Comparison of community structures of Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera-like bacteria of NC10 phylum in different freshwater habitats.
ABSTRACT: Methane oxidation coupled to nitrite reduction is mediated by 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' (M. oxyfera), which belongs to the NC10 phylum. In this study, the community composition and diversity of M. oxyfera-like bacteria of NC10 phylum were examined and compared in four different freshwater habitats, including reservoir sediments (RS), pond sediments (PS), wetland sediments (WS) and paddy soils (PAS), by using Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The recovered NC10-related sequences accounted for 0.4-2.5% of the 16S rRNA pool in the examined habitats, and the highest percentage was found in WS. The diversity of NC10 bacteria were the highest in RS, medium in WS, and lowest in PS and PAS. The observed number of OTUs (operational taxonomic unit; at 3% cut-off) were 97, 46, 61 and 40, respectively, in RS, PS, WS and PAS. A heterogeneous distribution of NC10 bacterial communities was observed in the examined habitats, though group B members were the dominant bacteria in each habitat. The copy numbers of NC10 bacterial 16S rRNA genes ranged between 5.8?×?10(6) and 3.2?×?10(7) copies g(-1) sediment/soil in the examined habitats. These results are helpful for a systematic understanding of NC10 bacterial communities in different types of freshwater habitats.
Project description:The NC10 phylum is a candidate phylum of prokaryotes and is considered important in biogeochemical cycles and evolutionary history. NC10 members are as-yet-uncultured and are difficult to enrich, and our knowledge regarding this phylum is largely limited to the first species 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' (M. oxyfera). Here, we enriched NC10 members from paddy soil and obtained a novel species of the NC10 phylum that mediates the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to nitrite reduction. By comparing the new 16S rRNA gene sequences with those already in the database, this new species was found to be widely distributed in various habitats in China. Therefore, we tentatively named it 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis sinica' (M. sinica). Cells of M. sinica are roughly coccus-shaped (0.7-1.2??m), distinct from M. oxyfera (rod-shaped; 0.25-0.5?×?0.8-1.1??m). Notably, microscopic inspections revealed that M. sinica grew in honeycomb-shaped microcolonies, which was the first discovery of microcolony of the NC10 phylum. This finding opens the possibility to isolate NC10 members using microcolony-dependent isolation strategies.
Project description:Background:The nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (N-DAMO) pathway, which plays an important role in carbon and nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems, is mediated by "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" (M. oxyfera) of the NC10 phylum. M. oxyfera-like bacteria are widespread in nature, however, the presence, spatial heterogeneity and genetic diversity of M. oxyfera in the rhizosphere of aquatic plants has not been widely reported. Method:In order to simulate the rhizosphere microenvironment of submerged plants, Potamogeton crispus was cultivated using the rhizobox approach. Sediments from three compartments of the rhizobox: root (R), near-rhizosphere (including five sub-compartments of one mm width, N1-N5) and non-rhizosphere (>5 mm, Non), were sampled. The 16S rRNA gene library was used to investigate the diversity of M. oxyfera-like bacteria in these sediments. Results:Methylomirabilis oxyfera-like bacteria were found in all three sections, with all 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to 16 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A maximum of six OTUs was found in the N1 sub-compartment of the near-rhizosphere compartment and a minimum of four in the root compartment (R) and N5 near-rhizosphere sub-compartment. Indices of bacterial community diversity (Shannon) and richness (Chao1) were 0.73-1.16 and 4-9, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that OTU1-11 were classified into group b, while OTU12 was in a new cluster of NC10. Discussion:Our results confirmed the existence of M. oxyfera-like bacteria in the rhizosphere microenvironment of the submerged plant P. crispus. Group b of M. oxyfera-like bacteria was the dominant group in this study as opposed to previous findings that both group a and b coexist in most other environments. Our results indicate that understanding the ecophysiology of M. oxyfera-like bacteria group b may help to explain their existence in the rhizosphere sediment of aquatic plant.
Project description:The importance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a methane sink in freshwater systems is largely unexplored, particularly in peat ecosystems. Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) was recently discovered and reported to be catalyzed by the bacterium "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera," which is affiliated with the NC10 phylum. So far, several "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera" enrichment cultures have been obtained using a limited number of freshwater sediments or wastewater treatment sludge as the inoculum. In this study, using stable isotope measurements and porewater profiles, we investigated the potential of n-damo in a minerotrophic peatland in the south of the Netherlands that is infiltrated by nitrate-rich ground water. Methane and nitrate profiles suggested that all methane produced was oxidized before reaching the oxic layer, and NC10 bacteria could be active in the transition zone where countergradients of methane and nitrate occur. Quantitative PCR showed high NC10 bacterial cell numbers at this methane-nitrate transition zone. This soil section was used to enrich the prevalent NC10 bacteria in a continuous culture supplied with methane and nitrite at an in situ pH of 6.2. An enrichment of nitrite-reducing methanotrophic NC10 bacteria was successfully obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of retrieved 16S rRNA and pmoA genes showed that the enriched bacteria were very similar to the ones found in situ and constituted a new branch of NC10 bacteria with an identity of less than 96 and 90% to the 16S rRNA and pmoA genes of "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera," respectively. The results of this study expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of NC10 bacteria in the environment and highlight their potential contribution to nitrogen and methane cycles.
Project description:Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is performed by "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" (M. oxyfera), which connects the carbon and nitrogen global nutrient cycles. In the present study, M. oxyfera-like bacteria sequences were successfully recovered from Yellow River Estuary sediments using specific primers for 16S rRNA and pmoA genes. A M. oxyfera-like sequences analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed greater diversity compared with the pmoA gene; the 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the Yellow River Estuary sediments belong to groups A as well as B and were mainly found in freshwater habitats. Quantitative PCR showed that 16S rRNA gene abundance varied from 9.28±0.11×10(3) to 2.10±0.13×10(5) copies g(-1) (dry weight), and the pmoA gene abundance ranged from 8.63±0.50×10(3) to 1.83±0.18×10(5) copies g(-1) (dry weight). A correlation analysis showed that the total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium (NH4(+)) as well as the ratio of total phosphorus to total nitrogen (TP/TN) influenced the M. oxyfera-like bacteria distribution in the Yellow River Estuary sediments. These findings will aid in understanding the n-damo bacterial distribution pattern as well as their correlation with surrounding environmental factors in temperate estuarine ecosystems.
Project description:Paddy fields are a significant source of methane and contribute up to 20% of total methane emissions from wetland ecosystems. These inundated, anoxic soils featuring abundant nitrogen compounds and methane are an ideal niche for nitrate-dependent anaerobic methanotrophs. After 2 years of enrichment with a continuous supply of methane and nitrate as the sole electron donor and acceptor, a stable enrichment dominated by 'Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens' archaea and 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' NC10 phylum bacteria was achieved. In this community, the methanotrophic archaea supplied the NC10 phylum bacteria with the necessary nitrite through nitrate reduction coupled to methane oxidation. The results of qPCR quantification of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies, analysis of metagenomic 16S rRNA reads, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) correlated well and showed that after 2 years, 'Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens' had the highest abundance of (2.2 ± 0.4 × 108) 16S rRNA copies per milliliter and constituted approximately 22% of the total microbial community. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 16S rRNA genes of the dominant microorganisms clustered with previously described 'Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens ANME2D' (96% identity) and 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' (99% identity) strains. The pooled metagenomic sequences resulted in a high-quality draft genome assembly of 'Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens Vercelli' that contained all key functional genes for the reverse methanogenesis pathway and nitrate reduction. The diagnostic mcrA gene was 96% similar to 'Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens ANME2D' (WP_048089615.1) at the protein level. The 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' draft genome contained the marker genes pmoCAB, mdh, and nirS and putative NO dismutase genes. Whole-reactor anaerobic activity measurements with methane and nitrate revealed an average methane oxidation rate of 0.012 mmol/h/L, with cell-specific methane oxidation rates up to 0.57 fmol/cell/day for 'Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens'. In summary, this study describes the first enrichment and draft genome of methanotrophic archaea from paddy field soil, where these organisms can contribute significantly to the mitigation of methane emissions.
Project description:Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to nitrite reduction is a novel AOM process that is mediated by denitrifying methanotrophs. To date, enrichments of these denitrifying methanotrophs have been confined to freshwater systems; however, the recent findings of 16S rRNA and pmoA gene sequences in marine sediments suggest a possible occurrence of AOM coupled to nitrite reduction in marine systems. In this research, a marine denitrifying methanotrophic culture was obtained after 20 months of enrichment. Activity testing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis were then conducted and showed that the methane oxidation activity and the number of NC10 bacteria increased correlatively during the enrichment period. 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that only bacteria in group A of the NC10 phylum were enriched and responsible for the resulting methane oxidation activity, although a diverse community of NC10 bacteria was harbored in the inoculum. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that NC10 bacteria were dominant in the enrichment culture after 20 months. The effect of salinity on the marine denitrifying methanotrophic culture was investigated, and the apparent optimal salinity was 20.5‰, which suggested that halophilic bacterial AOM coupled to nitrite reduction was obtained. Moreover, the apparent substrate affinity coefficients of the halophilic denitrifying methanotrophs were determined to be 9.8 ± 2.2 ?M for methane and 8.7 ± 1.5 ?M for nitrite.
Project description:Recently discovered microorganisms affiliated to the bacterial phylum NC10, named "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera", perform nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation. These microorganisms could be important players in a novel way of anaerobic wastewater treatment where ammonium and residual dissolved methane might be removed at the expense of nitrate or nitrite. To find suitable inocula for reactor startup, ten selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in The Netherlands were screened for the endogenous presence of M. oxyfera using molecular diagnostic methods. We could identify NC10 bacteria with 98% similarity to M. oxyfera in nine out of ten WWTPs tested. Sludge from one selected WWTP was used to start a new enrichment culture of NC10 bacteria. This enrichment was monitored using specific pmoA primers and M. oxyfera cells were visualized with fluorescence oligonucleotide probes. After 112 days, the enrichment consumed up to 0.4 mM NO(2)(-) per day. The results of this study show that appropriate sources of biomass, enrichment strategies, and diagnostic tools existed to start and monitor pilot scale tests for the implementation of nitrite-dependent methane oxidation in wastewater treatment at ambient temperature.
Project description:Methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) gain energy from the oxidation of methane and may play important roles in freshwater ecosystems. In this study, the community structure of planktonic MOB was investigated in a subtropical reservoir. Bacterial community structure was investigated through the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Three groups of phylogenetically distinct MOB were detected in the clone libraries of polymerase chain reaction products obtained with universal primers. The groups belonged to the class Gammaproteobacteria, the class Alphaproteobacteria, and the candidate phylum NC10. The last group, which consists of close relatives of the nitrite reducer 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera', was frequently detected in the clone libraries of deep-water environments. The presence of 3 groups of MOB in deep water was also shown by a cloning analysis of the pmoA gene encoding particulate methane monooxygenase. The dominance of 'M. oxyfera'-like organisms in deep water was confirmed by catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization, in which cells stained with a specific probe accounted for 16% of total microbial cells. This is the first study to demonstrate that close relatives of the nitrite reducer can be major component of planktonic MOB community which may affect carbon flow in aquatic ecosystems.
Project description:Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate as terminal electron acceptor has been reported for various environments, including freshwater habitats, and also, nitrate and nitrite were recently shown to act as electron acceptors for methane oxidation in eutrophic freshwater habitats. Radiotracer experiments with sediment material of Lake Constance, an oligotrophic freshwater lake, were performed to follow 14CO2 formation from 14CH4 in sediment incubations in the presence of different electron acceptors, namely, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, or oxygen. Whereas 14CO2 formation without and with sulfate addition was negligible, addition of nitrate increased 14CO2 formation significantly, suggesting that AOM could be coupled to denitrification. Nonetheless, denitrification-dependent AOM rates remained at least 1 order of magnitude lower than rates of aerobic methane oxidation. Using molecular techniques, putative denitrifying methanotrophs belonging to the NC10 phylum were detected on the basis of the pmoA and 16S rRNA gene sequences. These findings show that sulfate-dependent AOM was insignificant in Lake constant sediments. However, AOM can also be coupled to denitrification in this oligotrophic freshwater habitat, providing first indications that this might be a widespread process that plays an important role in mitigating methane emissions.
Project description:Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, which can be converted by microorganism at the expense of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, metal-oxides or sulfate. The bacterium 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera,' a member of the NC10 phylum, is capable of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation. Prolonged enrichment of 'Ca. M. oxyfera' with cerium added as trace element and without nitrate resulted in the shift of the dominant species. Here, we present a high quality draft genome of the new species 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis lanthanidiphila' and use comparative genomics to analyze its metabolic potential in both nitrogen and carbon cycling. To distinguish between gene content specific for the 'Ca. Methylomirabilis' genus and the NC10 phylum, the genome of a distantly related NC10 phylum member, CSP1-5, an aerobic methylotroph, is included in the analysis. All genes for the conversion of nitrite to N2 identified in 'Ca. M. oxyfera' are conserved in 'Ca. M. lanthanidiphila,' including the two putative genes for NO dismutase. In addition both species have several heme-copper oxidases potentially involved in NO and O2 respiration. For the oxidation of methane 'Ca. Methylomirabilis' species encode a membrane bound methane monooxygenase. CSP1-5 can act as a methylotroph, but lacks the ability to activate methane. In contrast to 'Ca. M. oxyfera,' which harbors three methanol dehydrogenases (MDH), both CSP1-5 and 'Ca. M. lanthanidiphila' only encode a lanthanide-dependent XoxF-type MDH, once more underlining the importance of rare earth elements for methylotrophic bacteria. The pathways for the subsequent oxidation of formaldehyde to carbon dioxide and for the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle are conserved in all species. Furthermore, CSP1-5 can only interconvert nitrate and nitrite, but lacks subsequent nitrite or NO reductases. Thus, it appears that although the conversion of methanol to carbon dioxide is present in several NC10 phylum bacteria, the coupling of nitrite reduction to the oxidation of methane is a trait so far unique to the genus 'Ca. Methylomirabilis.'