Calmodulin Promotes N-BAR Domain-Mediated Membrane Constriction and Endocytosis.
ABSTRACT: Membrane remodeling by BAR (Bin, Amphiphysin, RVS) domain-containing proteins, such as endophilins and amphiphysins, is integral to the process of endocytosis. However, little is known about the regulation of endocytic BAR domain activity. We have identified an interaction between the yeast Rvs167 N-BAR domain and calmodulin. Calmodulin-binding mutants of Rvs167 exhibited defects in endocytic vesicle release. In vitro, calmodulin enhanced membrane tubulation and constriction by wild-type Rvs167 but not calmodulin-binding-defective mutants. A subset of mammalian N-BAR domains bound calmodulin, and co-expression of calmodulin with endophilin A2 potentiated tubulation in vivo. These studies reveal a conserved role for calmodulin in regulating the intrinsic membrane-sculpting activity of endocytic N-BAR domains.
Project description:Endophilins are SH3- and BAR domain-containing proteins implicated in membrane remodeling and vesicle formation. Endophilins A1 and A2 promote the budding of endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, whereas endophilin B1 has been implicated in vesicle budding from intracellular organelles, including the trans-Golgi network and late endosomes. We previously reported that endophilins A1 and A2 exist almost exclusively as soluble dimers in the cytosol. Here, we present results of fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy analyses indicating that, in contrast, the majority of endophilin B1 is present in multiple copies on small, highly mobile cytoplasmic vesicles. Formation of these vesicles was enhanced by overexpression of wild-type dynamin 2, but suppressed by expression of a catalytically inactive dynamin 2 mutant. Using dual-color heterospecies partition analysis, we identified the epidermal growth factor receptor on endophilin B1 vesicles. Moreover, a proportion of endophilin B1 vesicles also contained caveolin, whereas clathrin was almost undetectable on those vesicles. These results raise the possibility that endophilin B1 participates in dynamin 2-dependent formation of a population of transport vesicles distinct from those generated by A-type endophilins.
Project description:Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain-containing proteins are essential players in the dynamics of intracellular compartments. The BAR domain is an evolutionarily conserved dimeric module characterized by a crescent-shaped structure whose intrinsic curvature, flexibility, and ability to assemble into highly ordered oligomers contribute to inducing the curvature of target membranes. Endophilins, diverging into A and B subgroups, are BAR and SH3 domain-containing proteins. They exert activities in membrane dynamic processes such as endocytosis, autophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and permeabilization during apoptosis. Here, we report on the involvement of the third ?-helix of the endophilin A BAR sequence in dimerization and identify leucine 215 as a key residue within a network of hydrophobic interactions stabilizing the entire BAR dimer interface. With the combination of N-terminal truncation retaining the high dimerization capacity of the third ?-helices of endophilin A and leucine 215 substitution by aspartate (L215D), we demonstrate the essential role of BAR sequence-mediated dimerization on SH3 domain partnership. In comparison with wild type, full-length endophilin A2 heterodimers with one protomer bearing the L215D substitution exhibit very significant changes in membrane binding and shaping activities as well as a dramatic decrease of SH3 domain partnership. This suggests that subtle changes in the conformation and/or rigidity of the BAR domain impact both the control of membrane curvature and downstream binding to effectors. Finally, we show that expression, in mammalian cells, of endophilin A2 bearing the L215D substitution impairs the endocytic recycling of transferrin receptors.
Project description:The crescent-shaped BAR (Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs-homology) domain dimer is a versatile protein module that senses and generates positive membrane curvature. The BAR domain dimer of human endophilin-A1, solved at 3.1 A, has a unique structure consisting of a pair of helix-loop appendages sprouting out from the crescent. The appendage's short helices form a hydrophobic ridge, which runs across the concave surface at its center. Examining liposome binding and tubulation in vitro using purified BAR domain and its mutants indicated that the ridge penetrates into the membrane bilayer and enhances liposome tubulation. BAR domain-expressing cells exhibited marked plasma membrane tubulation in vivo. Furthermore, a swinging-arm mutant lost liposome tubulation activity yet retaining liposome binding. These data suggested that the rigid crescent dimer shape is crucial for the tubulation. We here propose that the BAR domain drives membrane curvature by coordinate action of the crescent's scaffold mechanism and the ridge's membrane insertion in addition to membrane binding via amino-terminal amphipathic helix.
Project description:Endophilins-A are conserved endocytic adaptors with membrane curvature-sensing and -inducing properties. We show here that, independently of their role in endocytosis, endophilin-A1 and endophilin-A2 regulate exocytosis of neurosecretory vesicles. The number and distribution of neurosecretory vesicles were not changed in chromaffin cells lacking endophilin-A, yet fast capacitance and amperometry measurements revealed reduced exocytosis, smaller vesicle pools and altered fusion kinetics. The levels and distributions of the main exocytic and endocytic factors were unchanged, and slow compensatory endocytosis was not robustly affected. Endophilin-A's role in exocytosis is mediated through its SH3-domain, specifically via a direct interaction with intersectin-1, a coordinator of exocytic and endocytic traffic. Endophilin-A not able to bind intersectin-1, and intersectin-1 not able to bind endophilin-A, resulted in similar exocytic defects in chromaffin cells. Altogether, we report that two endocytic proteins, endophilin-A and intersectin-1, are enriched on neurosecretory vesicles and regulate exocytosis by coordinating neurosecretory vesicle priming and fusion.
Project description:The curvature of biological membranes is controlled by membrane-bound proteins. For example, during endocytosis, the sorting of membrane components, vesicle budding, and fission from the plasma membrane are mediated by adaptor and accessory proteins. Endophilin is a peripherally binding membrane protein that functions as an endocytic accessory protein. Endophilin's membrane tubulation capacity is well known. However, to understand the thermodynamic and mechanical aspects of endophilin function, experimental measurements need to be compared to quantitative theoretical models. We present measurements of curvature sorting and curvature generation of the endophilin A1 N-BAR domain on tubular membranes pulled from giant unilamellar vesicles. At low concentration, endophilin functions primarily as a membrane curvature sensor; at high concentrations, it also generates curvature. We determine the spontaneous curvature induced by endophilin and observe sigmoidal curvature/composition coupling isotherms that saturate at high membrane tensions and protein solution concentrations. The observation of saturation is supported by a strong dependence of lateral diffusion coefficients on protein density on the tether membrane. We develop a nonlinear curvature/composition coupling model that captures our experimental observations. Our model predicts a curvature-induced phase transition among two states with varying protein density and membrane curvature. This transition could act as a switch during endocytosis.
Project description:Ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) operate with high rates of neurotransmission; yet, the molecular regulation of synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling at these synapses remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the role of endophilins-A1-3, endocytic adaptors with curvature-sensing and curvature-generating properties, in mouse IHCs. Single-cell RT-PCR indicated the expression of endophilins-A1-3 in IHCs, and immunoblotting confirmed the presence of endophilin-A1 and endophilin-A2 in the cochlea. Patch-clamp recordings from endophilin-A-deficient IHCs revealed a reduction of Ca2+ influx and exocytosis, which we attribute to a decreased abundance of presynaptic Ca2+ channels and impaired SV replenishment. Slow endocytic membrane retrieval, thought to reflect clathrin-mediated endocytosis, was impaired. Otoferlin, essential for IHC exocytosis, co-immunoprecipitated with purified endophilin-A1 protein, suggestive of a molecular interaction that might aid exocytosis-endocytosis coupling. Electron microscopy revealed lower SV numbers, but an increased occurrence of coated structures and endosome-like vacuoles at IHC active zones. In summary, endophilins regulate Ca2+ influx and promote SV recycling in IHCs, likely via coupling exocytosis to endocytosis, and contributing to membrane retrieval and SV reformation.
Project description:Neurotransmission involves the exo-endocytic cycling of synaptic vesicle (SV) membranes. Endocytic membrane retrieval and clathrin-mediated SV reformation require curvature-sensing and membrane-bending BAR domain proteins such as endophilin A. While their ability to sense and stabilize curved membranes facilitates membrane recruitment of BAR domain proteins, the precise mechanisms by which they are targeted to specific sites of SV recycling has remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the multi-domain scaffold intersectin 1 directly associates with endophilin A to facilitate vesicle uncoating at synapses. Knockout mice deficient in intersectin 1 accumulate clathrin-coated vesicles at synapses, a phenotype akin to loss of endophilin function. Intersectin 1/endophilin A1 complex formation is mediated by direct binding of the SH3B domain of intersectin to a non-canonical site on the SH3 domain of endophilin A1. Consistent with this, intersectin-binding defective mutant endophilin A1 fails to rescue clathrin accumulation at neuronal synapses derived from endophilin A1-3 triple knockout (TKO) mice. Our data support a model in which intersectin aids endophilin A recruitment to sites of clathrin-mediated SV recycling, thereby facilitating vesicle uncoating.
Project description:Ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) operate with high rates of neurotransmission, yet, the molecular regulation of synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling at these synapses remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the role of endophilins-A1-3, endocytic adaptors with curvature-sensing and -generating properties, in mouse IHCs. Single-cell RT-PCR indicated the expression of endophilins-A1-3 in IHCs and immunoblotting confirmed the presence of endophilins-A1 and -A2 in the cochlea. Patch-clamp recordings from endophilin-A-deficient IHCs revealed a reduction of Ca2+-influx and exocytosis, which we attribute to decreased abundance of presynaptic Ca2+-channels and impaired SV replenishment. Slow endocytic membrane retrieval, thought to reflect clathrin-mediated endocytosis, was impaired. Otoferlin, essential for IHC exocytosis, co-immunoprecipitated with purified endophilin-A1 protein, suggestive of a molecular interaction that might aid exocytosis-endocytosis coupling. Electron microscopy revealed lower SV numbers, but increased occurrence of coated structures and endosome-like vacuoles at IHC active zones. In summary, endophilins regulate Ca2+-influx and promote synaptic vesicle recycling in IHCs, likely via coupling exocytosis to endocytosis, and contributing to membrane retrieval and SV-reformation.
Project description:Membrane reshaping resides at the core of many important cellular processes, and among its mediators are the BAR (Bin, Amphiphysin, Rvs) domain-containing proteins. We have explored the diversity and function of the Rvs BAR proteins in Candida albicans and identified a novel family member, Rvs167-3 (orf19.1861). We show that Rvs167-3 specifically interacts with Rvs162 to form a stable BAR heterodimer able to bind liposomes in vitro. A second, distinct heterodimer is formed by the canonical BAR proteins Rvs161 and Rvs167. Purified Rvs161/Rvs167 complex also binds liposomes, indicating that C. albicans expresses two functional BAR heterodimers. We used live-cell imaging to localize green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Rvs167-3 and Rvs167 and show that both proteins concentrate in small cortical spots. However, while Rvs167 strictly colocalizes with the endocytic marker protein Abp1, we do not observe any colocalization of Rvs167-3 with sites of endocytosis marked by Abp1. Furthermore, the rvs167-3?/? mutant is not defective in endocytosis and strains lacking Rvs167-3 or its partner Rvs162 do not display increased sensitivity to high salt concentrations or decreased cell wall integrity, phenotypes which have been observed for rvs167?/? and rvs161?/? strains and which are linked to endocytosis defects. Taken together, our results indicate different roles for the two BAR heterodimers in C. albicans: the canonical Rvs161/Rvs167 heterodimer functions in endocytosis, whereas the novel Rvs162/Rvs167-3 heterodimer seems not to be involved in this process. Nevertheless, despite their different roles, our phenotypic analysis revealed a genetic interaction between the two BAR heterodimers, suggesting that they may have related but distinct membrane-associated functions.
Project description:Membrane remodeling is controlled by proteins that can promote the formation of highly curved spherical or cylindrical membranes. How a protein induces these different types of membrane curvature and how cells regulate this process is still unclear. Endophilin A1 is a protein involved in generating endocytotic necks and vesicles during synaptic endocytosis and can transform large vesicles into lipid tubes or small and highly curved vesicles in vitro. By using EM and electron paramagnetic resonance of endophilin A1, we find that tubes are formed by a close interaction with endophilin A1's BIN/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain and deep insertion of its amphipathic helices. In contrast, vesicles are predominantly stabilized by the shallow insertion of the amphipathic helical wedges with the BAR domain removed from the membrane. By showing that the mechanism of membrane curvature induction is different for vesiculation and tubulation, these data also explain why previous studies arrived at different conclusions with respect to the importance of scaffolding and wedging in the membrane curvature generation of BAR proteins. The Parkinson disease-associated kinase LRRK2 phosphorylates S75 of endophilin A1, a position located in the acyl chain region on tubes and the aqueous environment on vesicles. We find that the phosphomimetic mutation S75D favors vesicle formation by inhibiting this conformational switch, acting to regulate endophilin A1-mediated curvature. As endophilin A1 is part of a protein superfamily, we expect these mechanisms and their regulation by posttranslational modifications to be a general means for controlling different types of membrane curvature in a wide range of processes in vivo.