A one-step preparation method of monolithic enzyme reactor for highly efficient sample preparation coupled to mass spectrometry-based proteomics studies.
ABSTRACT: Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to sample preparation and separation techniques has become a primary tool for proteomics studies. However, due to sample complexity, it is often challenging to achieve fast and efficient sample preparation prior to MS analysis. In recent decades, monolithic materials have been developed not only as chromatographic media, but also as efficient solid supports for immobilizing multiple types of affinity reagents. Herein, the N-acryloxysuccinimide-co-acrylamide-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (NAS-AAm-Bis) monolith was fabricated within silanized 200 ?m i.d. fused-silica capillaries and was used as an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER). The column was conjugated with trypsin/Lys-C and Lys-N enzymes to allow enzymatic digestions to occur while protein mixture was loaded onto the IMER column followed by MS-based proteomics analysis. Similar MS signal and protein sequence coverage were observed using protein standard bovine serum albumin (BSA) compared to in-solution digestion. Furthermore, mouse serum, yeast, and human cell lysate samples were also subjected to enzymatic digestion by both IMER (in seconds to minutes) and conventional in solution digestion (overnight) for comparison in large-scale proteomics studies. Comparable protein identification results obtained by the two methods highlighted the potential of employing NAS-based IMER column for fast and highly efficient sample preparation for MS analysis in proteomics studies.
Project description:Sample preparation is a critical process for proteomic studies. Many efficient and reproducible sample preparation methods have been developed for mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human and animal tissues or cells, but no attempt has been made to evaluate these protocols for plants. We here present an LC-MS/MS-based proteomics study of barley leaf aimed at optimization of methods to achieve efficient and unbiased trypsin digestion of proteins prior to LC-MS/MS based sequencing and quantification of peptides. We evaluated two spin filter-aided sample preparation protocols using either sodium dodecyl-sulphate or sodium deoxycholate (SDC), and three in-solution digestion (ISD) protocols using SDC or trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation.The proteomics workflow identified and quantified up to 1800 barley proteins based on sequencing of up to 6900 peptides per sample. The two spin filter-based protocols provided a 12-38% higher efficiency than the ISD protocols, including more proteins of low abundance. Among the ISD protocols, a simple one-step reduction and S-alkylation method (OP-ISD) was the most efficient for barley leaf sample preparation; it identified and quantified 1500 proteins and displayed higher peptide-to-protein inference ratio and higher average amino acid sequence coverage of proteins. The two spin filter-aided sample preparation protocols are compatible with TMT labelling for quantitative proteomics studies. They exhibited complementary performance as about 30% of the proteins were identified by either one or the other protocol, but also demonstrated a positive bias for membrane proteins when using SDC as detergent.We provide detailed protocols for efficient plant protein sample preparation for LC-MS/MS-based proteomics studies. Spin filter-based protocols are the most efficient for the preparation of leaf samples for MS-based proteomics. However, a simple protocol provides comparable results although with different peptide digestion profile.
Project description:The sample condition is an important factor in urine proteomics with stability and accuracy. However, a general protocol of urine protein preparation in mass spectrometry analysis has not yet been established. Here, we proposed a workflow for optimized sample preparation based on methanol/chloroform (M/C) precipitation and in-solution trypsin digestion in LC-MS/MS-based urine proteomics. The urine proteins prepared by M/C precipitation showed around 80% of the protein recovery rate. The samples showed the largest number of identified proteins, which were over 1000 on average compared with other precipitation methods in LC-MS/MS-based urine proteomics. For further improvement of the workflow, the essences were arranged in protein dissolving and trypsin digestion step for the extraction of urine proteins. Addition of Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) dramatically enhanced the dissolution of protein and promoted the trypsin activity in the digestion step because the treatment increased the number of identified proteins with less missed cleavage sites. Eventually, an optimized workflow was established by a well-organized strategy for daily use in the LC-MS/MS-based urine proteomics. The workflow will be of great help for several aims based on urine proteomics approaches, such as diagnosis and biomarker discovery.
Project description:A novel open tubular nanoproteomic platform featuring accelerated on-line protein digestion and high-resolution nano liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has been developed. The platform features very narrow open tubular columns, and is hence particularly suited for limited sample amounts. For enzymatic digestion of proteins, samples are passed through a 20 µm inner diameter (ID) trypsin + endoproteinase Lys-C immobilized open tubular enzyme reactor (OTER). Resulting peptides are subsequently trapped on a monolithic pre-column and transferred on-line to a 10 µm ID porous layer open tubular (PLOT) liquid chromatography LC separation column. Wnt/ß-catenein signaling pathway (Wnt-pathway) proteins of potentially diagnostic value were digested+detected in targeted-MS/MS mode in small cell samples and tumor tissues within 120 minutes. For example, a potential biomarker Axin1 was identifiable in just 10 ng of sample (protein extract of ?1,000 HCT15 colon cancer cells). In comprehensive mode, the current OTER-PLOT set-up could be used to identify approximately 1500 proteins in HCT15 cells using a relatively short digestion+detection cycle (240 minutes), outperforming previously reported on-line digestion/separation systems. The platform is fully automated utilizing common commercial instrumentation and parts, while the reactor and columns are simple to produce and have low carry-over. These initial results point to automated solutions for fast and very sensitive MS based proteomics, especially for samples of limited size.
Project description:The main challenge of bottom-up proteomic sample preparation is to extract proteomes in a manner that enables efficient protein digestion for subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Today's sample preparation strategies are commonly conceptualized around the removal of detergents, which are essential for extraction but strongly interfere with digestion and LC-MS. These multi-step preparations contribute to a lack of reproducibility as they are prone to losses, biases and contaminations, while being time-consuming and labor-intensive. We report a detergent-free method, named Sample Preparation by Easy Extraction and Digestion (SPEED), which consists of three mandatory steps, acidification, neutralization and digestion. SPEED is a universal method for peptide generation from various sources and is easily applicable even for lysis-resistant sample types as pure trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is used for highly efficient protein extraction by complete sample dissolution. The protocol is highly reproducible, virtually loss-less, enables very rapid sample processing and is superior to the detergent/chaotropic agent-based methods FASP, ISD-Urea and SP3 for quantitative proteomics. SPEED holds the potential to dramatically simplify and standardize sample preparation while improving the depth of proteome coverage especially for challenging samples.
Project description:A major challenge in the field of proteomics is obtaining high-quality peptides for comprehensive proteome profiling by LC-MS. Here, evaluation and modification of a range of sample preparation methods using photosynthetically active Arabidopsis leaf tissue are done. It was found that inclusion of filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) based on filter digestion improves all protein extraction methods tested. Ultimately, a detergent-free urea-FASP approach that enables deep and robust quantification of leaf and root proteomes is shown. For example, from 4-day-old leaf tissue, up to 11 690 proteins were profiled from a single sample replicate. This method should be broadly applicable to researchers working with difficult to process plant samples.
Project description:Proteomic analysis of membrane proteins is challenged by the proteins solubility and detergent incompatibility with MS analysis. No single perfect protocol can be used to comprehensively characterize the proteome of membrane fraction. Here, we used cow milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteome analysis to assess six sample preparation procedures including one in-gel and five in-solution digestion approaches prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The largest number of MFGM proteins were identified by suspension trapping (S-Trap) and filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) methods, followed by acetone precipitation without clean-up of tryptic peptides method. Protein identifications with highest average coverage was achieved by Chloroform/MeOH, in-gel and S-Trap methods. Most distinct proteins were identified by FASP method, followed by S-Trap. Analyses by Venn diagram, principal-component analysis, hierarchical clustering and the abundance ranking of quantitative proteins highlight differences in the MFGM fraction by the all sample preparation procedures. These results reveal the biased proteins/peptides loss occurred in each protocol. In this study, we found several novel proteins that were not observed previously by in-depth proteomics characterization of MFGM fraction in milk. Thus, a combination of multiple procedures with orthologous properties of sample preparation was demonstrated to improve the protein sequence coverage and expression level accuracy of membrane samples.
Project description:While mass spectrometry (MS) plays a key role in proteomics research, characterization of membrane proteins (MP) by MS has been a challenging task because of the presence of a host of interfering chemicals in the hydrophobic protein extraction process, and the low protease digestion efficiency. We report a sample preparation protocol, two-phase separation with Triton X-100, induced by NaCl, with coomassie blue added for visualizing the detergent-rich phase, which streamlines MP preparation for SDS-PAGE analysis of intact MP and shot-gun proteomic analyses. MP solubilized in the detergent-rich milieu were then sequentially extracted and fractionated by surface-oxidized nanodiamond (ND) at three pHs. The high MP affinity of ND enabled extensive washes for removal of salts, detergents, lipids, and other impurities to ensure uncompromised ensuing purposes, notably enhanced proteolytic digestion and down-stream mass spectrometric (MS) analyses. Starting with a typical membranous cellular lysate fraction harvested with centrifugation/ultracentrifugation, MP purities of 70%, based on number (not weight) of proteins identified by MS, was achieved; the weight-based purity can be expected to be much higher.
Project description:Careful, clean and controlled preparation of samples for mass spectrometry proteomics is crucial to obtain reproducible and reliable data. This is especially important when carrying out quantitative proteomics by chemical isobaric labeling (aka tandem mass tagging), since the differentially labeled samples are combined quite late during the sample processing. Addressing this need for robust and reliable sample processing for quantitative proteomics, we describe here iFASP, a simple protocol for combining isobaric mass tagging with the recently introduced filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) method. iFASP provides a quick, simple and effective method for obtaining clean samples, ensuring efficient digestion and providing excellent labeling yields for quantitative proteomics experiments. We have carried out our iFASP protocol using several highly complex Xenopus laevis egg and embryo lysates and compared the labeling yields and number of high-confidence peptide identifications to a standard in-solution digestion and labeling protocol. Although the labeling efficiency with both techniques is in the 99+% range, the number of peptides identified with a 1% false discovery rate and the corresponding number of quantified peptide spectral matches are as much as doubled with iFASP compared to the corresponding non-FASP-based method.
Project description:Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the most popular laboratory reagents used for biological sample extraction; however, the presence of this reagent in samples challenges LC-MS-based proteomics analyses because it can interfere with reversed-phase LC separations and electrospray ionization. This study reports a simple SDS-assisted proteomics sample preparation method facilitated by a novel peptide-level SDS removal step. In an initial demonstration, SDS was effectively (>99.9%) removed from peptide samples through ion substitution-mediated DS(-) precipitation using potassium chloride (KCl), and excellent peptide recovery (>95%) was observed for <20 ?g of peptides. Further experiments demonstrated the compatibility of this protocol with LC-MS/MS analyses. The resulting proteome coverage obtained for both mammalian tissues and bacterial samples was comparable to or better than that obtained for the same sample types prepared using standard proteomics preparation methods and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. These results suggest the SDS-assisted protocol is a practical, simple, and broadly applicable proteomics sample processing method, which can be particularly useful when dealing with samples difficult to solubilize by other methods.
Project description:For mass spectrometry-based proteomics, the selected sample preparation strategy is a key determinant for information that will be obtained. However, the corresponding selection is often not based on a fit-for-purpose evaluation. Here we report a comparison of in-gel (IGD), in-solution (ISD), on-filter (OFD), and on-pellet digestion (OPD) workflows on the basis of targeted (QconCAT-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method for mitochondrial proteins) and discovery proteomics (data-dependent acquisition, DDA) analyses using three different human head and neck tissues (i.e., nasal polyps, parotid gland, and palatine tonsils). Our study reveals differences between the sample preparation methods, for example, with respect to protein and peptide losses, quantification variability, protocol-induced methionine oxidation, and asparagine/glutamine deamidation as well as identification of cysteine-containing peptides. However, none of the methods performed best for all types of tissues, which argues against the existence of a universal sample preparation method for proteome analysis.