Early Requirement for RRT in Children at Presentation in the United Kingdom: Association with Transplantation and Survival.
ABSTRACT: We evaluated rates and factors associating with late referral (LR) and describe association of LR with access to renal transplantation and patient survival in children in the United Kingdom. Early requirement of RRT within 90 days of presentation to a pediatric nephrologist was classed as a LR, and those >90 days as an early referral (ER).We included patients who commenced RRT, aged ?3 months and <16 years, from 1996 to 2012.Of 1603 patients, 25.5% (n=408) were LR, of which 75% commenced RRT in <30 days following presentation. Those with LR were more likely to be older at presentation, female, and black. The primary renal disease in LR was more likely to be glomerular disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.12 to 2.29), renal malignancy and associated diseases (OR, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.57 to 10.72), tubulo-interstitial diseases (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.49 to 3.78), or an uncertain renal etiology (OR, 5.75; 95% CI, 3.1 to 10.65). Significant differences in rates of transplantation between LR and ER remained up to 1-year following commencement of dialysis (21% versus 61%, P<0.001) but with no differences for donor source (33.3% and 35.3% living donor in LR and ER respectively, P=0.55). The median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 4.8 years (2.9-7.6). There were 55 deaths with no statistically significant difference in survival in the LR group compared with the ER group (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.7 to 2.3; P=0.40).We found that 25% of children starting RRT in the United Kingdom receive a LR to pediatric renal services, with little change observed over the past two decades. Those with LR are unable to benefit from pre-emptive transplantation and require longer periods of dialysis before transplantation. There is an urgent need to understand causes of avoidable LR and develop strategies to improve kidney awareness more widely among health care professionals looking after children.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Endocarditis is a serious complication in patients treated with RRT. The study aimed to examine incidence and risk factors of endocarditis in patients with ESRD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:The Danish National Registry on Regular Dialysis and Transplantation contains data on all Danish patients receiving renal replacement (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or kidney transplantation) for ESRD. Incidence of endocarditis was estimated for each RRT modality. Independent risk factors of endocarditis were identified in multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS:From January 1st, 1996 to December 31st, 2012, 10,612 patients (mean age 63 years, 36% female) initiated RRT (7233 hemodialysis, 3056 peritoneal dialysis, 323 pre-emptive kidney transplantation). Endocarditis developed in 267 (2.5%); of these 31 (12%) underwent valve surgery. The overall incidence of endocarditis was 627 per 100,000 person-years in patients receiving RRT. Incidence was higher in patients receiving hemodialysis compared with those receiving peritoneal dialysis or kidney transplantation (1092 per 100,000 person-years, 212 per 100,000 person-years, and 85 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). Adjusted hazard ratios for endocarditis in patients receiving hemodialysis were 5.46 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.28 to 9.10) and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.91) for kidney-transplanted recipients, respectively, as compared with patients in peritoneal dialysis. The incidence of endocarditis in hemodialysis recipients with central venous catheters was more than two-fold higher as compared with those with arteriovenous fistulas. Overall mortality, subsequent to endocarditis, was 22% in-hospital and 51% at 1 year. The first 6 months in RRT, aortic valve disease, and previous endocarditis were identified as significant risk factors of endocarditis. CONCLUSIONS:Patients receiving RRT have a high incidence of endocarditis, in particular during hemodialysis treatment using central venous catheters. The first 6 months in RRT, aortic valve disease, and previous endocarditis are significant risk factors for developing endocarditis.
Project description:The timing of referral to a nephrologist may influence the outcome of chronic kidney disease patients, but its impact has not been evaluated thoroughly. The results of a recent study showing an association between early referral and patient survival are still being debated. A total of 1028 patients newly diagnosed as end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from July 2008 to October 2011 were enrolled. Early referral (ER) was defined as patients meeting with a nephrologist more than a year before dialysis and dialysis education were provided, and all others were considered late referral (LR). The relationship of referral pattern with mortality in ESRD patients was explored using a Cox proportional hazards regression models. Time from referral to dialysis was significantly longer in 599 ER patients than in 429 LR patients (62.3 ± 58.9 versus 2.9 ± 3.4 months, P<0.001). Emergency HD using a temporary vascular catheter was required in 485 (47.2%) out of all patients and in 262 (43.7%) of ER compared with 223 (52.0%) of LR (P = 0.009). After 2 years of follow-up, the survival rate in ER was better than that in LR (hazard ratio [HR] 2.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-4.45, P = 0.007). In patients with diabetes nephropathy, patient survival was also significantly higher in ER than in LR (HR 4.74, 95% CI 1.73-13.00, P = 0.002). With increasing age, HR also increased. Timely referral to a nephrologist in the predialytic stage is associated with reduced mortality.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of patients needing renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to diabetes mellitus (DM)-related glomerulosclerosis or nephropathy (diabetic nephropathy, DN) in the Netherlands. DESIGN:Using the national registry for RRT (RENINE-registry), data of all Dutch individuals initiating RRT for ESRD and having DN as primary diagnosis in the period 2000-2012 were obtained. SETTING:Observational study in the Netherlands. PATIENTS:Patients with ESRD needing RRT for DN. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS:Age and gender adjusted incidence and prevalence of RRT for DN in the period 2000-2012. In addition, trends in time and patient's survival were examined. RESULTS:The prevalence of DM in the general population increased from approximately 466?000 in 2000 to 815?000 in 2011. The number of individuals who started RRT with DN as primary diagnosis was 17.4 per million population (pmp) in 2000 and 19.1?pmp in 2012, with an annual percentage change (APC) of 0.8% (95% CI -0.4 to 2.0). For RRT due to type 1 DN, the incidence decreased from 7.3 to 3.5?pmp (APC -4.8%, 95% CI -6.5 to -3.1) while it increased for type 2 DN from 10.1 to 15.6?pmp (APC 3.1%, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.8). After 2009, the prevalence of RRT for DN remained stable (APC 1.0%, 95% CI -0.4 to 2.5). Compared to the period 2000-2004, patients initiating RRT and dialysis in 2005-2009 had better survival, HRs 0.8 (95% CI 0.7 to 0.8) and 0.8 (95% CI 0.7 to 0.9), respectively, while survival after kidney transplantation remained stable, HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.1). CONCLUSIONS:Over the last decade, the incidence of RRT for DN was stable, with a decrease in RRT due to type 1 DN and an increase due to type 2 DN, while survival increased.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is amenable to early detection and specialty care. Thus, while important to patients with the condition, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from ADPKD also may be an indicator of the overall state of nephrology care.Retrospective cohort study of temporal trends in ESRD from ADPKD and pre-renal replacement therapy (RRT) nephrologist care, 2001-2010 (n = 23,772).US patients who initiated maintenance RRT from 2001 through 2010 (n = 1,069,343) from US Renal Data System data.ESRD from ADPKD versus from other causes for baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes; interval 2001-2005 versus 2006-2010 for comparisons of cohort of patients with ESRD from ADPKD.Death, wait-listing for kidney transplant, kidney transplantation.US census data were used as population denominators. Poisson distribution was used to compute incidence rates (IRs). Incidence ratios were standardized to rates in 2001-2002 for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Patients with and without ADPKD were matched to compare clinical outcomes. Poisson regression was used to calculate IRs and adjusted HRs for clinical events after inception of RRT.General population incidence ratios in 2009-2010 were unchanged from 2001-2002 (incidence ratio, 1.02). Of patients with ADPKD, 48.1% received more than 12 months of nephrology care before RRT; preemptive transplantation was the initial RRT in 14.3% and fistula was the initial hemodialysis access in 35.8%. During 4.9 years of follow-up, patients with ADPKD were more likely to be listed for transplantation (IR, 11.7 [95% CI, 11.5-12.0] vs 8.4 [95% CI, 8.2-8.7] per 100 person-years) and to undergo transplantation (IR, 9.8 [95% CI, 9.5-10.0] vs 4.8 [95% CI, 4.7-5.0] per 100 person-years) and less likely to die (IR, 5.6 [95% CI, 5.4-5.7] vs 15.5 [95% CI, 15.3-15.8] per 100 person-years) than matched controls without ADPKD.Retrospective nonexperimental registry-based study of associations; cause-and-effect relationships cannot be determined.Although outcomes on dialysis therapy are better for patients with ADPKD than for those without ADPKD, access to predialysis nephrology care and nondeclining ESRD rates may be a cause for concern.
Project description:Timely referral to nephrologists is important for improving clinical outcomes and reducing costs during transition periods. We evaluated the impact of patients' demographic, clinical, and social health characteristics on referral time.A total of 1744 CKD patients who started maintaining dialysis were enrolled in a Korean prospective cohort. The early referral (ER) and late referral group (LR) were defined as patients who were referred to a nephrologist more than or less than 1 year prior to dialysis initiation, respectively.A total of 1088 patients (62.3%) were in the ER, and 656 patients (37.6%) were in the LR. Among the patients in the LR, 398 patients (60.7%) were referred within the 3 months prior to the start of dialysis (ultralate referral group [ULR]). The ER was younger at the time of referral than the LR; however, the ER was older at the start of dialysis. Patients with diabetes or hypertension as the cause of kidney disease were more common in the LR, whereas patients with glomerulonephritis, females, and nonsmokers were more common in the ER. The ER had more well-controlled blood pressure, lower phosphorus levels, and higher hemoglobin levels at the start of dialysis. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was more common in the LR. In the multivariate analysis, male sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.465, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034-2.076), underlying kidney disease (diabetes mellitus [OR 1.507, 95% CI 1.057-2.148] and hypertension [OR 1.995, 95% CI 1.305-3.051]), occupation (mechanician [OR 2.975, 95% CI 1.445-6.125], laborer [OR 3.209, 95% CI 1.405-7.327], and farmer [OR 5.147, 95% CI 2.217-11.953]), CHF (OR 2.152, 95% CI 1.543-3.000), and ambulatory status (assisted-walks, OR 2.072, 95% CI 1.381-3.111) were proved as the independent risk factor for late referral.Patients with hypertensive or diabetic kidney disease are referred later than those with glomerulonephritis. Male patients with physically active occupations exhibiting CHF and restricted ambulation were associated with a late referral. Considering the various factors associated with late referral, efforts to increase early referrals should be emphasized, particularly in patients with hypertension, diabetes, or congestive heart failure.
Project description:AIMS:The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in relation to ischaemic stroke, intracranial haemorrhage, major bleeding, and all-cause death in heart failure patients without atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS:In this observational cohort study, heart failure patients without atrial fibrillation were identified using Danish nationwide registries. Risk of stroke, major haemorrhage, and death were calculated after 1 and 5 years to compare patients with and without CKD, ±dialysis [dialysis: CKD with renal replacement therapy (CKD-RRT); no dialysis: CKD-no RRT]. A total of 43 199 heart failure patients were included, among which 0.8% had CKD-RRT and 5.9% had CKD-no RRT. When compared with heart failure patients without CKD, both CKD-RRT and CKD-no RRT were associated with a higher 5 year rate of major bleeding (CKD-RRT: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 2.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.29 to 3.70; CKD-no RRT: aHR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.45) and all-cause death (CKD-RRT: aHR: 2.40, 95% CI: 2.07 to 2.77; CKD-no RRT: aHR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.55 to 1.73). For the endpoints of ischaemic stroke and intracranial bleeding, only CKD-no RRT was associated with significantly higher 5 year rates (ischaemic stroke: aHR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.52; intracranial haemorrhage: aHR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.65). CONCLUSIONS:Compared with patients without CKD, among incident heart failure patients without atrial fibrillation, CKD both with and without dialysis was associated with a higher rate of major bleeding and all-cause death. Only CKD-no RRT was associated with a higher rate of ischaemic stroke and intracranial bleeding.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with the hereditary disease Alport syndrome commonly require renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the second or third decade of life. This study compared age at onset of RRT, renal allograft, and patient survival in men with Alport syndrome receiving various forms of RRT (peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, or transplantation) with those of men with other renal diseases. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Patients with Alport syndrome receiving RRT identified from 14 registries in Europe were matched to patients with other renal diseases. A linear spline model was used to detect changes in the age at start of RRT over time. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to examine patient and graft survival. RESULTS: Age at start of RRT among patients with Alport syndrome remained stable during the 1990s but increased by 6 years between 2000-2004 and 2005-2009. Survival of patients with Alport syndrome requiring dialysis or transplantation did not change between 1990 and 2009. However, patients with Alport syndrome had better renal graft and patient survival than matched controls. Numbers of living-donor transplantations were lower in patients with Alport syndrome than in matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that kidney failure in patients with Alport syndrome is now being delayed compared with previous decades. These patients appear to have superior patient survival while undergoing dialysis and superior patient and graft survival after deceased-donor kidney transplantation compared with patients receiving RRT because of other causes of kidney failure.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated predictors for patient and renal survival in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) with and without renal involvement. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: There were 273 consecutive AAV patients from January 1990 until December 2007 who were followed until death, loss to follow-up, or December 2010. Based on organ involvement, patients were divided into renal (n=212) and nonrenal groups (n=61). The primary end point was ESRD requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) or renal transplantation or death. RESULTS: Patient survival was significantly better in the nonrenal group compared with the renal group (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.92; P=0.02). In the renal group, renal survival was significantly worse in MPO-ANCA-positive patients (n=65) compared with PR3-ANCA-positive patients (n=138) (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 3.8; P=0.01). Of 48 patients who needed RRT at diagnosis, 11 patients (23%) died within 6 months and 14 patients (29%) did not regain renal function. Of all 23 patients who regained renal function after RRT, 7 patients (30%) were temporarily dialysis independent and needed dialysis later (range, 13-63 months). Five patients had a renal relapse in the 6 months before restart of RRT. Of all 203 PR3-ANCA-positive and MPO-ANCA-positive patients with renal involvement, 12 patients (6%) developed ESRD during follow-up. These patients were classified as CKD stage 4 or 5 after initial treatment and eight patients had a renal relapse before becoming dialysis dependent. CONCLUSIONS: AAV patients with renal involvement who needed RRT had the worst survival probability. In multivariate analysis, the only major determinants for long-term renal survival were renal function at 6 months and renal relapses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The use of the furosemide stress test (FST) as an acute kidney injury (AKI) severity marker has been described in several trials. However, the diagnostic performance of the FST in predicting AKI progression has not yet been fully discussed. METHODS:In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases up to March 2020. The diagnostic performance of the FST (in terms of sensitivity, specificity, number of events, true positive, false positive) was extracted and evaluated. RESULTS:We identified eleven trials that enrolled a total of 1366 patients, including 517 patients and 1017 patients for whom the outcomes in terms of AKI stage progression and renal replacement therapy (RRT), respectively, were reported. The pooled sensitivity and specificity results of the FST for AKI progression prediction were 0.81 (95% CI 0.74-0.87) and 0.88 (95% CI 0.82-0.92), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 5.45 (95% CI 3.96-7.50), the pooled negative LR was 0.26 (95% CI 0.19-0.36), and the pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 29.69 (95% CI 17.00-51.85). The summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC) with pooled diagnostic accuracy was 0.88. The diagnostic performance of the FST in predicting AKI progression was not affected by different AKI criteria or underlying chronic kidney disease. The pooled sensitivity and specificity results of the FST for RRT prediction were 0.84 (95% CI 0.72-0.91) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.64-0.87), respectively. The pooled positive LR and pooled negative LR were 3.16 (95% CI 2.06-4.86) and 0.25 (95% CI 0.14-0.44), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 13.59 (95% CI 5.74-32.17), and SROC with pooled diagnostic accuracy was 0.86. The diagnostic performance of FST for RRT prediction is better in stage 1-2 AKI compared to stage 3 AKI (relative DOR 5.75, 95% CI 2.51-13.33). CONCLUSION:The FST is a simple tool for the identification of AKI populations at high risk of AKI progression and the need for RRT, and the diagnostic performance of FST in RRT prediction is better in early AKI population.
Project description:The appropriate timing for initiating renal replacement therapy (RRT) in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. This meta-analysis aims to assess the efficacy of early initiation of RRT in critically ill patients with AKI. The Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched up to August 13, 2019. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of early and late RRT on AKI patients were included. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Eleven RCTs including 1131 and 1111 AKI patients assigned to early and late RRT strategies, respectively, were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The pooled 28-day mortality was 38.1% (431/1131) and 40.7% (453/1111) in the patients assigned to early and late RRT, respectively, with no significant difference between groups (risk ratio (RR), 0.95; 95% CI, 0.78-1.15, I2?=?63%). No significant difference was found between groups in terms of RRT dependence in survivors on day 28 (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.67-1.25, I2?=?0%), and recovery of renal function (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.89-1.19, I2?=?56%). The early RRT group had higher risks of catheter-related infection (RR, 1.7, 95% CI, 1.01-2.97, I2?=?0%) and hypophosphatemia (RR, 2.5, 95% CI, 1.25-4.99, I2?=?77%) than the late RRT group. In conclusion, an early RRT strategy does not improve survival, RRT dependence, or renal function recovery in critically ill patients with AKI in comparison with a late RRT strategy. However, clinicians should be vigilant because early RRT can carry higher risks of catheter-related infection and hypophosphatemia during dialysis than late RRT.