Immobilized Cytochrome P450 for Monitoring of P450-P450 Interactions and Metabolism.
ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (P450) protein-protein interactions have been shown to alter their catalytic activity. Furthermore, these interactions are isoform specific and can elicit activation, inhibition, or no effect on enzymatic activity. Studies show that these effects are also dependent on the protein partner cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and the order of protein addition to purified reconstituted enzyme systems. In this study, we use controlled immobilization of P450s to a gold surface to gain a better understanding of P450-P450 interactions between three key drug-metabolizing isoforms (CYP2C9, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6). Molecular modeling was used to assess the favorability of homomeric/heteromeric P450 complex formation. P450 complex formation in vitro was analyzed in real time utilizing surface plasmon resonance. Finally, the effects of P450 complex formation were investigated utilizing our immobilized platform and reconstituted enzyme systems. Molecular modeling shows favorable binding of CYP2C9-CPR, CYP2C9-CYP2D6, CYP2C9-CYP2C9, and CYP2C9-CYP3A4, in rank order.KDvalues obtained via surface plasmon resonance show strong binding, in the nanomolar range, for the above pairs, with CYP2C9-CYP2D6 yielding the lowestKD, followed by CYP2C9-CYP2C9, CYP2C9-CPR, and CYP2C9-CYP3A4. Metabolic incubations show that immobilized CYP2C9 metabolism was activated by homomeric complex formation. CYP2C9 metabolism was not affected by the presence of CYP3A4 with saturating CPR concentrations. CYP2C9 metabolism was activated by CYP2D6 at saturating CPR concentrations in solution but was inhibited when CYP2C9 was immobilized. The order of addition of proteins (CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CPR) influenced the magnitude of inhibition for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. These results indicate isoform-specific P450 interactions and effects on P450-mediated metabolism.
Project description:AIMS:To characterize mRNA expression levels (17 cytochromes P450) and activity (9 isoforms) of major cytochromes P450 expressed throughout the human small intestine. METHODS:Tissue samples were obtained from 9 deceased subjects and intestinal sections (n = 10) were isolated for each subject. Relative mRNA expression levels were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Intestinal microsomes were prepared from 5 subsections: duodenum, jejunum (proximal and mid-jejunum) and ileum (proximal and mid-ileum) regions. In vitro incubations were performed with various cytochrome P450 probe substrates: bupropion (CYP2B6), repaglinide (CYP2C8), tolbutamide (CYP2C9), S-mephenytoin (CYP2C19), bufuralol (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1), ebastine (CYP2J2), midazolam (CYP3A4/5) and lauric acid (CYP4A11). Metabolite formation was assessed using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assays. RESULTS:Cytochrome P450 mRNA levels ranked as follows: CYP3A4 > CYP2C9 > CYP2C19 > CYP2J2 > CYP4F2. Cytochrome P450 mRNA transcripts showed different patterns in their relative expression from 1 region to the other but CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2J2 displayed the highest levels of mRNA expression (>5%) in all intestinal sections. Cytochrome P450 activities were greater in proximal part of the small intestine with the jejunum showing the greatest drug-metabolism activity. Spearman's correlation analyses indicated that cytochrome P450 mRNA expressions and corresponding cytochrome P450 activities in the human intestine were moderately associated for CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP4A11 (rs = 0.44-0.56). CONCLUSIONS:Our study provides new and additional information on the expression and activities of selected cytochromes P450 in various sections of the human small intestine.
Project description:NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) is essential for the activity of cytochrome P450 (P450). Previous studies demonstrated that CPR regulates the levels of various P450 isoforms in vitro. We investigated the mechanistic basis for this regulation. By transfection of Chinese hamster ovary DUKXB11 cells we obtained the cell line DUKX/2D6, which expressed human CYP2D6, a P450 isoform. Subsequently, DUKX/2D6 cells were transfected with human CPR cDNA to generate the cell line DUKX/2D6/CPR-3. Expression of recombinant CPR decreased the level of spectrally detectable CYP2D6 holoprotein in DUKX/2D6/CPR-3 cells by 70%, whereas the level of immunodetectable apoprotein remained unchanged. Addition of the radical scavenger DMSO increased levels of CYP2D6 holoenzyme in DUKX/2D6/CPR-3 cells but not in DUKX/2D6 cells. A similar effect was noted when cells were grown in the presence of hemin. Importantly, combined treatment with DMSO and hemin increased levels of CYP2D6 holoenzyme in DUKX/2D6/CPR-3 but not in DUKX/2D6 cells even further than either treatment alone. None of these treatments affected the level of immunodetectable CYP2D6. This demonstrates that expression of CPR increases production of damaging radicals but also that CPR may alter haem homoeostasis. In agreement with this, the activity of haem oxygenase, a rate-limiting enzyme in haem metabolism, was compared with that in DUKX/DHFR control cells (expressing dihydrofolate reductase), and was 3-fold higher in DUKX/2D6/CPR-3 but similar in DUKX/2D6 cells. Furthermore, treatment of cells with sodium arsenite increased levels of haem oxygenase concomitant with a marked decrease of spectrally detectable CYP2D6 and a rise in levels of ferritin, which sequesters free iron released from the destruction of haem. These data demonstrate that CPR regulates P450 activity by supplying electrons and also by altering P450 levels via radical-and haem oxygenase-mediated pathways.
Project description:Members of the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme families CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 are responsible for the metabolism of approximately 75% of all clinically relevant drugs. With the increased prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), it is likely that patients with this disease represent an emerging population at significant risk for alterations in these important drug-metabolizing enzymes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether three progressive stages of human NALFD alter hepatic P450 expression and activity. Microsomes isolated from human liver samples diagnosed as normal, n = 20; steatosis, n = 11; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (fatty liver), n = 10; and NASH (no longer fatty), n = 11 were analyzed for P450 mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity. Microsomal CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 mRNA levels were decreased with NAFLD progression, whereas CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 mRNA expression increased. Microsomal protein expression of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 tended to decrease with NAFLD progression. Likewise, functional activity assays revealed decreasing trends in CYP1A2 (p = 0.001) and CYP2C19 (p = 0.05) enzymatic activity with increasing NAFLD severity. In contrast, activity of CYP2A6 (p = 0.001) and CYP2C9 (diclofenac, p = 0.0001; tolbutamide, p = 0.004) was significantly increased with NAFLD progression. Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta was observed and may be responsible for observed decreases in respective P450 activity. Furthermore, elevated CYP2C9 activity during NAFLD progression correlated with elevated hypoxia-induced factor 1alpha expression in the later stages of NAFLD. These results suggest that significant and novel changes occur in hepatic P450 activity during progressive stages of NAFLD.
Project description:In a one-way cross-over study, we investigated the effect of Khat, a natural amphetamine-like psychostimulant plant, on catalytic activities of five major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. After a one-week Khat abstinence, 63 Ethiopian male volunteers were phenotyped using cocktail probe drugs (caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole). Phenotyping was repeated after a one-week daily use of 400?g fresh Khat leaves. Genotyping for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A5 were done. Urinary cathinone and phenylpropanolamine, and plasma probe drugs and metabolites concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Effect of Khat on enzyme activities was evaluated by comparing caffeine/paraxanthine (CYP1A2), losartan/losartan carboxylic acid (CYP2C9), omeprazole/5-hydroxyomeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan/dextrorphan (CYP2D6) and dextromethorphan/3-methoxymorphinan (CYP3A4) metabolic ratios (MR) before and after Khat use. Wilcoxon-matched-pair-test indicated a significant increase in median CYP2D6 MR (41%, p?<?0.0001), and a marginal increase in CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 MR by Khat. Repeated measure ANOVA indicated the impact of CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 genotype on Khat-CYP enzyme interactions. The median MR increased by 35% in CYP1A2*1/*1 (p?=?0.07) and by 40% in carriers of defective CYP2C19 alleles (p?=?0.03). Urinary log cathinone/phenylpropanolamine ratios significantly correlated with CYP2D6 genotype (p?=?0.004) and CYP2D6 MR (P?=?0.025). Khat significantly inhibits CYP2D6, marginally inhibits CYP3A4, and genotype-dependently inhibit CYP2C19 and CYP1A2 enzyme activities.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a dominant role in drug elimination and variation in these genes is a major source of interindividual differences in drug response. Little is known, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. We have developed a partnership with the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) in northwestern Montana to address this knowledge gap. METHODS:We resequenced CYP2D6 in 187 CSKT individuals and CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in 94 CSKT individuals. RESULTS:We identified 67 variants in CYP2D6, 15 in CYP3A4, 10 in CYP3A5, and 41 in CYP2C9. The most common CYP2D6 alleles were CYP2D6*4 and *41 (20.86 and 11.23%, respectively). CYP2D6*3, *5, *6, *9, *10, *17, *28, *33, *35, *49, *1xN, *2xN, and *4xN frequencies were less than 2%. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and *1B were detected with frequencies of 92.47, 26.81, and 2.20%, respectively. Allelic variation in CYP2C9 was low: CYP2C9*2 (5.17%) and *3 (2.69%). In general, allele frequencies in CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A5 were similar to those observed in European Americans. There was, however, a marked divergence in CYP3A4 for the CYP3A4*1G allele. We also observed low levels of linkage between CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A5*1 in the CSKT. The combination of nonfunctional CYP3A5*3 and putative reduced function CYP3A4*1G alleles may predict diminished clearance of CYP3A substrates. CONCLUSION:These results highlight the importance of carrying out pharmacogenomic research in AI/AN populations and show that extrapolation from other populations is not appropriate. This information could help optimize drug therapy for the CSKT population.
Project description:We evaluated the drug interaction profile of Red Ginseng (RG) with respect to the activities of major cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in healthy Korean volunteers.This article describes an open-label, crossover study. CYP probe cocktail drugs, caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, midazolam, and fexofenadine were administered before and after RG supplementation for 2 wk. Plasma samples were collected, and tolerability was assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios of the parameters were determined from logarithmically transformed data using analysis of variance after RG administration versus before RG administration.Fourteen healthy male participants were evaluated, none of whom were genetically defined as poor CYP2C9, 2C19, and CYP2D6 metabolizers based on genotyping. Before and after RG administration, the geometric least-square mean metabolic ratio (90% CI) was 0.870 (0.805-0.940) for caffeine to paraxanthine (CYP1A2), 0.871 (0.800-0.947) for losartan (CYP2C9) to EXP3174, 1.027 (0.938-1.123) for omeprazole (CYP2C19) to 5-hydroxyomeprazole, 1.373 (0.864-2.180) for dextromethorphan to dextrorphan (CYP2D6), and 0.824 (0.658-1.032) for midazolam (CYP3A4) to 1-hydroxymidazolam. The geometric mean ratio of the area under the curve of the last sampling time (AUClast) for fexofenadine (P-gp) was 0.963 (0.845-1.098). Administration of concentrated RG for 2 wk weakly inhibited CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 and weakly induced CYP2D6. However, no clinically significant drug interactions were observed between RG and CYP and P-gp probe substrates.RG has no relevant potential to cause CYP enzyme- or P-gp-related interactions. Clinical trial registration number (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT02056743.
Project description:Curcuminoid extract and piperine are being evaluated for beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease, among other intractable disorders. Consequently, we studied the potential for herb-drug interactions involving cytochrome P450 (P450), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes. The curcuminoid extract inhibited SULT > CYP2C19 > CYP2B6 > UGT > CYP2C9 > CYP3A activities with IC(50) values ranging from 0.99 +/- 0.04 to 25.3 +/- 1.3 microM, whereas CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP2E1 activities were less affected (IC(50) values > 60 microM). Inhibition of CYP3A activity by curcuminoid extract was consistent with competitive inhibition (K(i) = 11.0 +/- 1.3 microM), whereas inhibition of both CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities were consistent with mixed competitive-noncompetitive inhibition (10.6 +/- 1.1 and 7.8 +/- 0.9 microM, respectively). Piperine was a relatively selective noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP3A (IC(50) 5.5 +/- 0.7 microM, K(i) = 5.4 +/- 0.3 microM) with less effect on other enzymes evaluated (IC(50) > 29 microM). Curcuminoid extract and piperine inhibited recombinant CYP3A4 much more potently (by >5-fold) than CYP3A5. Pure synthetic curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) were also evaluated for their effects on CYP3A, CYP2C9, UGT, and SULT activities. All three curcuminoids had similar effects on CYP3A, UGT, and SULT activity, but demethoxycurcumin (IC(50) = 8.8 +/- 1.2 microM) was more active against CYP2C9 than either curcumin or bisdemethoxycurcumin (IC(50) > 50 microM). Based on these data and expected tissue concentrations of inhibitors, we predict that a p.o. administered curcuminoid/piperine combination is most likely to inhibit CYP3A, CYP2C9, UGT, and SULT metabolism within the intestinal mucosa.
Project description:Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) has been used clinically in the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis. This study evaluated the effect of GA on the activity of five P450(CYP450) cytochrome enzymes: CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant cDNA-expressed enzyme systems using a HPLC-MS/MS CYP-specific probe substrate assay. With midazolam as the probe substrate, GA greatly decreased CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 8.195 ?M in HLMs and 7.498 ?M in the recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 enzyme system, respectively. It significantly decreased CYP3A4 activity in a dose- but not time-dependent manner. Results from Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that GA could inhibit CYP3A4 activity competitively, with a Ki value of 1.57 ?M in HLMs. Moreover, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 could also be inhibited significantly by GA with IC50 of 42.89 and 40.26 ?M in HLMs, respectively. Other CYP450 isoforms were not markedly affected by GA. The inhibition was also confirmed by an in vivo study of mice. In addition, it was observed that mRNA expressions of the Cyps2c and 3a family decreased significantly in the livers of mice treated with GA. In conclusion, this study indicates that GA may exert herb-drug interactions by competitively inhibiting CYP3A4.
Project description:We investigated the relationship between oligomerization of CYP3A4 (cytochrome P450 3A4) and its response to ANF (?-naphthoflavone), a prototypical heterotropic activator. The addition of ANF resulted in over a 2-fold increase in the rate of CYP3A4-dependent debenzylation of 7-BFC [7-benzyloxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin] in HLM (human liver microsomes), but failed to produce activation in BD Supersomes or Baculosomes containing recombinant CYP3A4 and NADPH-CPR (cytochrome P450 reductase). However, incorporation of purified CYP3A4 into Supersomes containing only recombinant CPR reproduced the behaviour observed with HLM. The activation in this system was dependent on the surface density of the enzyme. Although no activation was detectable at an L/P (lipid/P450) ratio ?750, it reached 225% at an L/P ratio of 140. To explore the relationship between this effect and CYP3A4 oligomerization, we probed P450-P450 interactions with a new technique that employs LRET (luminescence resonance energy transfer). The amplitude of LRET in mixed oligomers of the haem protein labelled with donor and acceptor fluorophores exhibited a sigmoidal dependence on the surface density of CYP3A4 in Supersomes™. The addition of ANF eliminated this sigmoidal character and increased the degree of oligomerization at low enzyme concentrations. Therefore the mechanisms of CYP3A4 allostery with ANF involve effector-dependent modulation of P450-P450 interactions.
Project description:The cytochromes P450 (CYPs) comprise a vast superfamily of enzymes found in virtually all life forms. In mammals, xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs provide crucial protection from the effects of exposure to a wide variety of chemicals, including environmental toxins and therapeutic drugs. Ideally, the information on the possible metabolism by CYPs required during drug development would be obtained from crystal structures of all the CYPs of interest. For some years only crystal structures of distantly related bacterial CYPs were available and homology modelling techniques were used to bridge the gap and produce structural models of human CYPs, and thereby obtain useful functional information. A significant step forward in the reliability of these models came seven years ago with the first crystal structure of a mammalian CYP, rabbit CYP2C5, followed by the structures of six human enzymes, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, and a second rabbit enzyme, CYP2B4. In this review we describe as a case study the evolution of a CYP2D6 model, leading to the validation of the model as an in silico tool for predicting binding and metabolism. This work has led directly to the successful design of CYP2D6 mutants with novel activity-including creating a testosterone hydroxylase, converting quinidine from inhibitor to substrate, creating a diclofenac hydroxylase and creating a dextromethorphan O-demethylase. Our modelling-derived hypothesis-driven integrated interdisciplinary studies have given key insight into the molecular determinants of CYP2D6 and other important drug metabolizing enzymes.