular damage in ALDH2(-/-) mice. Finally, ethanol-fed ALDH2(-/-) mice were more prone to CCl4 -induced liver inflammation and fibrosis than ethanol-fed wild-type mice.ALDH2(-/-) mice are resistant to ethanol-induced steatosis but prone to inflammation and fibrosis by way of MAA-mediated paracrine activation of IL-6 in Kupffer cells. These findings suggest that alcohol, by way of acetaldehyde and its associated adducts, stimulates hepatic inflammation and fibrosis independent from causing hepatocyte death, and that ALDH2-deficient individuals may be resistant to steatosis and blood ALT elevation, but are prone to liver inflammation and fibrosis following alcohol consumption.
Project description:Chronic alcohol consumption causes alcohol-induced lipogenesis and promotes hepatic injury by preventing the oxidation of hepatocellular fatty acids through the suppression of the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). HIMH0021, an active flavonoid compound, which is a component of the Acer tegmentosum extract, has been shown to protect against liver damage caused by alcohol consumption. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine whether HIMH0021 could regulate alcoholic fatty liver and liver injury in mice. Oral administration of 10 days of Lieber-DeCarli ethanol plus a single binge of 30% ethanol (chronic-plus-binge model) induced steatosis and liver injury and inflammation in mice, which appears similar to the condition observed in human patients with alcohol-related diseases. HIMH0021, which was isolated from the active methanol extract of A. tegmentosum, inhibited alcohol-induced steatosis and attenuated the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) during hepatocellular alcohol metabolism, both of which promote lipogenesis as well as liver inflammation. Treatment with HIMH0021 conferred protection against lipogenesis and liver injury, inhibited the expression of cytochrome P4502E1, and increased serum adiponectin levels in the mice subjected to chronic-plus-binge feeding. Furthermore, in hepatocytes, HIMH0021 activated fatty acid oxidation by activating pAMPK, which comprises pACC and CPT1a. These findings suggested that HIMH0021 could be used to target a TNF?-related pathway for treating patients with alcoholic hepatitis.
Project description:Mutation of the tumor suppressor Pten often leads to tumorigenesis in various organs including the uterus. We previously showed that Pten deletion in the mouse uterus using a Pgr-Cre driver (Ptenf/fPgrCre/+) results in rapid development of endometrial carcinoma (EMC) with full penetration. We also reported that Pten deletion in the stroma and myometrium using Amhr2-Cre failed to initiate EMC. Since the Ptenf/fPgrCre/+ uterine epithelium was primarily affected by tumorigenesis despite its loss in both the epithelium and stroma, we wanted to know if Pten deletion in epithelia alone will induce tumorigenesis. We found that mice with uterine epithelial loss of Pten under a Ltf-iCre driver (Ptenf/f/LtfCre/+) develop uterine complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH), but rarely EMC even at 6 months of age. We observed that Ptenf/fPgrCre/+ uteri exhibit a unique population of cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and transformation related protein 63 (p63)-positive epithelial cells; these cells mark stratified epithelia and squamous differentiation. In contrast, Ptenf/fLtfCre/+ hyperplastic epithelia do not undergo stratification, but extensive epithelial cell apoptosis. This increased apoptosis is associated with elevation of TGF? levels and activation of downstream effectors, SMAD2/3 in the uterine stroma. Our results suggest that stromal PTEN via TGF? signaling restrains epithelial cell transformation from hyperplasia to carcinoma. In conclusion, this study, using tissue-specific deletion of Pten, highlights the epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk in the genesis of endometrial carcinoma.
Project description:Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) plays important roles in the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and impairment of Akt activity has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies suggest that cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) plays causal roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver (AFL). We hypothesized that Akt activity might be impaired due to CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress in chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis. In this study, we found that chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis was accompanied with reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 in mice liver. Chronic ethanol exposure had no effects on the protein levels of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), and led to a slight decrease of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK-1) protein level. Ethanol exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-Akt adducts, which was significantly inhibited by chlormethiazole (CMZ), an efficient CYP2E1 inhibitor. Interestingly, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated chronic ethanol-induced hepatic fat accumulation and the decline of Akt phosphorylation at Thr308. In the in vitro studies, Akt phosphorylation was suppressed in CYP2E1-expressing HepG2 (CYP2E1-HepG2) cells compared with the negative control HepG2 (NC-HepG2) cells, and 4-HNE treatment led to significant decrease of Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 in wild type HepG2 cells. Lastly, pharmacological activation of Akt by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) significantly alleviated chronic ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice. Collectively, these results indicate that CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress may be responsible for ethanol-induced suppression of Akt phosphorylation and pharmacological modulation of Akt in liver may be an effective strategy for the treatment of ethanol-induced fatty liver.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are characterized by fatty liver plus inflammation. It is generally believed that steatosis promotes inflammation, whereas inflammation in turn aggregates steatosis. Thus, we hypothesized the deletion of interleukin (IL)-10, a key anti-inflammatory cytokine, exacerbates liver inflammation, steatosis, and hepatocellular damage in alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease models that were achieved via feeding mice with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for 4 weeks or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, respectively. IL-10 knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice and several other strains of genetically modified mice were generated and used. Compared with wild-type mice, IL-10(-/-) mice had greater liver inflammatory response with higher levels of IL-6 and hepatic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation, but less steatosis and hepatocellular damage after alcohol or HFD feeding. An additional deletion of IL-6 or hepatic STAT3 restored steatosis and hepatocellular damage but further enhanced liver inflammatory response in IL-10(-/-) mice. In addition, the hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and key downstream lipogenic proteins and enzymes in fatty acid synthesis were down-regulated in IL-10(-/-) mice. Conversely, IL-10(-/-) mice displayed enhanced levels of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and its downstream targets including phosphorylated acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 in the liver. Such dysregulations were corrected in IL-10(-/-) IL-6(-/-) or IL-10(-/-) STAT3(Hep-/-) double knockout mice. CONCLUSION:IL-10(-/-) mice are prone to liver inflammatory response but are resistant to steatosis and hepatocellular damage induced by ethanol or HFD feeding. Resistance to steatosis in these mice is attributable to elevation of inflammation-associated hepatic IL-6/STAT3 activation that subsequently down-regulates lipogenic genes but up-regulates fatty acid oxidation-associated genes in the liver.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:In the liver, a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NASH) is oxidative stress, which leads to the accumulation of highly reactive electrophilic ?/? unsaturated aldehydes. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of NASH on protein carbonylation and antioxidant responses in a murine model. METHODS:Liver-specific phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deletion mice (PTENLKO) or control littermates were fed a standard chow diet for 45-55 weeks followed by analysis for liver injury, oxidative stress and inflammation. RESULTS:Histology and Picrosirius red-staining of collagen deposition within the extracellular matrix revealed extensive steatosis and fibrosis in the PTENLKO mice but no steatosis or fibrosis in controls. Increased steatosis and fibrosis corresponded with significant increases in inflammation. PTEN-deficient livers showed significantly increased cell-specific oxidative damage, as detected by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and acrolein staining. Elevated staining correlated with an increase in nuclear DNA repair foci (?H2A.X) and cellular proliferation index (Ki67) within zones 1 and 3, indicating oxidative damage was zonally restricted and was associated with increased DNA damage and cell proliferation. Immunoblots showed that total levels of antioxidant response proteins induced by nuclear factor erythroid-2-like-2 (Nrf2), including GST?, GST? and CBR1/3, but not HO-1, were elevated in PTENLKO as compared to controls, and IHC showed this response also occurred only in zones 1 and 3. Furthermore, an analysis of autophagy markers revealed significant elevation of p62 and LC3II expression. Mass spectrometric (MS) analysis identified significantly more carbonylated proteins in whole cell extracts prepared from PTENLKO mice (966) as compared to controls (809). Pathway analyses of identified proteins did not uncover specific pathways that were preferentially carbonylated in PTENLKO livers but, did reveal specific strongly increased carbonylation of thioredoxin reductase and of glutathione-S-transferases (GST) M6, O1, and O2. CONCLUSIONS:Results show that disruption of PTEN resulted in steatohepatitis, fibrosis and caused hepatic induction of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant system at least in part due to elevation of p62. This response was both cell-type and zone specific. However, these responses were insufficient to mitigate the accumulation of products of lipid peroxidation.