Effects of Tomato Root Exudates on Meloidogyne incognita.
ABSTRACT: Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR), RS2 (moderately resistant, MR) and L-402 (highly susceptible, T). The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2) were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains) suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in the other compounds. Each of the four compounds were correlated with a reduction in disease index in the susceptible cultivar, T, and tomato seedlings irrigated with L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate at 2 mmol·L-1 showed the best resistance to M. incognita. Taken together, this study provided a valuable contribution to understanding the underlying mechanism of nematode resistance in tomato cultivars.
Project description:Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are among the most destructive plant-parasites worldwide, and RKN control has been attempted mainly using chemical nematicides. However, these chemical nematicides have negative effects on humans and the environment, thus necessitating the search for eco-friendly alternative RKN control methods. Here, we screened nematicidal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi and evaluated their efficacy as biocontrol agents against RKNs. Of 237 bacterial strains, Lactobacillus brevis WiKim0069 showed the strongest nematicidal activity against the second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, and M. hapla and inhibited the egg hatch of M. incognita. The culture filtrate of WiKim0069 had a pH of 4.2 and contained acetic acid (11,190 ?g/ml), lactic acid (7,790 ?g/ml), malic acid (470 ?g/ml), and succinic acid (660 ?g/ml). An artificial mixture of the four organic acids produced by WiKim0069 also induced 98% M. incognita J2 mortality at a concentration of 1.25%, indicating that its nematicidal activity was derived mainly from the four organic acids. Application of WiKim0069 culture filtrate suppressed the formation of galls and egg masses on tomato roots by M. incognita in a dose-dependent manner in a pot experiment. The fermentation broth of WiKim0069 also reduced gall formation on melon under field conditions, with a higher efficacy (62.8%) than that of fosthiazate (32.8%). This study is the first report to identify the effectiveness of kimchi LAB against RKNs and to demonstrate that the organic acids produced by LAB can be used for the RKN management.
Project description:The aim of the current study was to describe the role and mechanism of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y1 against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Initially, the exposure of the bacterial culture supernatant and crude extract of Y1 to M. incognita significantly inhibited the hatching of eggs and caused the mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2), with these inhibitory effects depending on the length of incubation time and concentration of the treatment. The dipeptide cyclo(d-Pro-l-Leu) was identified in B. amyloliquefaciens culture for the first time using chromatographic techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR ¹H, 13C, H-H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and recognized to have nematocidal activity. Various concentrations of cyclo(d-Pro-l-Leu) were investigated for their effect on the hatching of eggs and J2 mortality. Moreover, the in vivo nematocidal activity of the Y1 strain was investigated by conducting pot experiments in which tomato plants were inoculated with M. incognita. Each and every pot was amended 50 mL of fertilizer media (F), or Y1 culture, or nematicide (N) (only once), or fertilizer media with N (FN) at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after transplantation. The results of the pot experiments demonstrated the antagonistic effect of B. amyloliquefaciens Y1 against M. incognita as it significantly decreases the count of eggs and galls per root of the tomato plant as well as the population of J2 in the soil. Besides, the investigation into the growth parameters, such as the length of shoot, shoot fresh and dry weights of the tomato plants, showed that they were significantly higher in the Y1 strain Y1-treated plants compared to F-, FN- and N-treated plants. Therefore, the biocontrol repertoire of this bacterium opens a new insight into the applications in crop pest control.
Project description:Plant-parasitic nematodes are among the most harmful pests of cultivated crops causing important economic losses. The ban of chemical nematicides requires the development of alternative agroecological approaches to protect crops against nematodes. For cyst nematodes, egg hatching is stimulated by host plant root exudates. Inducing "suicide hatching" of nematode second-stage juveniles (J2), using root exudates in the absence of the host plant, may constitute an effective and innovative biocontrol method to control cyst nematodes. However, before considering the development of this approach, understanding the effect of soil biotic component on cyst nematode hatching by root exudates is a major issue. The effectiveness of this approach could be modulated by other soil organisms consuming root exudates for growth as soil microbiota, and this must be evaluated. To do that, four different native agricultural soils were selected based on their physicochemical properties and their microbiota composition were characterized by rDNA metabarcoding. To disentangle the effect of microbiota from that of soil on hatching, four recolonized artificial soils were obtained by inoculating a common sterile soil matrix with the microbiota proceeding from each agricultural soil. Each soil was then inoculated with cysts of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, and low or high doses of potato root exudates (PREs) were applied. After 40 days, viable J2 remaining in cysts were counted to determine the efficiency of root exudates to stimulate hatching in different soils. Results showed that (i) when physicochemical and microbiota compositions varied among native soils, the hatching rates remained very high albeit small differences were measured and no dose effect was detected and (ii) when only microbiota composition varied among recolonized soils, the hatching rates were also high at the highest dose of PREs, but a strong dose effect was highlighted. This study shows that abiotic and biotic factors may not compromise the development of methods based on suicide hatching of cyst nematodes, using root exudates, molecules inducing J2 hatch, or trap crops.
Project description:Greenhouse experiments with two susceptible hosts of Meloidogyne incognita, a dwarf tomato and wheat, led to the identification of a soil in which the root-knot nematode population was reduced 5- to 16-fold compared to identical but pasteurized soil two months after infestation with 280 M. incognita J2/100 cm(3) soil. This suppressive soil was subjected to various temperature, fumigation and dilution treatments, planted with tomato, and infested with 1,000 eggs of M. incognita/100 cm(3) soil. Eight weeks after nematode infestation, distinct differences in nematode population densities were observed among the soil treatments, suggesting the suppressiveness had a biological nature. A fungal rRNA gene analysis (OFRG) performed on M. incognita egg masses collected at the end of the greenhouse experiments identified 11 fungal phylotypes, several of which exhibited associations with one or more of the nematode population density measurements (egg masses, eggs or J2). The phylotype containing rRNA genes with high sequence identity to Pochonia chlamydosporia exhibited the strongest negative associations. The negative correlation between the densities of the P. chlamydosporia genes and the nematodes was corroborated by an analysis using a P. chlamydosporia-selective qPCR assay.
Project description:Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops can be severely damaged due to parasitism by the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, but are protected when intercropped with crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Root exudate may be the determining factor for this protection. An experiment using pots linked by a tube and Petri dish experiments were undertaken to confirm that tomato-crown daisy intercropping root exudate decreased the number of nematodes and alleviated nematode damage, and to determine crown daisy root exudate-regulated nematode chemotaxis. Following a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, it was found that the intercropping protection was derived from the potent bioactivity of a specific root exudate component of crown daisy, namely lauric acid. The Mi-flp-18 gene, encoding an FMRFamide-like peptide neuromodulator, regulated nematode chemotaxis and infection by RNA interference. Moreover, it was shown that lauric acid acts as both a lethal trap and a repellent for M. incognita by specifically regulating Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of lauric acid (0.5-2.0mM) attract M. incognita and consequently cause death, while high concentrations (4.0mM) repel M. incognita. This study elucidates how lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate regulates nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to alleviate nematode damage, and presents a general methodology for studying signalling systems affected by plant root exudates in the rhizosphere. This could lead to the development of economical and feasible strategies for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes, and provide an alternative to the use of pesticides in farming systems.
Project description:Plant-parasitic nematodes are associated with specifically attached soil bacteria. To investigate these bacteria, we employed culture-dependent methods to isolate a representative set of strains from the cuticle of the infective stage (J2) of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla in different soils. The bacteria with the highest affinity to attach to J2 belonged to the genera Microbacterium, Sphingopyxis, Brevundimonas, Acinetobacter, and Micrococcus as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Dynamics of the attachment of two strains showed fast adhesion in less than two hours, and interspecific competition for attachment sites. Isolates from the cuticle of M. hapla J2 attached to the lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans, and vice versa, suggesting similar attachment sites on both species. Removal of the surface coat by treatment of J2 with the cationic detergent CTAB reduced bacterial attachment, but did not prevent it. Some of the best attaching bacteria impaired M. hapla performance in vitro by significantly affecting J2 mortality, J2 motility and egg hatch. Most of the tested bacterial attachers significantly reduced the invasion of J2 into tomato roots, suggesting their beneficial role in soil suppressiveness against M. hapla.
Project description:The rhizobacterial strain Jdm2 was isolated from the rhizosphere of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowii in Jiangsu province, China, and was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Exposure of cell-free filtrate of the strain to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita under in vitro conditions caused substantial mortality of the second stage juvenile (J2) and significantly reduced egg hatchability. A greenhouse trial demonstrated that 56 days after treatment with Jdm2, the number of galls associated with M. incognita infection in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots was significantly reduced compared to controls, and the disease severity of infected plants was lower in treated plants (36%) compared to water control (75%). Consistently, in the field trial, the biocontrol efficacy of Jdm2 reached 69%, 51% and 48% after 30, 60 and 90 days post-transplantation, respectively. As indicated by PCR-DGGE analysis, inoculation with Jdm2 strain had an effect on the bacterial community of the tomato rhizosphere at the first stage, but was not able to imperil the bacterial community stability for long time. The novel bacterial strain Jdm2 enhances plant growth and inhibits nematode activity, and has the potential to be a safe and effective microbial pesticide.
Project description:Root-knot nematodes are one of the most harmful plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs). In this paper, the predation of Stratiolaelaps scimitus against Meloidogyne incognita was tested in an individual arena, and the control efficiency of the mite on the nematode in the water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) rhizosphere was studied with a pot experiment. The results showed that S. scimitus could develop normally and complete its life cycle by feeding on second-stage juveniles of M. incognita (Mi-J2). The consumption rate of a 24?h starving female mite on Mi-J2 increased with the increase of prey density at 25?°C. Among the starvation treatments, the nematode consumption rate of a female mite starved for 96?h at 25?°C was highest; and among temperature treatments, the maximum consumption rate of a 24?h starving female mite on Mi-J2 was at 28?°C. The number of M. incognita in the spinach rhizosphere could be reduced effectively by releasing S. scimitus into rhizosphere soil, and 400 mites per pot was the optimum releasing density in which the numbers of root knots and egg masses decreased by 50.9% and 62.8%, respectively. Though we have gained a greater understanding of S. scimitus as a predator of M. incognita, the biocontrol of M. incognita using S. scimitus under field conditions remains unknown and requires further study.
Project description:Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a widely consumed staple food crop worldwide whose production is threatened by potato cyst nematodes (PCN). To infect a host, PCN eggs first need to be stimulated to hatch by chemical components in the host root exudates, yet it remains unknown how most root exudate components influence PCN behavior. Here, we evaluated the influence of eight compounds identified by LC-QqQ-MS in the root exudate of potato on the hatching response of the PCN, Globodera rostochiensis at varying doses. The eight compounds included the amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine; phytohormones zeatin and methyl dihydrojasmonate; steroidal glycoalkaloids ?-solanine and ?-chaconine and the steroidal alkaloid solanidine. We additionally tested two other Solanaceae steroidal alkaloids, solasodine and tomatidine, previously identified in the root exudates of tomato, an alternative host for PCN. In dose-response assays with the individual compounds, the known PCN hatching factors ?-chaconine and ?-solanine stimulated the highest number of eggs to hatch, ?47 and ?42%, respectively, whereas the steroidal alkaloids (aglycones), solanidine and solasodine and potato root exudate (PRE) were intermediate, 28% each and 21%, respectively, with tomatidine eliciting the lowest hatching response 13%. However, ?60% of the hatched juveniles failed to emerge from the cyst, which was compound- and concentration-dependent. The amino acids, phytohormones and the negative control (1% DMSO in water), however, were generally non-stimulatory. The use of steroidal glycoalkaloids and their aglycones in the suicidal hatching of PCN offers promise as an environmentally sustainable approach to manage this pest.
Project description:Root-knot nematodes are obligate parasites that invade roots and induce the formation of specialized feeding structures. Although physiological and molecular changes inside the root leading to feeding site formation have been studied, very little is known about the molecular events preceding root penetration by nematodes. In order to investigate the influence of root exudates on nematode gene expression before plant invasion and to identify new genes potentially involved in parasitism, sterile root exudates from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana were produced and used to treat Meloidogyne incognita pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles. After confirming the activity of A. thaliana root exudates (ARE) on M. incognita stylet thrusting, six new candidate genes identified by cDNA-AFLP were confirmed by qRT-PCR as being differentially expressed after incubation for one hour with ARE. Using an in vitro inoculation method that focuses on the events preceding the root penetration, we show that five of these genes are differentially expressed within hours of nematode exposure to A. thaliana roots. We also show that these genes are up-regulated post nematode penetration during migration and feeding site initiation. This study demonstrates that preceding root invasion plant-parasitic nematodes are able to perceive root signals and to respond by changing their behaviour and gene expression.