Systemic delivery of blood-brain barrier-targeted polymeric nanoparticles enhances delivery to brain tissue.
ABSTRACT: Delivery of therapeutic agents to the central nervous system is a significant challenge, hindering progress in the treatment of diseases such as glioblastoma. Due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), therapeutic agents do not readily transverse the brain endothelium to enter the parenchyma. Previous reports suggest that surface modification of polymer nanoparticles (NPs) can improve their ability to cross the BBB, but it is unclear whether the observed enhancements in transport are large enough to enhance therapy. In this study, we synthesized two degradable polymer NP systems surface-modified with ligands previously suggested to improve BBB transport, and tested their ability to cross the BBB after intravenous injection in mice. All the NP preparations were able to cross the BBB, although generally in low amounts (<0.5% of the injected dose), which was consistent with prior reports. One NP produced significantly higher brain uptake (?0.8% of the injected dose): a block copolymer of polylactic acid and hyperbranched polyglycerol, surface modified with adenosine (PLA-HPG-Ad). PLA-HPG-Ad NPs provided controlled release of camptothecin, killing U87 glioma cells in culture. When administered intravenously in mice with intracranial U87 tumors, they failed to increase survival. These results suggest that enhancing NP transport across the BBB does not necessarily yield proportional pharmacological effects.
Project description:A key attribute for nanoparticles (NPs) that are used in medicine is the ability to avoid rapid uptake by phagocytic cells in the liver and other tissues. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coatings has been the gold standard in this regard for several decades. Here, we examined hyperbranched polyglycerols (HPG) as an alternate coating on NPs. In earlier work, HPG was modified with amines and subsequently conjugated to poly(lactic acid) (PLA), but that approach compromised the ability of HPG to resist non-specific adsorption of biomolecules. Instead, we synthesized a copolymer of PLA-HPG by a one-step esterification. NPs were produced from a single emulsion using PLA-HPG: fluorescent dye or the anti-tumor agent camptothecin (CPT) were encapsulated at high efficiency in the NPs. PLA-HPG NPs were quantitatively compared to PLA-PEG NPs, produced using approaches that have been extensively optimized for drug delivery in humans. Despite being similar in size, drug release profile and in vitro cytotoxicity, the PLA-HPG NPs showed significantly longer blood circulation and significantly less liver accumulation than PLA-PEG. CPT-loaded PLA-HPG NPs showed higher stability in suspension and better therapeutic effectiveness against tumors in vivo than CPT-loaded PLA-PEG NPs. Our results suggest that HPG is superior to PEG as a surface coating for NPs in drug delivery.
Project description:New methods for long-lasting protection against sexually transmitted disease, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are needed to help reduce the severity of STD epidemics, especially in developing countries. Intravaginal delivery of therapeutics has emerged as a promising strategy to provide women with local protection, but residence times of such agents are greatly reduced by the protective mucus layer, fluctuating hormone cycle, and complex anatomical structure of the reproductive tract. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) capable of encapsulating the desired cargo, penetrating through the mucosal surfaces, and delivering agents to the site of action have been explored. However, prolonged retention of polymer carriers and their enclosed materials may also be needed to ease adherence and confer longer-lasting protection against STDs. Here, we examined the fate of two poly (lactic acid)-hyperbranched polyglycerols (PLA-HPG) NP formulations - 1) nonadhesive PLA-HPG NPs (NNPs) and 2) surface-modified bioadhesive NPs (BNPs) - loaded with the antiretroviral elvitegravir (EVG) after intravaginal administration. BNP distribution was widespread throughout the reproductive tract, and retention was nearly 5 times higher than NNPs after 24 h. Moreover, BNPs were found to be highly associated with submucosal leukocytes and epithelial cell populations for up to 48 h after topical application, and EVG was retained significantly better in the vaginal lumen when delivered with BNPs as opposed to NNPs over a 24 h period. Our results suggest that bioadhesive PLA-HPG NPs can greatly improve and prolong intravaginal delivery of agents, which may hold potential in providing sustained protection over longer durations.
Project description:The effective treatment of glioma is largely hindered by the poor transfer of drug delivery systems across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the difficulty in distinguishing healthy and tumorous cells. In this work, for the first time, an interleukin-6 receptor binding I6P7 peptide was exploited as a cascade-targeting ligand in combination with a succinoyl tetraethylene pentamine (Stp)-histidine oligomer-based nonviral gene delivery system (I6P7-Stp-His/DNA). The I6P7 peptide provides multiple functions, including the cascade-targeting potential represented by a combined BBB-crossing and subsequent glioma-targeting ability, as well as a direct tumor-inhibiting effect. I6P7-Stp-His/DNA nanoparticles (NPs) mediated higher gene expression in human glioma U87 cells than in healthy human astrocytes and a deeper penetration into glioma spheroids than scrambled peptide-modified NPs. Transport of I6P7-modified, but not the control, NPs across the BBB was demonstrated in vitro in a transwell bEnd.3 cell model resulting in transfection of underlying U87 cells and also in vivo in glioma-bearing mice. Intravenous administration of I6P7-Stp-His/plasmid DNA (pDNA)-encoding inhibitor of growth 4 (pING4) significantly prolonged the survival time of orthotopic U87 glioma-bearing mice. The results denote that I6P7 peptide is a roborant cascade-targeting ligand, and I6P7-modified NPs might be exploited for efficient glioma therapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The blood brain barrier (BBB) is the bottleneck of brain-targeted drug development. Due to their physico-chemical properties, nanoparticles (NP) can cross the BBB and accumulate in different areas of the central nervous system (CNS), thus are potential tools to carry drugs and treat brain disorders. In vitro systems and animal models have demonstrated that some NP types promote neurotoxic effects such as neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the CNS. Thus, risk assessment of the NP is required, but current 2D cell cultures fail to mimic complex in vivo cellular interactions, while animal models do not necessarily reflect human effects due to physiological and species differences.<h4>Results</h4>We evaluated the suitability of in vitro models that mimic the human CNS physiology, studying the effects of metallic gold NP (AuNP) functionalized with sodium citrate (Au-SC), or polyethylene glycol (Au-PEG), and polymeric polylactic acid NP (PLA-NP). Two different 3D neural models were used (i) human dopaminergic neurons differentiated from the LUHMES cell line (3D LUHMES) and (ii) human iPSC-derived brain spheroids (BrainSpheres). We evaluated NP uptake, mitochondrial membrane potential, viability, morphology, secretion of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, and expression of genes related to ROS regulation after 24 and 72?h exposures. NP were efficiently taken up by spheroids, especially when PEGylated and in presence of glia. AuNP, especially PEGylated AuNP, effected mitochondria and anti-oxidative defense. PLA-NP were slightly cytotoxic to 3D LUHMES with no effects to BrainSpheres.<h4>Conclusions</h4>3D brain models, both monocellular and multicellular are useful in studying NP neurotoxicity and can help identify how specific cell types of CNS are affected by NP.
Project description:Nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery platforms have received a great deal of attention over the past two decades for their potential in targeted cancer therapies. Despite the promises, passive targeting approaches utilizing relatively larger NPs (typically 50-200nm in diameter) allow for passive tumor accumulation, but hinder efficient intratumoral penetration. Conversely, smaller, actively targeted NPs (<20nm in diameter) penetrate well into the tumor mass, but are limited by their rapid systemic elimination. To overcome these limitations, we have designed a multi-scale hybrid NP platform that loads smaller poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers (~5nm in diameter) into larger poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactide) (PEG-PLA) NPs (~70nm). A biodistribution study in healthy mice revealed that the hybrid NPs circulated longer than free dendrimers and were mostly cleared by macrophages in the liver and spleen, similar to the in vivo behavior of PEG-PLA NPs. When injected intravenously into the BALB/c athymic nude mice bearing folate receptor (FR)-overexpressing KB xenograft, the targeted hybrid NPs encapsulating folate (FA)-targeted dendrimers achieved longer plasma circulation than free dendrimers and higher tumor concentrations than both free dendrimers and the empty PEG-PLA NPs. These results suggest that the hybrid NPs successfully combine the in vivo advantages of dendrimers and polymeric NPs, demonstrating their potential as a new, modular platform for drug delivery.
Project description:The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is partially disrupted in brain tumors. Despite the gaps in the BBB, there is an inadequate amount of pharmacological agents delivered into the brain. Thus, the low delivery efficiency renders many of these agents ineffective in treating brain cancer. In this report, we proposed an "autocatalytic" approach for increasing the transport of nanoparticles into the brain. In this strategy, a small number of nanoparticles enter into the brain via transcytosis or through the BBB gaps. After penetrating the BBB, the nanoparticles release BBB modulators, which enables more nanoparticles to be transported, creating a positive feedback loop for increased delivery. Specifically, we demonstrated that these autocatalytic brain tumor-targeting poly(amine-co-ester) terpolymer nanoparticles (ABTT NPs) can readily cross the BBB and preferentially accumulate in brain tumors at a concentration of 4.3- and 94.0-fold greater than that in the liver and in brain regions without tumors, respectively. We further demonstrated that ABTT NPs were capable of mediating brain cancer gene therapy and chemotherapy. Our results suggest ABTT NPs can prime the brain to increase the systemic delivery of therapeutics for treating brain malignancies.
Project description:The accumulation and formation of ?-amyloid (A?) plaques in the brain are distinctive pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Designing nanoparticle (NP) contrast agents capable of binding with A? highly selectively can potentially facilitate early detection of AD. However, a significant obstacle is the blood brain barrier (BBB), which can preclude the entrance of NPs into the brain for A? binding. In this work, bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated NPs are decorated with sialic acid (NP-BSAx -Sia) to overcome the challenges in A? imaging in vivo. The NP-BSAx -Sia is biocompatible with high magnetic relaxivities, suggesting that they are suitable contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The NP-BSAx -Sia binds with A? in a sialic acid dependent manner with high selectivities toward A? deposited on brains and cross the BBB in an in vitro model. The abilities of these NPs to detect A? in vivo in human AD transgenic mice by MRI are evaluated without the need to coinject mannitol to increase BBB permeability. T2 *-weighted MRI shows that A? plaques in mouse brains can be detected as aided by NP-BSAx -Sia, which is confirmed by histological analysis. Thus, NP-BSAx -Sia is a promising new tool for noninvasive in vivo detection of A? plaques.
Project description:The development of new strategies for enhancing drug delivery to the brain represents a major challenge in treating cerebral diseases. In this paper, we report on the synthesis and structural characterization of a biocompatible nanoparticle (NP) made up of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) co-polymer (namely PELGA) functionalized with the membranotropic peptide gH625 (gH) and the iron-mimicking peptide CRTIGPSVC (CRT) for transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). gH possesses a high translocation potency of the cell membrane. Conversely, CRT selectively recognizes the brain endothelium, which interacts with transferrin (Tf) and its receptor (TfR) through a non-canonical ligand-directed mechanism. We hypothesize that the delivery across the BBB of PELGA NPs should be efficiently enhanced by the NP functionalization with both gH and CRT. Synthesis of peptides and their conjugation to the PLGA as well as NP physical-chemical characterization are performed. Moreover, NP uptake, co-localization, adhesion under dynamic conditions, and permeation across in vitro BBB model are evaluated as a function of gH/CRT functionalization ratio. Results establish that the cooperative effect of CRT and gH may change the intra-cellular distribution of NPs and strengthen NP delivery across the BBB at the functionalization ratio 33% gH?66% CRT.
Project description:Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSDs) are a group of metabolic syndromes, each one due to the deficit of one lysosomal enzyme. Many LSDs affect most of the organ systems and overall about 75% of the patients present neurological impairment. Enzyme Replacement Therapy, although determining some systemic clinical improvements, is ineffective on the CNS disease, due to enzymes' inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). With the aim to deliver the therapeutic enzymes across the BBB, we here assayed biodegradable and biocompatible PLGA-nanoparticles (NPs) in two murine models for LSDs, Mucopolysaccharidosis type I and II (MPS I and MPS II). PLGA-NPs were modified with a 7-aminoacid glycopeptide (g7), yet demonstrated to be able to deliver low molecular weight (MW) molecules across the BBB in rodents. We specifically investigated, for the first time, the g7-NPs ability to transfer a model drug (FITC-albumin) with a high MW, comparable to the enzymes to be delivered for LSDs brain therapy. In vivo experiments, conducted on wild-type mice and knockout mouse models for MPS I and II, also included a whole series of control injections to obtain a broad preliminary view of the procedure efficiency. Results clearly showed efficient BBB crossing of albumin in all injected mice, underlying the ability of NPs to deliver high MW molecules to the brain. These results encourage successful experiments with enzyme-loaded g7-NPs to deliver sufficient amounts of the drug to the brain district on LSDs, where exerting a corrective effect on the pathological phenotype.
Project description:The success of nanomedicine as a new strategy for drug delivery and targeting prompted the interest in developing approaches toward basic and clinical neuroscience. Despite enormous advances on brain research, central nervous system (CNS) disorders remain the world's leading cause of disability, in part due to the inability of the majority of drugs to reach the brain parenchyma. Many attempts to use nanomedicines as CNS drug delivery systems (DDS) were made; among the various non-invasive approaches, nanoparticulate carriers and, particularly, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) seem to be the most interesting strategies. In particular, the ability of poly-lactide-co-glycolide NPs (PLGA-NPs) specifically engineered with a glycopeptide (g7), conferring to NPs' ability to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) in rodents at a concentration of up to 10% of the injected dose, was demonstrated in previous studies using different routes of administrations. Most of the evidence on NP uptake mechanisms reported in the literature about intracellular pathways and processes of cell entry is based on in vitro studies. Therefore, beside the particular attention devoted to increasing the knowledge of the rate of in vivo BBB crossing of nanocarriers, the subsequent exocytosis in the brain compartments, their fate and trafficking in the brain surely represent major topics in this field.