Adolescent pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates across countries: levels and recent trends.
ABSTRACT: To examine pregnancy rates and outcomes (births and abortions) among 15- to 19-year olds and 10- to 14-year olds in all countries for which recent information could be obtained and to examine trends since the mid-1990s.Information was obtained from countries' vital statistics reports and the United Nations Statistics Division for most countries in this study. Alternate sources of information were used if needed and available. We present estimates primarily for 2011 and compare them to estimates published for the mid-1990s.Among the 21 countries with complete statistics, the pregnancy rate among 15- to 19-year olds was the highest in the United States (57 pregnancies per 1,000 females) and the lowest rate was in Switzerland (8). Rates were higher in some former Soviet countries with incomplete statistics; they were the highest in Mexico and Sub-Saharan African countries with available information. Among countries with reliable evidence, the highest rate among 10- to 14-year olds was in Hungary. The proportion of teen pregnancies that ended in abortion ranged from 17% in Slovakia to 69% in Sweden. The proportion of pregnancies that ended in live births tended to be higher in countries with high teen pregnancy rates (p = .02). The pregnancy rate has declined since the mid-1990s in the majority of the 16 countries where trends could be assessed.Despite recent declines, teen pregnancy rates remain high in many countries. Research on the planning status of these pregnancies and on factors that determine how teens resolve their pregnancies could further inform programs and policies.
Project description:The rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States increased slightly between 2001 and 2008 and is higher than that in many other industrialized countries. National trends have not been reported since 2008.We calculated rates of pregnancy for the years 2008 and 2011 according to women's and girls' pregnancy intentions and the outcomes of those pregnancies. We obtained data on pregnancy intentions from the National Survey of Family Growth and a national survey of patients who had abortions, data on births from the National Center for Health Statistics, and data on induced abortions from a national census of abortion providers; the number of miscarriages was estimated using data from the National Survey of Family Growth.Less than half (45%) of pregnancies were unintended in 2011, as compared with 51% in 2008. The rate of unintended pregnancy among women and girls 15 to 44 years of age declined by 18%, from 54 per 1000 in 2008 to 45 per 1000 in 2011. Rates of unintended pregnancy among those who were below the federal poverty level or cohabiting were two to three times the national average. Across population subgroups, disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy persisted but narrowed between 2008 and 2011; the incidence of unintended pregnancy declined by more than 25% among girls who were 15 to 17 years of age, women who were cohabiting, those whose incomes were between 100% and 199% of the federal poverty level, those who did not have a high school education, and Hispanics. The percentage of unintended pregnancies that ended in abortion remained stable during the period studied (40% in 2008 and 42% in 2011). Among women and girls 15 to 44 years of age, the rate of unintended pregnancies that ended in birth declined from 27 per 1000 in 2008 to 22 per 1000 in 2011.After a previous period of minimal change, the rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States declined substantially between 2008 and 2011, but unintended pregnancies remained most common among women and girls who were poor and those who were cohabiting. (Funded by the Susan Thompson Buffett Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.).
Project description:Antibiotic use rates have declined dramatically since the 1990s. We aimed to determine if, when, and at what level the decline in antibiotic-dispensing rates ended and which diagnoses contributed to the trends.Antibiotic dispensings and diagnoses were obtained from 2 health insurers for 3- to <72-month-olds in 16 Massachusetts communities from 2000 to 2009. Population-based antibiotic-dispensing rates per person-year (p-y) were determined according to year (September-August) for 3 age groups. Fit statistics were used to identify the most likely year for a change in trend. Rates for the first and last years were compared according to antibiotic category and associated diagnosis.From 2000-2001 to 2008-2009, the antibiotic-dispensing rate for 3- to <24-month-olds decreased 24% (2.3-1.8 antibiotic dispensings per p-y); for 24- to <48-month-olds, it decreased 18% (1.6-1.3 antibiotic dispensings per p-y); and for 48- to <72-month-olds, it decreased 20% (1.4-1.1 antibiotic dispensings per p-y). For 3- to <48-month-olds, rates declined until 2004-2005 and remained stable thereafter; the downward trend for 48- to <72-month-olds ended earlier in 2001-2002. Among 3- to <24-month-olds, first-line penicillin use declined 26%. For otitis media, the dispensing rate decreased 14% and the diagnosis rate declined 9%, whereas the treatment fraction was stable at 63%.The downward trend in antibiotic dispensings to young children in these communities ended by 2004-2005. This trend was driven by a declining otitis media diagnosis rate. Continued monitoring of population-based dispensing rates will support efforts to avoid returning to previous levels of antibiotic overuse.
Project description:Background: Currently there are more adolescents (10-19 years old) and young adults (20-24 years old) than ever. Reproductive health among this age group is often overlooked, although it can have a profound impact on the future. This is especially the case in conflict zones and refugee settings, where there is a heightened need for reproductive health care, and where both the resources and possibility for data collation are usually limited. Methods: Here we report on pregnancies, birth outcomes and risk factors for repeat pregnancies among adolescent and young adult refugees and migrants from antenatal clinics on the Thailand-Myanmar border across a 30 year time span. Results: Pregnancy and fertility rates were persistently high. Compared with 20-24-year-olds, 15-19-year-olds who reported being unable to read had 2.35 (CI: 1.97 - 2.81) times the odds for repeat pregnancy (gravidity >2). In primigravidae, the proportion of small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm births (PTB), and neonatal deaths (NND) decreased with increasing maternal age (all p <0.001). After adjustment, this association retained significance for PTB (cut-off point, ?18 years) but not for SGA and NND. Conclusions: There is considerable room for improvement in adolescent pregnancy rates in these border populations, and educational opportunities may play a key role in effective interventions.
Project description:Western women increasingly delay having children to advance their career, and pregnancy is considered to be riskier among older women. In Norway, this development surprisingly coincides with increased sickness absence among young pregnant women, rather than their older counterparts. This paper tests the hypothesis that young pregnant women have a higher number of sick days because this age group includes a higher proportion of working class women, who are more prone to sickness absence.A zero-inflated Poisson regression was conducted on the Norwegian population registry.All pregnant employees giving birth in 2004-2008 were included in the study. A total number of 216 541 pregnancies were observed among 180 483 women.Number of sick days.Although the association between age and number of sick days was U-shaped, pregnant women in their early 20s had a higher number of sick days than those in their mid-40s. This was particularly the case for pregnant women with previous births. In this group, 20-year-olds had 12.6 more sick days than 45-year-olds; this age difference was reduced to 6.3 after control for class. Among women undergoing their first pregnancy, 20-year-olds initially had 1.2 more sick days than 45-year-olds, but control for class altered this age difference. After control for class, 45-year-old first-time pregnant women had 2.9 more sick days than 20-year-olds with corresponding characteristics.The negative association between age and sickness absence was partly due to younger age groups including more working class women, who were more prone to sickness absence. Young pregnant women's needs for job adjustments should not be underestimated.
Project description:Demonstrating disease impacts on the vital rates of free-ranging mammalian hosts typically requires intensive, long-term study. Evidence for chronic pathogens affecting reproduction but not survival is rare, but has the potential for wide-ranging effects. Accurately quantifying disease-associated reductions in fecundity is important for advancing theory, generating accurate predictive models, and achieving effective management. We investigated the impacts of brucellosis (Brucella abortus) on elk (Cervus canadensis) productivity using serological data from over 6,000 captures since 1990 in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Over 1,000 of these records included known age and pregnancy status. Using Bayesian multilevel models, we estimated the age-specific pregnancy probabilities of exposed and naïve elk. We then used repeat-capture data to investigate the full effects of the disease on life history. Brucellosis exposure reduced pregnancy rates of elk captured in mid- and late-winter. In an average year, we found 60% of exposed 2-year-old elk were pregnant compared to 91% of their naïve counterparts (a 31 percentage point reduction, 89% HPDI = 20%-42%), whereas exposed 3- to 9-year-olds were 7 percentage points less likely to be pregnant than naïve elk of their same age (89% HPDI = 2%-11%). We found these reduced rates of pregnancy to be independent from disease-induced abortions, which afflict a portion of exposed elk. We estimate that the combination of reduced pregnancy by mid-winter and the abortions following mid-winter reduces the reproductive output of exposed female elk by 24%, which affects population dynamics to a similar extent as severe winters or droughts. Exposing hidden reproductive costs of disease is essential to avoid conflating them with the effects of climate and predation. Such reproductive costs cause complex population dynamics, and the magnitude of the effect we found should drive a strong selection gradient if there is heritable resistance.
Project description:Sexual activity may be less likely to occur during periods of school enrolment because of the structured and supervised environment provided, the education obtained and the safer peer networks encountered while enrolled. We examined whether school enrolment was associated with teen pregnancy in South Africa.Using longitudinal demographic surveillance data from the rural Agincourt sub-district, we reconstructed the school enrolment status from 2000 through 2011 for 15 457 young women aged 12-18 years and linked them to the estimated conception date for each pregnancy during this time. We examined the effect of time-varying school enrolment on teen pregnancy using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for: age; calendar year; household socioeconomic status; household size; and gender, educational attainment and employment of household head. A secondary analysis compared the incidence of pregnancy among school enrolees by calendar time: school term vs school holiday.School enrolment was associated with lower teen pregnancy rates [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.57 (0.50, 0.65)].This association was robust to potential misclassification of school enrolment. For those enrolled in school, pregnancy occurred less commonly during school term than during school holidays [incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.90 (0.78, 1.04)].Young women who drop out of school may be at higher risk for teen pregnancy and could likely benefit from receipt of accessible and high quality sexual health services. Preventive interventions designed to keep young women in school or addressing the underlying causes of dropout may also help reduce the incidence of teen pregnancy.
Project description:The USA has high teen pregnancy rates compared to other developed nations. Many community-based organizations need assistance conducting evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs (EBPs) appropriately. This study evaluated the impact of an implementation support intervention called Getting To Outcomes (GTO) designed to help such organizations. This cluster randomized controlled trial compared 16 Boys and Girls Clubs (BGCs) implementing a teen pregnancy prevention EBP called Making Proud Choices for two years, with 16 BGCs implementing MPC augmented with GTO training, tools, and technical assistance. Participating middle school youth were compared on proximal outcomes (knowledge, attitudes, and intentions about sex and condoms from baseline to post) and sexual behaviors (frequency of sex and condom use, from baseline to 6-month follow-up). In year 1, there were no significant effects of GTO for any proximal outcome. After GTO-stimulated quality improvement in year 2, the GTO group improved significantly more on condom attitudes and use intentions. Frequency of sex and condom use did not differ between the two groups in either year; however, base rates of these behaviors in the sample were very low. Findings suggest that in typical community-based settings, detailed manuals and training common to structured EBPs may be sufficient to yield some improvement in key proximal outcomes, but that more systematic implementation support is needed to achieve greater improvement in these outcomes. Using GTO with many communities, as currently supported by various federal agencies, could yield public health impact via improvements in condom attitudes and use intentions.
Project description:Cancer incidence is rising among adolescents ("teens"). The causes of the increase are unknown but studying incidence patterns and trends may produce insights into etiology. Using data from the US National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program we described trends of cancer incidence among teens (15-19 year olds). We reviewed and summarized incidence patterns for histologic cancer groups and the most frequently diagnosed sites of cancer among teens during 2008-2012 reported by the SEER Cancer Statistics Review. We calculated annual incidence rates for the years 1975-2012 and used linear regression analysis to evaluate trends and calculate rates of change. Incidence for all sites combined increased annually by 0.67% for males and 0.62% for females during the period 1975 through 2012 -resulting in more than a 25% increase over 38 years. The biggest annual incidence increases occurred in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (2.16% females; 1.38% males), thyroid cancer (2.12% females; 1.59% males), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (1.73% females) and testicular cancer (1.55% males). Incidence rates for most histologic groups and sites showed steady long term increases over the 38 years of data. Despite improvements in survival, rising incidence trends mean growing numbers of young adults are undergoing painful and costly cancer treatments. A concerted research program is vital to investigate causes of steadily rising teen cancer rates.
Project description:We present the health inequalities analytic approach used by the Saskatoon Health Region to examine health equity. Our aim was to develop a method that will enable health regions to prioritize action on health inequalities.Data from admissions to hospital, physician billing, reportable diseases, vital statistics and childhood immunizations in the city of Saskatoon were analyzed for the years ranging from 1995 to 2011. Data were aggregated to the dissemination area level. The Pampalon deprivation index was used as the measure of socioeconomic status. We calculated annual rates per 1000 people for each outcome. Rate ratios, rate differences, area-level concentration curves and area-level concentration coefficients quantified inequality. An Inequalities Prioritization Matrix was developed to prioritize action for the outcomes showing the greatest inequality. The outcomes measured were cancer, intentional self-harm, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental illness, heart disease, diabetes, injury, stroke, chlamydia, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, hepatitis C, high birth weight, low birth weight, teen abortion, teen pregnancy, infant mortality and all-cause mortality.According to the Inequalities Prioritization Matrix, injuries and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the first and second priorities, respectively, that needed to be addressed related to inequalities in admissions to hospital. For physician billing, mental disorders and diabetes were high-priority areas. Differences in teen pregnancy and all-cause mortality were the most unequal in the vital statistics data. For communicable diseases, hepatitis C was the highest priority.Our findings show that health inequalities exist at the local level and that a method can be developed to prioritize action on these inequalities. Policies should consider health inequalities and adopt population-based and targeted actions to reduce inequalities.
Project description:CONTEXT:Since 2007, 2 doses of varicella vaccine have been routinely recommended, with a catch-up second dose recommended for those who received only 1 prior dose. OBJECTIVE:To examine varicella vaccination coverage with 2 or more doses and the proportions of adolescents with evidence of immunity to varicella (?2 doses of vaccine or varicella history) during 2007-2014. To assess timing of second-dose receipt, factors associated with 2 or more vaccine doses, and missed second-dose opportunities during 2014. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:We used data from the 2007-2014 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen), which collects information on adolescents aged 13 to 17 years in the United States. RESULTS:From 2007 to 2014, varicella vaccination coverage with 2 or more doses increased from 8.3% to 66.9% in 13- to 15-year-olds and from 3.6% to 56.7% in 16- to 17-year-olds. The proportions with evidence of immunity also increased from 68.0% to 84.1% (13- to 15-year-olds) and 78.6% to 83.4% (16- to 17-year-olds). In 2014, 13.4% of 13- to 15-year-olds and 3.2% of 16- to 17-year-olds had received their second dose at 4 to 6 years of age. Factors most significantly associated with lower coverage with 2 or more doses were not having an 11- to 12-year well-child visit, not receiving an adolescent vaccine, and residence in a state with no 2-dose immunization school entry requirement. Seventy-seven percent of 1-dose vaccinated adolescents had 1 or more missed opportunities to receive their second dose; if were they not missed, 2-dose coverage would have increased from 79.5% to 94.8%. CONCLUSIONS:Levels of varicella vaccination coverage with 2 or more doses and the proportion of adolescents with evidence of immunity increased from 2007 to 2014, though 16% lacked evidence of immunity in 2014. Although catch-up campaigns have succeeded, missed vaccination opportunities persist.