In vitro Stability of Heat Shock Protein 27 in Serum and Plasma Under Different Pre-analytical Conditions: Implications for Large-Scale Clinical Studies.
ABSTRACT: The effects of storage temperatures, repeated freeze-thaw cycles, or delays in separating plasma or serum from blood samples are largely unknown for heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). We evaluated (1) the imprecision of the HSP27 assay used in this study; (2) the in vitro stability of HSP27 in blood samples stored at 4°C for up to 6 hr with immediate and delayed serum/plasma separation from cells; and (3) the in vitro stability of HSP27 in blood samples stored at -80°C after repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The ELISA to detect HSP27 in this study showed a within-run CV of <9% and a total CV of <15%. After 4-6 hr of storage at 4°C, HSP27 concentrations remained stable when using serum tubes irrespective of sample handling, but HSP27 concentrations decreased by 25-45% when using EDTA plasma tubes. Compared with baseline HSP27, one freeze-thaw cycle had no effect on serum concentrations. However, plasma concentrations increased by 3.1-fold after one freeze-thaw cycle and by 7.3-fold after five freeze-thaw cycles. In conclusion, serum is an appropriate biological sample type for use in epidemiological and large-scale clinical studies.
Project description:Circulating concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been linked to cancer, neuropsychiatric, diabetes, and gynecological disorders. However, factors influencing plasma storage and subsequent BDNF quantification are incompletely understood. Therefore, the anticoagulant used in plasma separator tubes, storage-time, storage-temperature, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles on circulating BDNF concentrations was evaluated. Peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy women (n?=?14) and men (n?=?10) recruited prospectively from McMaster University (August 2014). Blood was collected from the cubital vein into plasma separator tubes containing five different anticoagulant systems [K2EDTA, Li-Hep, Li-Hep (gel), Na-Hep, Na-Hep (glass)], and placed on ice for transport to the lab for centrifugation. Plasma samples (n?=?16) collected in K2EDTA tubes from women recruited to a previous study (April 2011 to December 2012) were used to determine the effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Plasma BDNF was quantified using a commercially available ELISA kit. Plasma concentrations of BDNF were significantly affected by the type of plasma separator tube, storage-time, and number of freeze-thaw cycles. Storage temperature (-?20 vs.?-?80 °C) did not significantly affect the quantity of BDNF measured as mean BDNF concentrations generally fell within our calculated acceptable change limit up to 6 months in the freezer. Our results suggest that for quantification of circulating BDNF blood collected in K2EDTA tubes and plasma stored up to 6 months at either?-?20 or?-?80 °C produces reproducible results that fall within an acceptable range. However, plasma samples stored beyond 6 months and repeated freeze-thaw cycles should be avoided.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIM:The potential of microRNAs (miRNA) as non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets, has recently been recognized. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of consistency in the methodology used, but to our knowledge, no study has described the methodology of sample preparation and storage systematically with respect to miRNAs as blood biomarkers. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of miRNAs in blood under various relevant clinical and research conditions: different collection tubes, storage at different temperatures, physical disturbance, as well as serial freeze-thaw cycles. METHODS:Blood samples were collected from 12 healthy donors into different collection tubes containing anticoagulants, including EDTA, citrate and lithium-heparin, as well as into serum collection tubes. MiRNA stability was evaluated by measuring expression changes of miR-1, miR-21 and miR-29b at different conditions: varying processing time of whole blood (up to 72 hours (h)), long-term storage (9 months at -80°C), physical disturbance (1 and 8 h), as well as in a series of freeze/thaw cycles (1 and 4 times). RESULTS:Different collection tubes revealed comparable concentrations of miR-1, miR-21 and miR-29b. Tubes with lithium-heparin were found unsuitable for miRNA quantification. MiRNA levels were stable for at least 24 h at room temperature in whole blood, while separated fractions did show alterations within 24 h. There were significant changes in the miR-21 and miR-29b levels after 72 h incubation of whole blood at room temperature (p<0.01 for both). Both miR-1 and miR-21 showed decreased levels after physical disturbance for 8 h in separated plasma and miR-1 in serum whole blood, while after 1 h of disturbance no changes were observed. Storage of samples at -80°C extended the miRNA stability remarkably, however, miRNA levels in long-term stored (9 months) whole blood samples were significantly changed, which is in contrast to the plasma samples, where miR-21 or miR-29b levels were found to be stable. Repetitive (n = 4) freeze-thaw cycles resulted in a significant reduction of miRNA concentration both in plasma and serum samples. CONCLUSION:This study highlights the importance of proper and systematic sample collection and preparation when measuring circulating miRNAs, e.g., in context of clinical trials. We demonstrated that the type of collection tubes, preparation, handling and storage of samples should be standardized to avoid confounding variables influencing the results.
Project description:Freeze-thaw instability may contribute to preanalytical variation in blood-based biomarker studies. We investigated the effects of up to four freeze-thaw cycles on single molecule array immunoassays of serum neurofilament light chain and plasma total tau, amyloid ? 1-40 (Aß40), and A? 1-42 (A?42).Individuals who had peripheral venepuncture during investigation of suspected neurodegenerative disease were recruited. After standardized preprocessing, 200 ?L of plasma and serum aliquots were stored at -80°C within 60 minutes. Aliquots underwent one to four freeze-thaw cycles.There was no significant difference across four freeze-thaw cycles for serum neurofilament light chain (n = 12), plasma total tau (n = 11), or plasma A?42 (n = 12). For plasma A?40 (n = 14), there were significant median reductions by ratios of .96 and .92 at the third and fourth cycles, respectively.Up to four freeze-thaw cycles do not influence single molecule array blood biomarkers of neurofilament light chain, total tau, or A?42, with at most minor reductions in A?40.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Information regarding the variability of metabolite levels over time in an individual is required to estimate the reproducibility of metabolite measurements. In intervention studies, it is critical to appropriately judge changes that are elicited by any kind of intervention. The pre-analytic phase (collection, transport and sample processing) is a particularly important component of data quality in multi-center studies.<h4>Methods</h4>Reliability of metabolites (within-and between-person variance, intraclass correlation coefficient) and stability (shipment simulation at different temperatures, use of gel-barrier collection tubes, freeze-thaw cycles) were analyzed in fasting serum and plasma samples of 22 healthy human subjects using a targeted LC-MS approach.<h4>Results</h4>Reliability of metabolite measurements was higher in serum compared to plasma samples and was good in most saturated short-and medium-chain acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and hexose. The majority of metabolites were stable for 24 h on cool packs and at room temperature in non-centrifuged tubes. Plasma and serum metabolite stability showed good coherence. Serum metabolite concentrations were mostly unaffected by tube type and one or two freeze-thaw cycles.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A single time point measurement is assumed to be sufficient for a targeted metabolomics analysis of most metabolites. For shipment, samples should ideally be separated and frozen immediately after collection, as some amino acids and biogenic amines become unstable within 3 h on cool packs. Serum gel-barrier tubes can be used safely for this process as they have no effect on concentration in most metabolites. Shipment of non-centrifuged samples on cool packs is a cost-efficient alternative for most metabolites.
Project description:Background:The importance of circulating antibodies as biomarkers of kidney disease has recently been recognized. However, no study has systematically described the methodology of sample preparation and storage regarding antibodies as biomarkers of kidney disease. It remains unknown whether repetitive freeze-thaw cycles, physical disturbances, storage at different temperatures or for different periods of time, or haemolytic or turbid serum samples affect antibody measurements. The aim of this study was to investigate the stabilities of antibodies associated with kidney disease in serum samples under various relevant clinical and research conditions. Methods:We stored serum samples in the following different conditions: repetitive freeze-thaw cycles (1, 6 or 12 times), long-term storage (7 or 12 months at -80 °C), physical disturbance (1 or 8 h), and storage at 4 °C (1, 3 or 6 weeks) and room temperature (1 or 7 days). The stabilities of the anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R), anti-glomerular basement membrane, anti-myeloperoxidase and anti-proteinase 3 antibodies were evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Results:We found that repetitive freeze-thaw cycles did not have a significant effect on the stabilities of the abovementioned antibodies in clear serum samples. The ELISA readings of haemolytic and turbid serum samples tended to increase and decrease, respectively. Neither long-term storage at -80 °C nor physical disturbance had a significant effect on anti-PLA2R antibody stability in sealed serum samples. The concentrations of most of these antibodies increased in unsealed serum samples that were stored at 4 °C for more than 6 weeks or at room temperature for more than 7 days. Discussion:Our findings revealed that the abovementioned circulating antibodies that are used as biomarkers for kidney disease had stable physicochemical properties, structures and immunoreactivities such that they were not influenced by repetitive freeze-thaw cycles, physical disturbances or long-term storage at -80 °C. However, the ELISA readings tended to change for haemolytic, turbid and unsealed serum samples.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as novel biomarkers for a variety of chronic conditions including autoimmune disease. PAXgene Blood RNA tubes are routinely used in clinical research and molecular diagnostic development to capture RNA profiles in peripheral whole blood. While the stability of mRNA expression profiles captured using PAXgene tubes has been documented previously, no previous work has determined the stability of lncRNA expression profiles observed in PAXgene tubes stored at - 80 °C. Here we sought to determine the effects on lncRNA expression profiles following - 80 °C storage of total RNA templates, cDNA synthesized using fresh or frozen total RNA template, and the impact of freeze-thaw cycles on both total RNA and cDNA obtained from PAXgene tubes. RESULTS:We find that storage of whole blood in PAXgene tubes, total RNA and cDNA for up to 1 year at - 80 °C or up to ten total RNA or cDNA freeze-thaw cycles do not significantly alter lncRNA expression profiles compared to baseline. As monthly expression profiles were determined, some month to month lncRNA expression variability was observed. However, all monthly observations fell within the 95% confidence interval calculated at baseline.
Project description:Background: To obtain accurate measurements of cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) in Aceh cattle, commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits need to be carefully validated. Moreover, repeated freeze-thaw cycles during the storage of the samples may affect the stability of the hormones in the serum. Here, the reliability of C and T concentration measurements in the serum of Aceh cattle, was tested using commercial C and T ELISA kits designed to measure human C and T concentrations. Further, the effect of repeated freeze-thaw cycles on the stability of C and T concentrations in the serum was evaluated. Methods: Commercial C (Cat. no. EIA-1887) and T (Cat. no. EIA-1559) ELISA kits from DRG Instruments GmbH were validated through an analytical validation test (i.e., parallelism, accuracy, and precision) and a biological validation test (for C: effect of transportation on the C secretion; for T: the concentrations of T between bulls and cows). To test the effects of freeze-thaw cycles, cattle serum was subjected to the following treatments: (i) remained frozen at -20 OC (control group); (ii) exposed to freeze-thaw cycles for two, four, six, and eight times (test groups). Results: Parallelism, accuracy, and precision tests showed that both C and T ELISA kits adequately measured C and T in the serum of Aceh cattle. Concentrations of C post-transportation were significantly higher than pre-transportation (p<0.01). Concentrations of T in bulls were significantly higher than in cows (p<0.01). After four to eight freeze-thaw cycles, C concentrations were significantly lower compared to the control group (all p < 0.05). In contrast, T concentrations remained stable (all p>0.05). Conclusions: Commercial C (EIA-1887) and T (EIA-1559) ELISA kits are reliable assays for measuring serum C and T, respectively, in Aceh cattle. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles significantly affected the stability of serum C, but did not for T.
Project description:The samples were drawn from patients with diagnosed oropharyngeal cancer. We used blood samples (10ml) collected from patients after diagnosis, before treatment. Blood was centrifuged for 10 min, after which serum was aspirated, aliquoted in RNAse-free tubes, stored at −80°C until required for further processing and did not undergo more than two freeze-thaw cycles. MicroRNA was extracted from 200 μL serum using miRCURY RNA Isolation kit (Qiagen) following the manufacturer’s protocol and stored at −80°C. Overall design: miRNA qPCR assays from 70 patients with HnN cancer before irradiation. Equal amount of RNA was used from each patient.
Project description:The samples were drawn from patients with diagnosed oropharyngeal cancer treated with irradiation. We used blood samples (10ml) collected from patients 7 days after receiving 20Gy dose of irradiation. Blood was centrifuged for 10 min, after which serum was aspirated, aliquoted in RNAse-free tubes, stored at −80°C until required for further processing and did not undergo more than two freeze-thaw cycles. MicroRNA was extracted from 200 μL serum using miRCURY RNA Isolation kit (Qiagen) following the manufacturer’s protocol and stored at −80°C. Overall design: miRNA qPCR assays from 20 patients from after 20Gy irradiation due to oropharyngeal cancer. Equal amount of RNA was used from each patient.
Project description:Background:Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) reflects hypersensitivity and an exaggerated immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus. ABPA typically occurs in individuals with airway diseases such as asthma or cystic fibrosis and is associated with worse outcomes for individuals with these conditions. Each year, physicians across the province of British Columbia submit over 2600 diagnostic testing requests to a centralized location in Vancouver, requiring specimen collection, storage, and shipment from different clinics across the province. Timely and reliable testing of Aspergillus precipitins is critical to optimizing diagnosis and management of ABPA. At our centre, we analyzed sample stability in varying storage conditions to provide guidance to those using this routine diagnostic test. Methods:To determine temperature and time stability, 31 serum specimens positive for Aspergillus fumigatus precipitins from routine clinical testing were each aliquoted and incubated at 4 and 37 °C. Samples were repeatedly assayed for precipitins to Aspergillus fumigatus via agarose gel double immunodiffusion (AGID) at 7, 14, and 28 days post-incubation.To determine freeze-thaw stability, 39 serum specimens submitted for routine clinical testing for Aspergillus precipitins were randomly selected. Each specimen was aliquoted and stored at 4 or -20 °C. 4 °C samples were maintained at 4 °C while -20 °C samples were split into three groups corresponding to one, two, or three freeze-thaw cycles. -20 °C samples were thawed at room temperature in the morning and then immediately frozen overnight for up to a total of three freeze-thaw cycles. Results:Regarding temperature and time stability, median stability time was 47 and 34 days at 4 and 37 °C, respectively. The log-rank model indicates no statistically significant difference between the two temperature storage conditions (p?=?0.14) with a hazard ratio of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.31-1.2).In terms of freeze-thaw stability, no indication of serum degradation with regards to Aspergillus fumigatus precipitins was found with repeated freeze-thaw cycles as compared to refrigerated storage. Conclusions:The stability of serum precipitins to Aspergillus fumigatus was found to be dependent on time, but not temperature and freeze-thaw cycles. Specimens for Aspergillus fumigatus precipitins testing should be shipped at ambient temperature and tested within 2 weeks from collection.