Functional interplay between NTP leaving group and base pair recognition during RNA polymerase II nucleotide incorporation revealed by methylene substitution.
ABSTRACT: RNA polymerase II (pol II) utilizes a complex interaction network to select and incorporate correct nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) substrates with high efficiency and fidelity. Our previous 'synthetic nucleic acid substitution' strategy has been successfully applied in dissecting the function of nucleic acid moieties in pol II transcription. However, how the triphosphate moiety of substrate influences the rate of P-O bond cleavage and formation during nucleotide incorporation is still unclear. Here, by employing β,γ-bridging atom-'substituted' NTPs, we elucidate how the methylene substitution in the pyrophosphate leaving group affects cognate and non-cognate nucleotide incorporation. Intriguingly, the effect of the β,γ-methylene substitution on the non-cognate UTP/dT scaffold (∼3-fold decrease in kpol) is significantly different from that of the cognate ATP/dT scaffold (∼130-fold decrease in kpol). Removal of the wobble hydrogen bonds in U:dT recovers a strong response to methylene substitution of UTP. Our kinetic and modeling studies are consistent with a unique altered transition state for bond formation and cleavage for UTP/dT incorporation compared with ATP/dT incorporation. Collectively, our data reveals the functional interplay between NTP triphosphate moiety and base pair hydrogen bonding recognition during nucleotide incorporation.
Project description:Ribonucleotide analog inhibitors of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of hepatitis C virus (HCV) represent one of the most exciting recent developments in HCV antiviral therapy. Although it is well established that these molecules cause chain termination by competing at the triphosphate level with natural nucleotides for incorporation into elongating RNA, strategies to rationally optimize antiviral potency based on enzyme kinetics remain elusive. In this study, we used the isolated HCV polymerase elongation complex to determine the pre-steady-state kinetics of incorporation of 2'F-2'C-Me-UTP, the active metabolite of the anti-HCV drug sofosbuvir. 2'F-2'C-Me-UTP was efficiently incorporated by HCV polymerase with apparent Kd (equilibrium constant) and kpol (rate of nucleotide incorporation at saturating nucleotide concentration) values of 113 ± 28 ?M and 0.67 ± 0.05 s(-1), respectively, giving an overall substrate efficiency (kpol/Kd) of 0.0059 ± 0.0015 ?M(-1) s(-1). We also measured the substrate efficiency of other UTP analogs and found that substitutions at the 2' position on the ribose can greatly affect their level of incorporation, with a rank order of OH > F > NH2 > F-C-Me > C-Me > N3 > ara. However, the efficiency of chain termination following the incorporation of UMP analogs followed a different order, with only 2'F-2'C-Me-, 2'C-Me-, and 2'ara-UTP causing complete and immediate chain termination. The chain termination profile of the 2'-modified nucleotides explains the apparent lack of correlation observed across all molecules between substrate efficiency at the single-nucleotide level and their overall inhibition potency. To our knowledge, these results provide the first attempt to use pre-steady-state kinetics to uncover the mechanism of action of 2'-modified NTP analogs against HCV polymerase.
Project description:Incorporation of mismatched nucleotides during DNA replication or repair leads to transition or transversion mutations and is considered as a predominant source of base substitution mutagenesis in cancer cells. Watson-Crick like dG:dT base pairing is considered to be an important source of genome instability. Here we show that DNA polymerase (pol) ? insertion of 7,8-dihydro-8'-oxo-dGTP (8-oxodGTP) or deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) into a model double-strand break DNA repair substrate with template base T results in efficient ligation by DNA ligase. These results indicate that pol ?-mediated dGTP mismatch insertion opposite template base T coupled with ligation could be a feature of mutation prone nonhomologous end joining during double-strand break repair.
Project description:Molecular machines fueled by NTP play pivotal roles in a wide range of cellular activities. One common feature among NTP-driven molecular machines is that NTP binding is a major force-generating step among the elementary reaction steps comprising NTP hydrolysis. To understand the mechanism in detail,in this study, we conducted a single-molecule rotation assay of the ATP-driven rotary motor protein F1-ATPase using uridine triphosphate (UTP) and a base-free nucleotide (ribose triphosphate) to investigate the impact of a pyrimidine base or base depletion on kinetics and force generation. Although the binding rates of UTP and ribose triphosphate were 10(3) and 10(6) times, respectively, slower than that of ATP, they supported rotation, generating torque comparable to that generated by ATP. Affinity change of F1 to UTP coupled with rotation was determined, and the results again were comparable to those for ATP, suggesting that F1 exerts torque upon the affinity change to UTP via rotation similar to ATP-driven rotation. Thus, the adenine-ring significantly enhances the binding rate, although it is not directly involved in force generation. Taking into account the findings from another study on F1 with mutated phosphate-binding residues, it was proposed that progressive bond formation between the phosphate region and catalytic residues is responsible for the rotation-coupled change in affinity.
Project description:Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis was used to compare the catalytic properties of DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) for single-base gap-filling and regular duplex DNA synthesis. The rate of polymerization (kpol) and the apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of dNTP (Kd) were determined with single-nucleotide gapped DNA substrates for all four possible correct base pairs and twelve possible incorrect base pairs, and the results were compared with those obtained previously with non-gapped primer/template duplex DNA substrates. For correct dNTP incorporation, the use of single-nucleotide gapped DNA led to significant decreases in the Kd of dNTP. Although kpol was little affected, the catalytic efficiency kpol/Kd increased significantly owing to the decreases in Kd. In contrast, for incorrect dNTP incorporation, the use of single-nucleotide gapped DNA substrates did not affect the Kd of dNTP appreciably but caused the kpol (and thus kpol/Kd) for incorrect dNTP incorporation to increase. As a consequence the fidelity of Pol beta was not significantly affected by the use of single-nucleotide gapped DNA substrates. In addition we show that under processive polymerization conditions the processivity of Pol beta increases in the gap-filling synthesis owing to a decreased rate of DNA dissociation. Finally, with a single-nucleotide gapped DNA substrate the rate-limiting conformational change step before chemistry was also observed. However, the preceding fast conformational change observed with duplex DNA substrates was not clearly detected. A possible cause is that in the complex with the gapped DNA, the 8 kDa N-terminal domain of Pol beta already exists in a closed conformation. This interpretation was supported by tryptic digestion experiments.
Project description:4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are important human carcinogens in tobacco products. They are metabolized to produce a variety 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl (POB) DNA adducts including O(2)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O(2)-POB-dT), the most abundant POB adduct in NNK- and NNN-treated rodents. To evaluate the mutagenic properties of O(2)-POB-dT, we measured the rate of insertion of dNTPs opposite and extension past O(2)-POB-dT and O(2)-Me-dT by purified human DNA polymerases ?, ?, ?, and yeast polymerase ? in vitro. Under conditions of polymerase in excess, polymerase ? was most effective at the insertion of dNTPs opposite O(2)-alkyl-dTs. The time courses were biphasic suggesting the formation of inactive DNA-polymerase complexes. The kpol parameter was reduced approximately 100-fold in the presence of the adduct for pol ?, ?, and ?. Pol ? was the most reactive polymerase for the adducts due to a higher burst amplitude. For all three polymerases, the nucleotide preference was dATP > dTTP ? dGTP and dCTP. Yeast pol ? was most effective in bypassing the adducts; the kcat/Km values were reduced only 3-fold in the presence of the adducts. The identity of the nucleotide opposite the O(2)-alkyl-dT did not significantly affect the ability of pol ? to bypass the adducts. The data support a model in which pol ? inserts ATP or dTTP opposite O(2)-POB-dT, and then, pol ? extends past the adduct.
Project description:K289M is a variant of DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) that has previously been identified in colorectal cancer. The expression of this variant leads to a 16-fold increase in mutation frequency at a specific site in vivo and a reduction in fidelity in vitro in a sequence context-specific manner. Previous work shows that this reduction in fidelity results from a decreased level of discrimination against incorrect nucleotide incorporation at the level of polymerization. To probe the transition state of the K289M mutator variant of pol ?, single-turnover kinetic experiments were performed using ?,?-CXY dGTP analogues with a wide range of leaving group monoacid dissociation constants (pKa4), including a corresponding set of novel ?,?-CXY dCTP analogues. Surprisingly, we found that the values of the log of the catalytic rate constant (kpol) for correct insertion by K289M, in contrast to those of wild-type pol ?, do not decrease with increased leaving group pKa4 for analogues with pKa4 values of <11. This suggests that one of the relative rate constants differs for the K289M reaction in comparison to that of the wild type (WT). However, a plot of log(kpol) values for incorrect insertion by K289M versus pKa4 reveals a linear correlation with a negative slope, in this respect resembling kpol values for misincorporation by the WT enzyme. We also show that some of these analogues improve the fidelity of K289M. Taken together, our data show that Lys289 critically influences the catalytic pathway of pol ?.
Project description:We examine the DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) transition state (TS) from a leaving group pre-steady-state kinetics perspective by measuring the rate of incorporation of dNTPs and corresponding novel ?,?-CXY-dNTP analogues, including individual ?,?-CHF and -CHCl diastereomers with defined stereochemistry at the bridging carbon, during the formation of right (R) and wrong (W) base pairs. Brønsted plots of log kpol versus p Ka4 of the leaving group bisphosphonic acids are used to interrogate the effects of the base identity, the dNTP analogue leaving group basicity, and the precise configuration of the C-X atom in R and S stereoisomers on the rate-determining step ( kpol). The dNTP analogues provide a range of leaving group basicity and steric properties by virtue of monohalogen, dihalogen, or methyl substitution at the carbon atom bridging the ?,?-bisphosphonate that mimics the natural pyrophosphate leaving group in dNTPs. Brønsted plot relationships with negative slopes are revealed by the data, as was found for the dGTP and dTTP analogues, consistent with a bond-breaking component to the TS energy. However, greater multiplicity was shown in the linear free energy relationship, revealing an unexpected dependence on the nucleotide base for both A and C. Strong base-dependent perturbations that modulate TS relative to ground-state energies are likely to arise from electrostatic effects on catalysis in the pol active site. Deviations from a uniform linear Brønsted plot relationship are discussed in terms of insights gained from structural features of the prechemistry DNA polymerase active site.
Project description:During transcription initiation by RNA polymerase (Pol) II, a transient open promoter complex (OC) is converted to an initially transcribing complex (ITC) containing short RNAs, and to a stable elongation complex (EC). We report structures of a Pol II-DNA complex mimicking part of the OC, and of complexes representing minimal ITCs with 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 nucleotide (nt) RNAs, with and without a non-hydrolyzable nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) in the insertion site +1. The partial OC structure reveals that Pol II positions the melted template strand opposite the active site. The ITC-mimicking structures show that two invariant lysine residues anchor the 3'-proximal phosphate of short RNAs. Short DNA-RNA hybrids adopt a tilted conformation that excludes the +1 template nt from the active site. NTP binding induces complete DNA translocation and the standard hybrid conformation. Conserved NTP contacts indicate a universal mechanism of NTP selection. The essential residue Q1078 in the closed trigger loop binds the NTP 2'-OH group, explaining how the trigger loop couples catalysis to NTP selection, suppressing dNTP binding and DNA synthesis.
Project description:Terminal RNA uridylyltransferases (TUTases) catalyze template-independent UMP addition to the 3' hydroxyl of RNA. TUTases belong to the DNA polymerase beta superfamily of nucleotidyltransferases that share a conserved catalytic domain bearing three metal-binding carboxylate residues. We have previously determined crystal structures of the UTP-bound and apo forms of the minimal trypanosomal TUTase, TbTUT4, which is composed solely of the N-terminal catalytic and C-terminal base-recognition domains. Here we report crystal structures of TbTUT4 with bound CTP, GTP, and ATP, demonstrating nearly perfect superposition of the triphosphate moieties with that of the UTP substrate. Consequently, at physiological nucleoside 5'-triphosphate concentrations, the protein-uracil base interactions alone are not sufficient to confer UTP selectivity. To resolve this ambiguity, we determined the crystal structure of a prereaction ternary complex composed of UTP, TbTUT4, and UMP, which mimics an RNA substrate, and the postreaction complex of TbTUT4 with UpU dinucleotide. The UMP pyrimidine ring stacks against the uracil base of the bound UTP, which on its other face also stacks with an essential tyrosine. In contrast, the different orientation of the purine bases observed in cocrystals with ATP and GTP prevents this triple stacking, precluding productive binding of the RNA. The 3' hydroxyl of the bound UMP is poised for in-line nucleophilic attack while contributing to the formation of a binding site for a second catalytic metal ion. We propose a dual role for RNA substrates in TUTase-catalyzed reactions: contribution to selective incorporation of the cognate nucleoside and shaping of the catalytic metal binding site.
Project description:The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from positive-strand RNA viruses, such as picornaviruses and flaviviruses, close their active sites for catalysis via a unique NTP-induced conformational change in the palm domain. Combined with a fully prepositioned templating nucleotide, this mechanism is error-prone and results in a distribution of random mutations in the viral progeny often described as a quasi-species. Here we examine the extent to which noncognate NTPs competitively inhibit single-cycle elongation by coxsackievirus B3 3D(pol), a polymerase that generates three to four mutations per 10 kb of RNA synthesized during viral infection. Using an RNA with a templating guanosine combined with 2-aminopurine fluorescence as a reporter for elongation, we find that the cognate CTP has a Km of 24 ?M and the three noncognate nucleotides competitively inhibit the reaction with Kic values of 500 ?M for GTP, 1300 ?M for ATP, and 3000 ?M for UTP. Unexpectedly, ATP also acted as an uncompetitive inhibitor with a Kiu of 1800 ?M, resulting in allosteric modulation of 3D(pol) that slowed the polymerase elongation rate ?4-fold. ATP uncompetitive inhibition required the ?- and ?-phosphates, and its extent was significantly diminished in two previously characterized low-fidelity polymerases. This led to further mutational analysis and the identification of a putative allosteric binding site below the NTP entry channel at the interface of conserved motifs A and D, although cocrystallization failed to reveal any density for bound ATP in this pocket. The potential role of an ATP allosteric effect during the virus life cycle is discussed.