DL0805-2, a novel indazole derivative, relaxes angiotensin II-induced contractions of rat aortic rings by inhibiting Rho kinase and calcium fluxes.
ABSTRACT: DL0805-2 [N-(1H-indazol-5-yl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl) pyrrolidine-3-carboxamide] is a DL0805 derivative with more potent vasorelaxant activity and lower toxicity. This study was conducted to investigate the vasorelaxant mechanisms of DL0805-2 on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced contractions of rat thoracic aortic rings in vitro.Rat thoracic aortic rings and rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were pretreated with DL0805-2, and then stimulated with Ang II. The tension of the aortic rings was measured through an isometric force transducer. Ang II-induced protein phosphorylation, ROS production and F-actin formation were assessed with Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. Intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations were detected with Fluo-3 AM.Pretreatment with DL0805-2 (1-100 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the constrictions of the aortic rings induced by a single dose of Ang II (10(-7) mol/L) or accumulative addition of Ang II (10(-10)-10(-7) mol/L). The vasodilatory effect of DL0805-2 was independent of endothelium. In the aortic rings, pretreatment with DL0805-2 (1, 3, and 10 μmol/L) suppressed Ang II-induced Ca(2+) influx and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, and Ang II-induced phosphorylation of two substrates of Rho kinase (MLC and MYPT1). In VSMCs, pretreatment with DL0805-2 (1, 3, and 10 μmol/L) also suppressed Ang II-induced Ca(2+) fluxes and phosphorylation of MLC and MYPT1. In addition, pretreatment with DL0805-2 attenuated ROS production and F-actin formation in the cells.DL0805-2 exerts a vasodilatory action in rat aortic rings through inhibiting the Rho/ROCK pathway and calcium fluxes.
Project description:AIM: To identify a key protein that binds monomeric G protein RhoA and activates the RhoA/Rho kinase/MYPT1 axis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) upon angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation. METHODS: Primary cultured VSMCs from Sprague-Dawley rats were transfected with siRNAs against leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG), and then treated with Ang II, losartan, PD123319, or Val(5)-Ang II. The target mRNA and protein levels were determined using qPCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Rat aortic rings were isolated, and the isometric contraction was measured with a force transducer and recorder. RESULTS: Stimulation with Ang II (0.1 μmol/L) for 0.5 h significantly increased the level of LARG mRNA in VSMCs. At 3, 6, and 9 h after the treatment with Ang II (0.1 μmol/L) plus AT(2) antagonist PD123319 (1 μmol/L) or with AT(1) agonist Val(5)-Ang II (1 μmol/L), the LARG protein, RhoA activity, and phosphorylation level of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) in VSMCs were significantly increased. Knockdown of LARG with siRNA reduced these effects caused by AT(1) receptor activation. In rat aortic rings pretreated with LARG siRNA, Ang II-induced contraction was diminished. CONCLUSION: Ang II upregulates LARG gene expression and activates the LARG/RhoA/MYPT1 axis via AT(1), thereby maintaining vascular tone.
Project description:Brazilin is one of the major constituents of Caesalpinia sappan L with various biological activities. This study sought to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of brazilin on isolated rat thoracic aorta and explore the underlying mechanisms.Endothelium-intact and -denuded aortic rings were prepared from rats. The tension of the preparations was recorded isometrically with a force displacement transducer connected to a polygraph. The phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and myosin light chain (MLC) were analyzed using Western blotting assay.Application of brazilin (10-100 μmol/L) dose-dependently relaxed the NE- or high K(+)-induced sustained contraction of endothelium-intact aortic rings (the EC50 was 83.51±5.6 and 79.79±4.57 μmol/L, respectively). The vasorelaxant effect of brazilin was significantly attenuated by endothelium removal or by pre-incubation with L-NAME, methylene blue or indomethacin. In addition, pre-incubation with brazilin dose-dependently attenuated the vasoconstriction induced by KCl, NE or Ang II. Pre-incubation with brazilin also markedly suppressed the high K(+)-induced extracellular Ca(2+) influx and NE-induced intracellular Ca(2+) release in endothelium-denuded aortic rings. Pre-incubation with brazilin dose-dependently inhibited the NE-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and MLC in both endothelium-intact and -denuded aortic rings.Brazilin induces relaxation in rat aortic rings via both endothelium-dependent and -independent ways as well as inhibiting NE-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and MLC. Brazilin also attenuates vasoconstriction via blocking voltage- and receptor-operated Ca(2+) channels.
Project description:This study investigated several mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). EGCG (1 microM-1 mM) concentration dependently relaxed, after a transient increase in tension, contractions induced by noradrenaline (NA, 1 microM), high extracellular KCl (60 mM), or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 1 microM) in intact rat aortic rings. In a Ca2+ -free solution, EGCG (1 microM-1 mM) relaxed 1 microM PMA-induced contractions, without previous transient contraction. However, EGCG (1 microM-1 mM) did not affect the 1 microM okadaic acid-induced contractions. Removal of endothelium and/or pretreatment with glibenclamide (10 microM), tetraethylammonium (2 mM) or charybdotoxin (100 nM) plus apamin (500 nM) did not modify the vasorelaxant effects of EGCG. In addition, EGCG noncompetitively antagonized the contractions induced by NA (in 1.5 mM Ca2+ -containing solution) and Ca2+ (in depolarizing Ca2+ -free high KCl 60 mM solution). In rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC), EGCG (100 microM) reduced increases in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) induced by angiotensin II (ANG II, 100 nM) and KCl (60 mM) in 1.5 mM CaCl2 -containing solution and by ANG II (100 nM) in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In RASMC, EGCG (100 microM) did not modify basal generation of cAMP or cGMP, but significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of NA (1 microM) and high KCl (60 mM) on cAMP and cGMP production. EGCG inhibited the enzymatic activity of all the cyclic nucleotide PDE isoenzymes present in vascular tissue, being more effective on PDE2 (IC50 approximately 17) and on PDE1 (IC50 approximately 25). Our results suggest that the vasorelaxant effects of EGCG in rat aorta are mediated, at least in part, by an inhibition of PDE activity, and the subsequent increase in cyclic nucleotide levels in RASMC, which, in turn, can reduce agonist- or high KCl concentration-induced increases in [Ca2+]i.
Project description:Original quinolinone derivatives structurally related to diazoxide were synthesized and their effects on insulin secretion from rat pancreatic islets and the contractile activity of rat aortic rings determined. A concentration-dependent decrease of insulin release was induced by 6-chloro-2-methylquinolin-4(1H)-one (HEI 713). The average IC(50) values were 16.9+/-0.8 microM for HEI 713 and 18.4+/-2.2 microM for diazoxide. HEI 713 increased the rate of (86)Rb outflow from perifused pancreatic islets. This effect persisted in the absence of external Ca(2+) but was inhibited by glibenclamide, a K(ATP) channel blocker. Inside-out patch-clamp experiments revealed that HEI 713 increased K(ATP) channel openings. HEI 713 decreased (45)Ca outflow, insulin output and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration in pancreatic islets and islet cells incubated in the presence of 16.7 or 20 mM glucose and extracellular Ca(2+). The drug did not affect the K(+)(50 mM)-induced increase in (45)Ca outflow. In aortic rings, the vasorelaxant effects of HEI 713, less potent than diazoxide, were sensitive to glibenclamide and to the extracellular K(+) concentration. The drug elicited a glibenclamide-sensitive increase in (86)Rb outflow from perifused rat aortic rings. Our data describe an original compound which inhibits insulin release with a similar potency to diazoxide but which has fewer vasorelaxant effects. Our results suggest that, in both aortic rings and islet tissue, the biological effects of HEI 713 mainly result from activation of K(ATP) channels ultimately leading to a decrease in Ca(2+) inflow.
Project description:Specific Aims ; To identify novel transcriptional events associated with angiogenesis in VEGF and Ang-1 stimulated rat aortic rings. Our studies take advantage of the capacity of rat aortic rings to generate new vessels in collagen gels. Rat aortic rings embedded in collagen gel immediately after excision from the animal produce a self-limited angiogenic response under serum-free conditions and in the absence of exogenous stimuli. This angiogenic response can be dose-dependently promoted by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), which are critical regulators of the angiogenic process during embryonal development and postnatal angiogenesis. Aortic rings lose their capacity to spontaneously generate new vessels if embedded in collagen gels 10-14 days after excision. VEGF has the capacity to turn back “on” these quiescent rings producing florid angiogenesis. Conversely, Ang-1 potentiates an existing angiogenic response, but is unable to turn the quiescent system “on”. Since VEGF-mediated induction of angiogenic sprouting occurs 1-2 days of treatment, we hypothesize that this process is regulated by a unique set of “angiogenesis inducer genes” that are activated by VEGF and not by Ang-1. Identification of the proteins encoded by these genes may advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the earliest stages of the angiogenic cascade. Experiment Overall Design: Rat thoracic aortic rings will be excised from 1 month old Fisher 344 rats and placed into suspension culture. 15-20 individual rings will be isolated from each animal and cultured in suspension in serum free medium. The rings will be divided into three groups as described below. (Assay is described in; Nicosia et al., 1997 Am.J.Pathol, 151). Experiment Overall Design: All individual aortic rings isolated from a single animal will be split into three groups, VEGF treated, Ang-1 treated, and untreated controls. Rings dissected from proximal and distal portions of the aorta will be mixed so that positional bias will not be carried through to the RNA preparation. Experiment Overall Design: 13 days post isolation, one set of aortic rings will be treated with 10ng/ml of recombinant human VEGF in serum free EBM media, a second set of rings will be treated with 100ng/ml of human recombinant Ang-1 (R&D Systems 923-AN) in conjunction with 5ug/ml poly-His antibody (R&D Systems MAB050), and a third set of rings will be incubated in serum free medium alone. Experiment Overall Design: All samples were incubated for 18 hours post VEGF and Ang-1 treatment and then RNA was harvested. Experiment Overall Design: With the number of aortic rings typically obtained, we anticipate having 4-6 individual rings from each animal for each experimental condition. Furthermore, 10-100ng of total RNA will be collected per aortic ring, corresponding to 400-600ng of total RNA for each experimental condition per animal. Experiment Overall Design: In order to have a minimum of three independent samples from each experimental condition, three animals were sacrificed, each of which gave rise to three individual RNA samples. The resulting 9 individual RNA samples to be compared with respect to transcriptional profiles. Experiment Overall Design: Total RNA will be extracted from each aortic ring using the Trizol reagent (Invitrogen) protocol. RNA will be stored at –80C until all 9 individual samples have been prepared. Trizol extracted total RNA will be further purified/concentrated using the MicroRNAEasy Kit (Qiagen) with DNAseI digestion.
Project description:To investigate the effects of puerarin (Pue), an isoflavone derived from Kudzu roots, on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes in vivo and in vitro.C57BL/6J mice were infused with Ang II and treated with Pue (100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) for 15 d. After the treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and left ventricular wall thickness were assessed. The ratios of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW) and left ventricular weight to body weight (LVW/BW) were determined, and heart morphometry was assessed. Expression of fetal-type genes (ANP, BNP and β-MHC) in left ventricles was measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Mouse primary cardiomyocytes were treated with Pue (50, 100, 200 μmol/L), then exposed to Ang II (1 μmol/L). ROS level was examined with flow cytometry, the binding activity of NF-κB was determined using EMSA. Western blot was used to measure the levels of ERK1/2, p38 and NF-κB pathway proteins. [(3)H]leucine incorporation was used to measure the rate of protein synthesis.Oral administration of Pue significantly suppressed Ang II-induced increases in the myocyte surface area, HW/BW, LVW/BW, SBP and left ventricular wall thickness. Furthermore, Pue significantly suppressed Ang II-induced increases in ANP, BNP and β-MHC expression in the left ventricles in vivo. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with Pue (50-500 μmol/L) did not affect the viability of cardiomyocytes in vitro. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with Pue dose-dependently inhibited Ang II-induced increases in ROS production, NF-κB binding activity, protein synthesis and cell breadth. Furthermore, pretreatment with Pue significantly suppressed Ang II-induced activation of ERK1/2, p38 and the NF-κB pathway proteins and the expression of ANP and β-MHC in cardiomyocytes. The positive drug valsartan exerted similar effects on Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro.Pue attenuates Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting activation of the redox-sensitive ERK1/2, p38 and the NF-κB pathways.
Project description:To investigate the effects of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated renal fibrosis in vivo and in vitro.Mice were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), and then treated with vehicle or NAC (250 mg/kg, ip) for 7 days. Histological changes of the obstructed kidneys were observed with Masson's trichrome staining. ROS levels were detected with DHE staining. The expression of relevant proteins in the obstructed kidneys was assessed using Western blotting assays. Cultured rat renal fibroblast NRK-49F cells were used for in vitro experiments.In the obstructed kidneys, Ang II levels were significantly elevated, and collagen I was accumulated in the interstitial spaces. Furthermore, ROS production and the expression of p47 (a key subunit of NADPH oxidase complexes) were increased in a time-dependent manner; the expression of fibronectin, α-SMA and TGF-β were upregulated. Administration of NAC significantly alleviated the fibrotic responses in the obstructed kidneys. In cultured NRK-49F cells, treatment with Ang II (0.001-10 μmol/L) increased the expression of fibronectin, collagen I, α-SMA and TGF-β in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. Ang II also increased ROS production and the phosphorylation of Smad3. Pretreatment with NAC (5 μmol/L) blocked Ang II-induced oxidative stress and ECM production in the cells.In mouse obstructed kidneys, the fibrotic responses result from Ang II upregulation can be alleviated by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine.
Project description:Glutathionylation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump's ?1-subunit is a key molecular mechanism of physiological and pathophysiological pump inhibition in cardiac myocytes. Its contribution to Na(+)-K(+) pump regulation in other tissues is unknown, and cannot be assumed given the dependence on specific ?-subunit isoform expression and receptor-coupled pathways. As Na(+)-K(+) pump activity is an important determinant of vascular tone through effects on [Ca(2+)]i, we have examined the role of oxidative regulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in mediating angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced increases in vascular reactivity. ?1-subunit glutathione adducts were present at baseline and increased by exposure to Ang II in rabbit aortic rings, primary rabbit aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and human arterial segments. In VSMCs, Ang II-induced glutathionylation was associated with marked reduction in Na(+)-K(+)ATPase activity, an effect that was abolished by the NADPH oxidase inhibitory peptide, tat-gp91ds. In aortic segments, Ang II-induced glutathionylation was associated with decreased K(+)-induced vasorelaxation, a validated index of pump activity. Ang II-induced oxidative inhibition of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and decrease in K(+)-induced relaxation were reversed by preincubation of VSMCs and rings with recombinant FXYD3 protein that is known to facilitate deglutathionylation of ?1-subunit. Knock-out of FXYD1 dramatically decreased K(+)-induced relaxation in a mouse model. Attenuation of Ang II signaling in vivo by captopril (8 mg/kg/day for 7 days) decreased superoxide-sensitive DHE levels in the media of rabbit aorta, decreased ?1-subunit glutathionylation, and enhanced K(+)-induced vasorelaxation. Ang II inhibits the Na(+)-K(+) pump in VSMCs via NADPH oxidase-dependent glutathionylation of the pump's ?1-subunit, and this newly identified signaling pathway may contribute to altered vascular tone. FXYD proteins reduce oxidative inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+) pump and may have an important protective role in the vasculature under conditions of oxidative stress.
Project description:NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in renal injury and may be a therapeutic target in the treatment of patients with progressive chronic kidney disease. In this study we investigated whether angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation was linked to endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in human renal proximal tubular cells in vitro.Human kidney proximal epithelial cells (HK-2) were pretreated with telmisartan or 4-PBA, and then treated with Ang II. The expression levels of mRNAs and proteins related to NLRP3 inflammasomes and ERS was examined by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence.Treatment with Ang II (10, 100, and 1000 nmol/L) increased the expression of the inflammasome markers NLRP3 and ASC, as well as caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 in dose- and time-dependent manners with peak levels detected at 100 nmol/L and 12 h. Ang II-induced increases in the expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 were significantly reduced by pretreatment with telmisartan (1 μmol/L). Immunofluorescence studies showed that Ang II increased the expression of NLRP3 and ASC, which was inhibited by telmisartan. Furthermore, Ang II treatment increased the expression of ERS markers GRP78 and p-eIF2α in dose- and time-dependent manners, which was significantly reduced by telmisartan. Moreover, Ang II-induced increases in the expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the ERS inhibitor 4-PBA (5 mmol/L).Ang II treatment induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation in HK-2 cells in vitro and ER stress is involved in this process, which may represent a new mechanism for the renal rennin-angiotensin system to induce tubulointerstitial inflammation.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of these experiments was to evaluate the significance of the chemical reaction between hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) for the control of vascular tone. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effect of sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS; H2S donor) and a range of NO donors, such as sodium nitroprusside (SNP), either alone or together, was determined using phenylephrine (PE)-precontracted rat aortic rings and on the blood pressure of anaesthetised rats. KEY RESULTS: Mixing NaHS with NO donors inhibited the vasorelaxant effect of NO both in vitro and in vivo. Low concentrations of NaHS or H2S gas in solution reversed the relaxant effect of acetylcholine (ACh, 400 nM) and histamine (100 microM) but not isoprenaline (400 nM). The effect of NaHS on the ACh response was antagonized by CuSO(4) (200 nM) but was unaffected by glibenclamide (10 microM). In contrast, high concentrations of NaHS (200-1600 microM) relaxed aortic rings directly, an effect reduced by glibenclamide but unaffected by CuSO4. Intravenous infusion of a low concentration of NaHS (10 micromol kg(-1) min(-1)) into the anaesthetized rat significantly increased mean arterial blood pressure. L-NAME (25 mg kg(-1), i.v.) pretreatment reduced this effect. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results suggest that H2S and NO react together to form a molecule (possibly a nitrosothiol) which exhibits little or no vasorelaxant activity either in vitro or in vivo. We propose that a crucial, and hitherto unappreciated, role of H2S in the vascular system is the regulation of the availability of NO.