Deep imaging of bone marrow shows non-dividing stem cells are mainly perisinusoidal.
ABSTRACT: Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in a perivascular niche but the specific location of this niche remains controversial. HSCs are rare and few can be found in thin tissue sections or upon live imaging, making it difficult to comprehensively localize dividing and non-dividing HSCs. Here, using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in for the gene Ctnnal1 in mice (hereafter denoted as ?-catulin(GFP)), we discover that ?-catulin(GFP) is expressed by only 0.02% of bone marrow haematopoietic cells, including almost all HSCs. We find that approximately 30% of ?-catulin-GFP(+)c-kit(+) cells give long-term multilineage reconstitution of irradiated mice, indicating that ?-catulin-GFP(+)c-kit(+) cells are comparable in HSC purity to cells obtained using the best markers currently available. We optically cleared the bone marrow to perform deep confocal imaging, allowing us to image thousands of ?-catulin-GFP(+)c-kit(+) cells and to digitally reconstruct large segments of bone marrow. The distribution of ?-catulin-GFP(+)c-kit(+) cells indicated that HSCs were more common in central marrow than near bone surfaces, and in the diaphysis relative to the metaphysis. Nearly all HSCs contacted leptin receptor positive (Lepr(+)) and Cxcl12(high) niche cells, and approximately 85% of HSCs were within 10 ?m of a sinusoidal blood vessel. Most HSCs, both dividing (Ki-67(+)) and non-dividing (Ki-67(-)), were distant from arterioles, transition zone vessels, and bone surfaces. Dividing and non-dividing HSCs thus reside mainly in perisinusoidal niches with Lepr(+)Cxcl12(high) cells throughout the bone marrow.
Project description:Several cell types have been proposed to create niches for haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, the expression patterns of HSC maintenance factors have not been systematically studied and no such factor has been conditionally deleted from any candidate niche cell. Thus, the cellular sources of these factors are undetermined. Stem cell factor (SCF; also known as KITL) is a key niche component that maintains HSCs. Here, using Scf(gfp) knock-in mice, we found that Scf was primarily expressed by perivascular cells throughout the bone marrow. HSC frequency and function were not affected when Scf was conditionally deleted from haematopoietic cells, osteoblasts, nestin-cre- or nestin-creER-expressing cells. However, HSCs were depleted from bone marrow when Scf was deleted from endothelial cells or leptin receptor (Lepr)-expressing perivascular stromal cells. Most HSCs were lost when Scf was deleted from both endothelial and Lepr-expressing perivascular cells. Thus, HSCs reside in a perivascular niche in which multiple cell types express factors that promote HSC maintenance.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a perivascular niche in bone marrow, in which leptin receptor+ (LepR) stromal cells and endothelial cells synthesize factors required for HSC maintenance, including stem cell factor (SCF). An important question is why LepR+ cells are one hundred times more frequent than HSCs. Here, we show that SCF from LepR+ cells is also necessary to maintain many c-kit+-restricted hematopoietic progenitors. Conditional deletion of Scf from LepR+ cells depleted common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (MEPs), pre-megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (PreMegEs), and colony-forming units-erythroid (CFU-Es), as well as myeloid and erythroid blood cells. This was not caused by HSC depletion, as many other restricted progenitors were unaffected. Moreover, Scf deletion from endothelial cells depleted HSCs, but not progenitors. Early erythroid progenitors were closely associated with perisinusoidal LepR+ cells. This reveals cellular specialization within the niche: SCF from LepR+ cells is broadly required by HSCs and restricted progenitors while SCF from endothelial cells is required mainly by HSCs.
Project description:Bone marrow is the tissue filling the space between bone surfaces. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained by special microenvironments known as niches within bone marrow cavities. Mesenchymal cells, termed CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)-abundant reticular (CAR) cells or leptin receptor-positive (LepR+) cells, are a major cellular component of HSC niches that gives rise to osteoblasts in bone marrow. However, it remains unclear how osteogenesis is prevented in most CAR/LepR+ cells to maintain HSC niches and marrow cavities. Here, using lineage tracing, we found that the transcription factor early B-cell factor 3 (Ebf3) is preferentially expressed in CAR/LepR+ cells and that Ebf3-expressing cells are self-renewing mesenchymal stem cells in adult marrow. When Ebf3 is deleted in CAR/LepR+ cells, HSC niche function is severely impaired, and bone marrow is osteosclerotic with increased bone in aged mice. In mice lacking Ebf1 and Ebf3, CAR/LepR+ cells exhibiting a normal morphology are abundantly present, but their niche function is markedly impaired with depleted HSCs in infant marrow. Subsequently, the mutants become progressively more osteosclerotic, leading to the complete occlusion of marrow cavities in early adulthood. CAR/LepR+ cells differentiate into bone-producing cells with reduced HSC niche factor expression in the absence of Ebf1/Ebf3 Thus, HSC cellular niches express Ebf3 that is required to create HSC niches, to inhibit their osteoblast differentiation, and to maintain spaces for HSCs.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and skeletal stem cells (SSCs) cohabit in the bone marrow. KITL (C-KIT ligand) from LEPR+ adult bone marrow stromal cells is pivotal for HSC maintenance. In contrast, it remains unclear whether KITL/C-KIT signaling also regulates SSCs. Here, we lineage traced C-KIT+ cells and found that C-KIT was expressed by fetal, but not postnatal skeletal progenitors. Fetal C-KIT+ cells gave rise to 20% of LEPR+ stromal cells in adult bone marrow, forming nearly half of all osteoblasts. Disruption of mTOR signaling in fetal C-KIT+ cells impaired bone formation. Notably, conditional deletion of Kitl from PRX1+ fetal bone marrow stromal cells, but not LEPR+ adult bone marrow stromal cells, significantly increased bone formation. Thus, our work identified C-KIT+ skeletal progenitors as an important source of bones formed during development.
Project description:Arterioles and sinusoids of the bone marrow (BM) are accompanied by stromal cells that express nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2) and leptin receptor (LepR), and constitute specialized niches that regulate quiescence and proliferation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, how niche cells differentially regulate HSC functions remains unknown. Here, we show that the effects of cytokines regulating HSC functions are dependent on the producing cell sources. Deletion of chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12 (Cxcl12) or stem cell factor (Scf) from all perivascular cells marked by nestin-GFP dramatically depleted BM HSCs. Selective Cxcl12 deletion from arteriolar NG2+ cells, but not from sinusoidal LepR+ cells, caused HSC reductions and altered HSC localization in BM. By contrast, deletion of Scf in LepR+ cells, but not NG2+ cells, led to reductions in BM HSC numbers. These results uncover distinct contributions of cytokines derived from perivascular cells in separate vascular niches to HSC maintenance.
Project description:Aging drives the accumulation of senescent cells (SnCs) including stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, which contributes to aging-related bone degenerative pathologies. Local elimination of SnCs has been shown as potential treatment for degenerative diseases. As LepR+ mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) in bone marrow are the major population for forming bone/cartilage and maintaining HSCs niche, whether local elimination of senescent LepR+ MSPCs delays aging-related pathologies and improves local microenvironment need to be well defined. In this study, we performed local delivery of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) in bone marrow of aging mice, which previously showed to be used for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). We found the increased accumulation of senescent LepR+ MSPCs in bone marrow of aging mice, and TMP significantly inhibited the cell senescent phenotype via modulating Ezh2-H3k27me3. Most importantly, local delivery of TMP improved bone marrow microenvironment and maintained bone homeostasis in aging mice by increasing metabolic and anti-inflammatory responses, inducing H-type vessel formation, and maintaining HSCs niche. These findings provide evidence on the mechanisms, characteristics and functions of local elimination of SnCs in bone marrow, as well as the use of TMP as a potential treatment to ameliorate human age-related skeletal diseases and to promote healthy lifespan.
Project description:Endothelial cells and leptin receptor+ (LepR+) stromal cells are critical sources of haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche factors, including stem cell factor (SCF), in bone marrow. After irradiation or chemotherapy, these cells are depleted while adipocytes become abundant. We discovered that bone marrow adipocytes synthesize SCF. They arise from Adipoq-Cre/ER+ progenitors, which represent ?5% of LepR+ cells, and proliferate after irradiation. Scf deletion using Adipoq-Cre/ER inhibited haematopoietic regeneration after irradiation or 5-fluorouracil treatment, depleting HSCs and reducing mouse survival. Scf from LepR+ cells, but not endothelial, haematopoietic or osteoblastic cells, also promoted regeneration. In non-irradiated mice, Scf deletion using Adipoq-Cre/ER did not affect HSC frequency in long bones, which have few adipocytes, but depleted HSCs in tail vertebrae, which have abundant adipocytes. A-ZIP/F1 'fatless' mice exhibited delayed haematopoietic regeneration in long bones but not in tail vertebrae, where adipocytes inhibited vascularization. Adipocytes are a niche component that promotes haematopoietic regeneration.
Project description:The interaction between stem cells and their supportive microenvironment is critical for their maintenance, function, and survival. Whereas hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are among the best characterized of tissue stem cells, their precise site of residence (referred to as the niche) in the adult bone marrow has not been precisely defined. In this study, we found that a Gata2 promoter directs activity in all HSCs. We show that HSCs can be isolated efficiently from bone marrow cells by following Gata2-directed GFP fluorescence, and that they can also be monitored in vivo. Each individual GFP-positive cell lay in a G0/G1 cell cycle state, in intimate contact with osteoblasts beside the endosteum, at the edge of the bone marrow. We conclude that the HSC niche is composed of solitary cells and that adult bone marrow HSC are not clustered.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and multipotent hematopoietic progenitors (MPPs) are routinely isolated using various markers but remain heterogeneous. Here we show that four SLAM family markers, CD150, CD48, CD229, and CD244, can distinguish HSCs and MPPs from restricted progenitors and subdivide them into a hierarchy of functionally distinct subpopulations with stepwise changes in cell-cycle status, self-renewal, and reconstituting potential. CD229 expression largely distinguished lymphoid-biased HSCs from rarely dividing myeloid-biased HSCs, enabling prospective enrichment of these HSC subsets. Differences in CD229 and CD244 expression resolved CD150(-)CD48(-/low)Lineage(-/low)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+) cells into a hierarchy of highly purified MPPs that retained erythroid and platelet potential but exhibited progressive changes in mitotic activity and reconstituting potential. Use of these markers, and reconstitution assays, showed that conditional deletion of Scf from endothelial cells and perivascular stromal cells eliminated the vast majority of bone marrow HSCs, including nearly all CD229(-/low) HSCs, demonstrating that quiescent HSCs are maintained by a perivascular niche.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) inhabit distinct microenvironments within the adult bone marrow (BM) that govern the delicate balance between HSC quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation. It has been suggested that quiescent HSCs localize adjacent to BM arteriole endothelial cells in a significant and non-random distribution. This data suggests that the arteriole BM vascular niche may be the primary HSC niche. Because the BM arteriole niche is composed of tightly-associated pericytes, including smooth muscle actin+, LepR+, Nestin+, NG2+, and nonmyelinating Schwann cells, we sought to begin to uncouple the arteriole BM EC niche by examining its capacity to support the maintenance and expansion of HSCs ex vivo and in vivo. We developed a method to isolate and culture BM arteriole endothelial cells in serum-/growth factor-free conditions, allowing for a non-biased approach to examining their instructive function. Utilizing our protocol, we demonstrate that BM endothelial cells, but not BM stromal cells, have the capacity to expand long-term repopulating, multi-lineage HSCs in lieu of complex serum and cytokine supplementation. In addition, transplantation of arteriole endothelial cells promoted rapid hematopoietic recovery and protected HSCs following an LD50 dose of myeloablative irradiation. These data demonstrate that arteriole-derived BM endothelial cells are endowed with the necessary signals to support the self-renewal and regenerative capacity of LT-HSCs and that transplantation of arteriole BM endothelial cells could be used as a therapeutic means to decrease pancytopenias associated with myeloablative treatments to treat a wide array of disease states. Transcriptome sequencing of bone marrow endothelial cells and bone marrow stroma, in vitro and in vivo, with and without HSC co-culture.