Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals a Collapsed Conformational State for DNA-Bound Cohesin.
ABSTRACT: Cohesin is essential for the hierarchical organization of the eukaryotic genome and plays key roles in many aspects of chromosome biology. The conformation of cohesin bound to DNA remains poorly defined, leaving crucial gaps in our understanding of how cohesin fulfills its biological functions. Here, we use single-molecule microscopy to directly observe the dynamic and functional characteristics of cohesin bound to DNA. We show that cohesin can undergo rapid one-dimensional (1D) diffusion along DNA, but individual nucleosomes, nucleosome arrays, and other protein obstacles significantly restrict its mobility. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DNA motor proteins can readily push cohesin along DNA, but they cannot pass through the interior of the cohesin ring. Together, our results reveal that DNA-bound cohesin has a central pore that is substantially smaller than anticipated. These findings have direct implications for understanding how cohesin and other SMC proteins interact with and distribute along chromatin.
Project description:Cohesin is a member of the Smc family of protein complexes that mediates higher-order chromosome structure by tethering different regions of chromatin. We present a new in vitro system that assembles cohesin-DNA complexes with in vivo properties. The assembly of these physiological salt-resistant complexes requires the cohesin holo-complex, its ability to bind ATP, the cohesin loader Scc2p and a closed DNA topology. Both the number of cohesin molecules bound to the DNA substrate and their distribution on the DNA substrate are limited. Cohesin and Scc2p bind preferentially to cohesin associated regions (CARs), DNA sequences with enriched cohesin binding in vivo. A subsequence of CARC1 promotes cohesin binding to neighboring sequences within CARC1. The enhancer-like function of this sequence is validated by in vivo deletion analysis. By demonstrating the physiological relevance of these in vitro assembled cohesin-DNA complexes, we establish our in vitro system as a powerful tool to elucidate the mechanism of cohesin and other Smc complexes.
Project description:Cohesin is a four-subunit ATPase in the family of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC). Cohesin promotes sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome condensation, DNA repair, and transcription regulation. Cohesin performs these functions as a DNA tether and potentially a DNA-based motor. At least one of its DNA binding activities involves entrapment of DNA within a lumen formed by its subunits. This activity can be reconstituted in vitro by incubating cohesin with DNA, ATP, and cohesin loader. Previously we showed that a mutant form of cohesin (DE-cohesin) possesses the ability to bind and tether DNA in vivo. Using in vitro reconstitution assays, we show that DE-cohesin can form stable complexes with DNA without ATP hydrolysis. We show that wild-type cohesin with ADP aluminum fluoride (cohesinADP/AlFx) can also form stable cohesin-DNA complexes. These results suggest that an intermediate nucleotide state of cohesin, likely cohesinADP-Pi, is capable of initially dissociating one interface between cohesin subunits to allow DNA entry into a cohesin lumen and subsequently interacting with the bound DNA to stabilize DNA entrapment. We also show that cohesinADP/AlFx binding to DNA is enhanced by cohesin loader, suggesting a function for loader other than stimulating the ATPase. Finally, we show that loader remains stably bound to cohesinADP/AlFx after DNA entrapment, potentially revealing a function for loader in tethering the second DNA substrate. These results provide important clues on how SMC complexes like cohesin can function as both DNA tethers and motors.
Project description:The ring-shaped structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes are multi-subunit ATPases that topologically encircle DNA. SMC rings make vital contributions to numerous chromosomal functions, including mitotic chromosome condensation, sister chromatid cohesion, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. They are thought to do so by establishing interactions between more than one DNA. Here, we demonstrate DNA-DNA tethering by the purified fission yeast cohesin complex. DNA-bound cohesin efficiently and topologically captures a second DNA, but only if that is single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Like initial double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) embrace, second ssDNA capture is ATP-dependent, and it strictly requires the cohesin loader complex. Second-ssDNA capture is relatively labile but is converted into stable dsDNA-dsDNA cohesion through DNA synthesis. Our study illustrates second-DNA capture by an SMC complex and provides a molecular model for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion.
Project description:SMC (structural maintenance of chromosomes) complexes condensin and cohesin are crucial for proper chromosome organization. Condensin has been reported to be a mechanochemical motor capable of forming chromatin loops, while cohesin passively diffuses along chromatin to tether sister chromatids. In budding yeast, the pericentric region is enriched in both condensin and cohesin. As in higher-eukaryotic chromosomes, condensin is localized to the axial chromatin of the pericentric region, while cohesin is enriched in the radial chromatin. Thus, the pericentric region serves as an ideal model for deducing the role of SMC complexes in chromosome organization. We find condensin-mediated chromatin loops establish a robust chromatin organization, while cohesin limits the area that chromatin loops can explore. Upon biorientation, extensional force from the mitotic spindle aggregates condensin-bound chromatin from its equilibrium position to the axial core of pericentric chromatin, resulting in amplified axial tension. The axial localization of condensin depends on condensin's ability to bind to chromatin to form loops, while the radial localization of cohesin depends on cohesin's ability to diffuse along chromatin. The different chromatin-tethering modalities of condensin and cohesin result in their geometric partitioning in the presence of an extensional force on chromatin.
Project description:Structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes are proteinaceous rings that embrace DNA to enable vital chromosomal functions. The ring is formed by two SMC subunits, closed at a pair of ATPase heads, whose interaction is reinforced by a kleisin subunit. Using biochemical analysis of fission-yeast cohesin, we find that a similar series of events facilitates both topological entrapment and release of DNA. DNA-sensing lysines trigger ATP hydrolysis to open the SMC head interface, whereas the Wapl subunit disengages kleisin, but only after ATP rebinds. This suggests an interlocking gate mechanism for DNA transport both into and out of the cohesin ring. The entry direction is facilitated by a cohesin loader that appears to fold cohesin to expose the DNA sensor. Our results provide a model for dynamic DNA binding by all members of the SMC family and explain how lysine acetylation of cohesin establishes enduring sister chromatid cohesion.
Project description:The spatial organization, correct expression, repair, and segregation of eukaryotic genomes depend on cohesin, ring-shaped protein complexes that are thought to function by entrapping DNA It has been proposed that cohesin is recruited to specific genomic locations from distal loading sites by an unknown mechanism, which depends on transcription, and it has been speculated that cohesin movements along DNA could create three-dimensional genomic organization by loop extrusion. However, whether cohesin can translocate along DNA is unknown. Here, we used single-molecule imaging to show that cohesin can diffuse rapidly on DNA in a manner consistent with topological entrapment and can pass over some DNA-bound proteins and nucleosomes but is constrained in its movement by transcription and DNA-bound CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF). These results indicate that cohesin can be positioned in the genome by moving along DNA, that transcription can provide directionality to these movements, that CTCF functions as a boundary element for moving cohesin, and they are consistent with the hypothesis that cohesin spatially organizes the genome via loop extrusion.
Project description:To ensure disjunction to opposite poles during anaphase, sister chromatids must be held together following DNA replication. This is mediated by cohesin, which is thought to entrap sister DNAs inside a tripartite ring composed of its Smc and kleisin (Scc1) subunits. How such structures are created during S phase is poorly understood, in particular whether they are derived from complexes that had entrapped DNAs prior to replication. To address this, we used selective photobleaching to determine whether cohesin associated with chromatin in G1 persists in situ after replication. We developed a non-fluorescent HaloTag ligand to discriminate the fluorescence recovery signal from labeling of newly synthesized Halo-tagged Scc1 protein (pulse-chase or pcFRAP). In cells where cohesin turnover is inactivated by deletion of WAPL, Scc1 can remain associated with chromatin throughout S phase. These findings suggest that cohesion might be generated by cohesin that is already bound to un-replicated DNA.
Project description:Cohesin facilitates sister chromatid cohesion through the formation of a large ring structure that encircles DNA. Its function relies on two structural maintenance of chromosomes (Smc) proteins, which are found in almost all organisms tested, from bacteria to humans. In accordance with their ubiquity, Smc complexes, such as cohesin, condensin, Smc5-6, and the dosage compensation complex, affect almost all processes of DNA homeostasis. Although their precise molecular mechanism remains enigmatic, here we provide an overview of the architecture of eukaryotic Smc complexes with a particular focus on cohesin, which has seen the most progress recently. Given the evident conservation of many structural features between Smc complexes, it is expected that architecture and topology will have a significant role when deciphering their precise molecular mechanisms.
Project description:Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes and DNA topoisomerases are major determinants of chromosome structure and dynamics. The cohesin complex embraces sister chromatids throughout interphase, but during mitosis most cohesin is stripped from chromosome arms by early prophase, while the remaining cohesin at kinetochores is cleaved at anaphase. This two-step removal of cohesin is required for sister chromatids to separate. The cohesin-related Smc5/6 complex has been studied mostly as a determinant of DNA repair via homologous recombination. However, chromosome segregation fails in Smc5/6 null mutants or cells treated with small interfering RNAs. This also occurs in Smc5/6 hypomorphs in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe following genotoxic and replication stress, or topoisomerase II dysfunction, and these mitotic defects are due to the postanaphase retention of cohesin on chromosome arms. Here we show that mitotic and repair roles for Smc5/6 are genetically separable in S. pombe. Further, we identified the histone variant H2A.Z as a critical factor to modulate cohesin dynamics, and cells lacking H2A.Z suppress the mitotic defects conferred by Smc5/6 dysfunction. Together, H2A.Z and the SMC complexes ensure genome integrity through accurate chromosome segregation.
Project description:DNA topological stress inhibits DNA replication fork (RF) progression and contributes to DNA replication stress. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we demonstrate that centromeric DNA and the rDNA array are especially vulnerable to DNA topological stress during replication. The activity of the SMC complexes cohesin and condensin are linked to both the generation and repair of DNA topological-stress-linked damage in these regions. At cohesin-enriched centromeres, cohesin activity causes the accumulation of DNA damage, RF rotation, and pre-catenation, confirming that cohesin-dependent DNA topological stress impacts on normal replication progression. In contrast, at the rDNA, cohesin and condensin activity inhibit the repair of damage caused by DNA topological stress. We propose that, as well as generally acting to ensure faithful genetic inheritance, SMCs can disrupt genome stability by trapping DNA topological stress.