Mechanism of Regulation of Intrachromatid Recombination and Long-Range Chromosome Interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT: The NAD-dependent histone deacetylase Sir2 controls ribosomal DNA (rDNA) silencing by inhibiting recombination and RNA polymerase II-catalyzed transcription in the rDNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2 is recruited to nontranscribed spacer 1 (NTS1) of the rDNA array by interaction between the RENT ( RE: gulation of N: ucleolar S: ilencing and T: elophase exit) complex and the replication terminator protein Fob1. The latter binds to its cognate sites, called replication termini (Ter) or replication fork barriers (RFB), that are located in each copy of NTS1. This work provides new mechanistic insights into the regulation of rDNA silencing and intrachromatid recombination by showing that Sir2 recruitment is stringently regulated by Fob1 phosphorylation at specific sites in its C-terminal domain (C-Fob1), which also regulates long-range Ter-Ter interactions. We show further that long-range Fob1-mediated Ter-Ter interactions in trans are downregulated by Sir2. These regulatory mechanisms control intrachromatid recombination and the replicative life span (RLS).
Project description:The replication terminator protein Fob1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is multifunctional, and it not only promotes polar replication fork arrest at the tandem Ter sites located in the intergenic spacer region of rDNA but also loads the NAD-dependent histone deacetylase Sir2 at Ter sites via a protein complex called RENT (regulator of nucleolar silencing and telophase exit). Sir2 is a component of the RENT complex, and its loading not only silences intrachromatid recombination in rDNA but also RNA polymerase II-catalyzed transcription. Here, we present three lines of evidence showing that the two aforementioned activities of Fob1 are independent of each other as well as functionally separable. First, a Fob1 ortholog of Saccharomyces bayanus expressed in a fob1Delta strain of S. cerevisiae restored polar fork arrest at Ter but not rDNA silencing. Second, a mutant form (I407T) of S. cerevisiae Fob1 retained normal fork arresting activity but was partially defective in rDNA silencing. We further show that the silencing defect of S. bayanus Fob1 and the Iota407Tau mutant of S. cerevisiae Fob1 were caused by the failure of the proteins to interact with two members of the S. cerevisiae RENT complex, namely S. cerevisiae Sir2 and S. cerevisiae Net1. Third, deletions of the intra-S phase checkpoint proteins Tof1 and Csm3 abolished fork arrest by Fob1 at Ter without causing loss of silencing. Taken together, the data support the conclusion that unlike some other functions of Fob1, rDNA silencing at Ter is independent of fork arrest.
Project description:Protein-mediated "chromosome kissing" between two DNA sites in trans (or in cis) is known to facilitate three-dimensional control of gene expression and DNA replication. However, the mechanisms of regulation of the long-range interactions are unknown. Here, we show that the replication terminator protein Fob1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoted chromosome kissing that initiated rDNA recombination and controlled the replicative life span (RLS). Oligomerization of Fob1 caused synaptic (kissing) interactions between pairs of terminator (Ter) sites that initiated recombination in rDNA. Fob1 oligomerization and Ter-Ter kissing were regulated by intramolecular inhibitory interactions between the C-terminal domain (C-Fob1) and the N-terminal domain (N-Fob1). Phosphomimetic substitutions of specific residues of C-Fob1 counteracted the inhibitory interaction. A mutation in either N-Fob1 that blocked Fob1 oligomerization or C-Fob1 that blocked its phosphorylation antagonized chromosome kissing and recombination and enhanced the RLS. The results provide novel insights into a mechanism of regulation of Fob1-mediated chromosome kissing.
Project description:In eukaryotic cells, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) forms the basis of the nucleolus. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 100-200 copies of a 9.1-kb rDNA repeat exist as a tandem array on chromosome XII. The stability of this highly repetitive array is maintained through silencing. However, the precise mechanisms that regulate rDNA silencing are poorly understood. Here, we report that S. cerevisiae Ydr026c, which we name NTS1 silencing protein 1 (Nsi1), plays a significant role in rDNA silencing. By studying the subcellular localization of 159 nucleolar proteins, we identified 11 proteins whose localization pattern is similar to that of Net1, a well-established rDNA silencing factor. Among these proteins is Nsi1, which is associated with the NTS1 region of rDNA and is required for rDNA silencing at NTS1. In addition, Nsi1 physically interacts with the known rDNA silencing factors Net1, Sir2 and Fob1. The loss of Nsi1 decreases the association of Sir2 with NTS1 and increases histone acetylation at NTS1. Furthermore, Nsi1 contributes to the longevity of yeast cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that Nsi1 is a new rDNA silencing factor that contributes to rDNA stability and lifespan extension in S. cerevisiae.
Project description:The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is in one tandem repeat array on Chromosome XII. Two regions within each repetitive element, called intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) and IGS2, are important for organizing the rDNA within the nucleolus. The Smc5/6 complex localizes to IGS1 and IGS2. We show that Smc5/6 has a function in the rDNA beyond its role in homologous recombination (HR) at the replication fork barrier (RFB) located in IGS1. Fob1 is required for optimal binding of Smc5/6 at IGS1 whereas the canonical silencing factor Sir2 is required for its optimal binding at IGS2, independently of Fob1. Through interdependent interactions, Smc5/6 stabilizes Sir2 and Cohibin at both IGS and its recovery at IGS2 is important for nucleolar compaction and transcriptional silencing, which in turn supports rDNA stability and lifespan.
Project description:An average of 200 copies of the rRNA gene (rDNA) is clustered in a long tandem array in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FOB1 is known to be required for expansion/contraction of the repeats by stimulating recombination, thereby contributing to the maintenance of the average copy number. In Deltafob1 cells, the repeats are still maintained without any fluctuation in the copy number, suggesting that another, unknown system acts to prevent repeat contraction. Here, we show that condensin acts together with FOB1 in a functionally complemented fashion to maintain the long tandem repeats. Six condensin mutants possessing severely contracted rDNA repeats were isolated in Deltafob1 cells but not in FOB1+ cells. We also found that the condensin complex associated with the nontranscribed spacer region of rDNA with a major peak coincided with the replication fork barrier (RFB) site in a FOB1-dependent fashion. Surprisingly, condensin association with the RFB site was established during S phase and was maintained until anaphase. These results indicate that FOB1 plays a novel role in preventing repeat contraction by regulating condensin association and suggest a link between replication termination and chromosome condensation and segregation.
Project description:RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-transcribed genes embedded within the yeast rDNA locus are repressed through a Sir2-dependent process called 'rDNA silencing'. Sir2 is recruited to the rDNA promoter through interactions with RNA polymerase I (Pol I), and to a pair of DNA replication fork block sites (Ter1 and Ter2) through interaction with Fob1. We utilized a reporter gene (mURA3) integrated adjacent to the leftmost rDNA gene to investigate localized Pol I and Fob1 functions in silencing. Silencing was attenuated by loss of Pol I subunits or insertion of an ectopic Pol I terminator within the adjacent rDNA gene. Silencing left of the rDNA array is naturally attenuated by the presence of only one intact Fob1 binding site (Ter2). Repair of the 2nd Fob1 binding site (Ter1) dramatically strengthens silencing such that it is no longer impacted by local Pol I transcription defects. Global loss of Pol I activity, however, negatively affects Fob1 association with the rDNA. Loss of Ter2 almost completely eliminates localized silencing, but is restored by artificially targeting Fob1 or Sir2 as Gal4 DNA binding domain fusions. We conclude that Fob1 and Pol I make independent contributions to establishment of silencing, though Pol I also reinforces Fob1-dependent silencing.
Project description:Somatic mutations contribute to the development of age-associated disease. In earlier work, we found that, at high frequency, aging Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid cells produce daughters without mitochondrial DNA, leading to loss of respiration competence and increased loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the nuclear genome. Here we used the recently developed Mother Enrichment Program to ask whether aging cells that maintain the ability to produce respiration-competent daughters also experience increased genomic instability. We discovered that this population exhibits a distinct genomic instability phenotype that primarily affects the repeated ribosomal RNA gene array (rDNA array). As diploid cells passed their median replicative life span, recombination rates between rDNA arrays on homologous chromosomes progressively increased, resulting in mutational events that generated LOH at >300 contiguous open reading frames on the right arm of chromosome XII. We show that, while these recombination events were dependent on the replication fork block protein Fob1, the aging process that underlies this phenotype is Fob1-independent. Furthermore, we provide evidence that this aging process is not driven by mechanisms that modulate rDNA recombination in young cells, including loss of cohesion within the rDNA array or loss of Sir2 function. Instead, we suggest that the age-associated increase in rDNA recombination is a response to increasing DNA replication stress generated in aging cells.
Project description:Aging and longevity are complex traits influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control replicative lifespan, we employed an outbred Saccharomyces cerevisiae model, generated by crossing a vineyard and a laboratory strain. The predominant QTL mapped to the rDNA, with the vineyard rDNA conferring a lifespan increase of 41%. The lifespan extension was independent of Sir2 and Fob1, but depended on a polymorphism in the rDNA origin of replication from the vineyard strain that reduced origin activation relative to the laboratory origin. Strains carrying vineyard rDNA origins have increased capacity for replication initiation at weak plasmid and genomic origins, suggesting that inability to complete genome replication presents a major impediment to replicative lifespan. Calorie restriction, a conserved mediator of lifespan extension that is also independent of Sir2 and Fob1, reduces rDNA origin firing in both laboratory and vineyard rDNA. Our results are consistent with the possibility that calorie restriction, similarly to the vineyard rDNA polymorphism, modulates replicative lifespan through control of rDNA origin activation, which in turn affects genome replication dynamics.
Project description:Silencing at the rDNA, HM loci, and telomeres in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires histone-modifying enzymes to create chromatin domains that are refractory to recombination and RNA polymerase II transcription machineries. To explore how the silencing factor Sir2 regulates the composition and function of chromatin at the rDNA, the association of histones and RNA polymerase II with the rDNA was measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation. We found that Sir2 regulates not only the levels of K4-methylated histone H3 at the rDNA but also the levels of total histone H3 and RNA polymerase II. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the ability of Sir2 to limit methylated histones at the rDNA requires its deacetylase activity. In sir2Delta cells, high levels of K4-trimethylated H3 at the rDNA nontranscribed spacer are associated with the expression of transcription units in the nontranscribed spacer by RNA polymerase II and with previously undetected alterations in chromatin structure. Together, these data suggest a model where the deacetylase activity of Sir2 prevents euchromatinization of the rDNA and silences naturally occurring intergenic transcription units whose expression has been associated with disruption of cohesion complexes and repeat amplification at the rDNA.
Project description:Sir2 is a highly conserved NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase that functions in heterochromatin formation and promotes replicative life span (RLS) in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Within the yeast rDNA locus, Sir2 is required for efficient cohesin recruitment and maintaining the stability of the tandem array. In addition to the previously reported depletion of Sir2 in replicatively aged cells, we discovered that subunits of the Sir2-containing complexes silent information regulator (SIR) and regulator of nucleolar silencing and telophase (RENT) were depleted. Several other rDNA structural protein complexes also exhibited age-related depletion, most notably the cohesin complex. We hypothesized that mitotic chromosome instability (CIN) due to cohesin depletion could be a driver of replicative aging. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of the residual cohesin (Mcd1-Myc) in moderately aged cells showed strong depletion from the rDNA and initial redistribution to the point centromeres, which was then lost in older cells. Despite the shift in cohesin distribution, sister chromatid cohesion was partially attenuated in aged cells and the frequency of chromosome loss was increased. This age-induced CIN was exacerbated in strains lacking Sir2 and its paralog, Hst1, but suppressed in strains that stabilize the rDNA array due to deletion of FOB1 or through caloric restriction. Furthermore, ectopic expression of MCD1 from a doxycycline-inducible promoter was sufficient to suppress rDNA instability in aged cells and to extend RLS. Taken together, we conclude that age-induced depletion of cohesin and multiple other nucleolar chromatin factors destabilize the rDNA locus, which then results in general CIN and aneuploidy that shortens RLS.