Paradoxical transcriptional activation of rat liver cytochrome P-450 3A1 by dexamethasone and the antiglucocorticoid pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile: analysis by transient transfection into primary monolayer cultures of adult rat hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT: The family 3A cytochromes P-450, among the most abundant members of this supergene family of microsomal hemoproteins expressed in animal and human liver, are inducible by glucocorticoids but also by such antiglucocorticoids as pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN). To investigate the mechanism for this nonclassical glucocorticoid effect, we analyzed the ability of 1.5 kilobases of DNA or of its successive subsegments isolated from the 5' flanking region of the rat CYP3A1 structural gene to modulate transcription of a reporter gene consisting of a viral promoter coupled to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) structural gene (expression vector pBLCAT2) and transiently expressed in a homologous cell system consisting of primary monolayer cultures of adult rat hepatocytes in which CYP3A1 mRNA and protein are inducible. The CAT activity measured after chimeric gene constructions were transferred into the cultured rat hepatocytes by lipofection increased as much as 7.2-fold if the cells were treated with dexamethasone (DEX). One CYP3A1 fragment (positions -220 to -56; 164 base pairs), which does not contain a traditional glucocorticoid responsive element, conferred dose-dependent DEX responsiveness independent of its orientation but not its position in pBLCAT2. This construction was activated by addition of PCN to the cultures and was synergistically induced by PCN plus DEX. In contrast, induction of CAT activity in cultures containing MMTVCAT, a plasmid containing the CAT gene controlled by the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat, was unaffected by PCN treatment, required lower concentrations of DEX for a maximal response, and was inhibited by treatment with DEX plus PCN. We conclude that a primary mechanism for induction of CYP3A1 is stimulated transcription through a pathway activated by steroid hormones.
Project description:The effect of recombinant interleukin 6 (rIL-6) on the transcript levels of rat glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes rGSTA2, rGSTP1, rGSTM1 and rGSTM2 was examined in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. rIL-6 had little effect on the increase in expression of rGSTP1 that occurs in cultured hepatocytes. Dexamethasone (DEX), in contrast, prevented the expression of rGSTP1 by hepatocytes, and rIL-6 in combination with DEX had no additional effect. Neither rIL-6 nor DEX alone had a significant effect on the transcript levels of rGSTA2, rGSTM1 and rGSTM2 in cultured hepatocytes. However, when both were present (15 ng/ml rIL-6 and 10(-7) M DEX) the transcript levels of rGSTA2, rGSTM1 and rGSTM2 decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after 48 h in culture. If the rIL-6 was removed from the cultures after 24 h, the levels of transcripts recovered and were the same at 48 h as cells cultured without rIL-6 for the entire period. Dose-response relationships of rIL-6 with 10(-7) M DEX were determined for transcripts of each GST isoenzyme and the IC50 values were between 1.5 and 7.5 ng/ml. Declines in transcript levels of rGSTA2 were observed with rIL-6 plus 10(-8) or 10(-7) M DEX but not with rIL-6 plus 10(-9), 10(-6), or 10(-5) M DEX. To determine if the cytokine and glucocorticoid effects were mediated by sequences in the 5'-flanking sequence of rGSTA2, a plasmid construct containing a 1.6 kb fragment of the 5'-flanking sequence of the rGSTA2 gene and the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene was used to transfect rat hepatocytes in primary culture. The addition of rIL-6 and DEX to the culture medium caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in CAT activity after 48 h in culture. If rIL-6 was removed after 24 h in culture, CAT activity after an additional 24 h in culture was greater than the CAT activity in cells cultured for 48 h without rIL-6. Therefore cytokines and glucocorticoids may be important physiological regulators of GST expression.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>The aim of this study was to investigate the impact on expression of mRNA and protein by paradigm inducers/activators of nuclear receptors and their target genes in rat hepatic and intestinal cells. Furthermore, assess marked inter laboratory conflicting reports regarding species and tissue differences in expression to gain further insight and rationalise previously observed species differences between rodent and human based systems.<h4>Methods</h4>Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) and immunoblots were used to assess messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression for CYP2B2, CYP3A1, CYP3A2, CYP3A9, ABCB1a, ABCB1b, ABCC1, ABCC2, pregnane X receptor (PXR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and constituitive androstane receptor (CAR) in rat hepatoma cell line H411E, intestinal cells, Iec-6, and rat primary hepatocytes, in response to exposure for 18 h with prototypical inducers.<h4>Results</h4>Dexamethasone (DEX) and pregnenolone 16alpha carbonitrile (PCN) significantly induced PXR, CYP3A9, ABCB1a and ABCB1b. However, when co-incubated, DEX appeared to restrict PCN-dependent induction. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was the only ligand to induce FXR in all three cell types. Despite previously reported species differences between PCN and rifampicin (RIF), both compounds exhibited a similar profile of induction.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Data presented herein may explain some of the discrepancies previously reported with respect to species differences from different laboratories and have important implications for study design.
Project description:BACKGROUND:2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) is the dominant PBDE congener in humans, wildlife, and the environment. It has been reported to be metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Still, the effects of BDE47 on spermatogenesis failure are attracting an increasing amount of attention. However, it is unclear whether CYP-mediated metabolism contributes to BDE47-induced reproductive toxicity. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:The role of cytochrome P450 3A1 (CYP3A1) in the formation of oxidative metabolites of BDE47 and its induced spermatogenesis failure was investigated in SD rats. BDE47 significantly increased the expression and activity of CYP3A1 in rat liver, and 3-OH-BDE47, the major oxidative metabolite of BDE47, dose-dependently increased in rat liver, serum, and testis, which was aggravated by dexamethasone (DEX), an inducer of CYP3A1. Additionally, testicular 3-OH-BDE47 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in seminiferous tubules increased especially when BDE47 was administered in combination with DEX, which was confirmed in GC-1 and GC-2 cells that 3-OH-BDE47 induced more ROS production and cell apoptosis via the upregulation of FAS/FASL, p-p53 and caspase 3. As a result, daily sperm production dose-dependently decreased, consistent with histological observations in giant cells and vacuolar spaces and increase in TUNEL-positive apoptotic germ cells. CONCLUSION:CYP3A1-mediated metabolic activation of BDE47 and the active metabolite 3-OH-BDE47 and consequent ROS played an important role in reduction of spermatogenesis by germ cell apoptosis. Our study helps provide new insights into the mechanism of reproductive toxicity of environmental chemicals.
Project description:The somatostatin (SS) gene is transcriptionally regulated via the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element (CRE), located in the proximal promoter (-41 to -48 bp). We have previously reported that glucocorticoids induce dose-dependent cell-specific alterations in the steady-state SS mRNA level. Here we have investigated direct transcriptional control of the SS gene by glucocorticoids. We have examined transcriptional interaction between glucocorticoids and the cAMP signalling pathway and mapped the 5' upstream regulatory region of the SS gene involved in glucocorticoid transactivation. Transcriptional regulation was determined by analysis of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells and A126-1B2 (protein kinase A-deficient mutant PC12) cells, by acute transfection of 5' flanking SS DNA (- 750, -250 and -71 bp) ligated to the reporter (CAT) gene. Dexamethasone (DEX) induced a dose-dependent 2.2-fold stimulation of SS gene transcription in PC12 cells, but not in A126-1B2 cells. Other steroid and thyroid hormones tested, and retinoic acid, were ineffective, while cAMP and forskolin stimulated gene transcription 4-5-fold in PC12 cells but not in A126-1B2 cells. DEX exerted an additive effect on cAMP-induced gene transcription. Deletion of the promoter from -750 to -71 bp (but not from -750 to -250 bp) abolished all stimulatory effects of DEX without affecting cAMP responsiveness. Mutation of the CRE abrogated both DEX- and cAMP-dependent gene enhancement. Gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that the -250 to -71 bp region of the SS promoter (but not the -71 to +55 bp domain) binds specifically to a glucocorticoid response element-sensitive nuclear protein(s) from PC12 cells, suggesting a putative glucocorticoid receptor interaction with SS promoter DNA. We conclude that glucocorticoids regulate SS gene transcription positively. Glucocorticoid-induced transactivation shows dependence on protein kinase. A activity, and may be mediated via protein-protein interaction between the glucocorticoid receptor and the CRE binding protein. DNA sequences upstream from the CRE between -250 and -71 bp in the SS promoter appear to be the target of glucocorticoid action.
Project description:AIM: To develop a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model describing the receptor/gene-mediated induction of CYP3A1/2 by dexamethasone (DEX) in rats. METHODS: A group of male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving DEX (100 mg/kg, ip) were sacrificed at various time points up to 60 h post-treatment. Their blood sample and liver were collected. The plasma concentration of DEX was determined with a reverse phase HPLC method. CYP3A1/2 mRNA, protein levels and enzyme activity were measured using RT-PCR, ELISA and the testosterone substrate assay, respectively. Data analyses were performed using a first-order conditional estimate (FOCE) with INTERACTION method in NONMEM version 7.1.2. RESULTS: A two-compartment model with zero-order absorption was applied to describe the pharmacokinetic characteristics of DEX. Systemic clearance, the apparent volume of distribution and the duration of zero-order absorption were calculated to be 172.7 mL·kg(-1)·h(-1), 657.4 mL/kg and 10.47 h, respectively. An indirect response model with a series of transit compartments was developed to describe the induction of CYP3A1/2 via PXR transactivation by DEX. The maximum induction of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 mRNA levels was achieved, showing nearly 21.29- and 8.67-fold increases relative to the basal levels, respectively. The CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 protein levels were increased by 8.02-fold and 2.49-fold, respectively. The total enzyme activities of CYP3A1/2 were shown to increase by up to 2.79-fold, with a lag time of 40 h from the Tmax of the DEX plasma concentration. The final PK/PD model was able to recapitulate the delayed induction of CYP3A1/2 mRNA, protein and enzyme activity by DEX. CONCLUSION: A mechanism-based PK/PD model was developed to characterize the complex concentration-induction response relationship between DEX and CYP3A1/2 and to resolve the drug- and system-specific PK/PD parameters for the course of induction.
Project description:The abundance of 12 cytochrome P-450 (CYP) mRNAs was quantified in the caudate lobe of rat livers before dissociation of the organ into single cells by perfusion with 0.025% (w/v) collagenase. Comparison of the initial abundance of CYP-1A1, -1A2, -2A subfamily, -2B1/2, -2C7, -2C11, -2D subfamily, -2E1, -3A1/2 and -4A1 transcripts in the caudate lobe of the intact liver with the values found in freshly isolated hepatocytes demonstrated that the relatively brief (1 h) cell isolation and washing procedures routinely caused 2-3-fold increases in the mRNAs encoding CYP-1A2, -2B1/2, -3A1/2, and -4A1, concomitant with a 50% decline in CYP2C11 mRNA. Further changes in the expression of CYP mRNAs occurred when the hepatocytes were cultured. Thus CYP1A1 mRNA, which is not constitutively expressed in rat liver, became detectable in hepatocytes cultured for 1 h, and after 6 h CYP3A1/2 mRNA levels began to increase. In contrast, levels of all other CYP mRNAs studied had declined after 24 h of culture concomitant with the loss of total cytochrome P-450 content. Culture of hepatocytes with 0.5 mM metyrapone (which prevents the loss of total P-450 content) increased CYP1A1 and CYP3A1/2 mRNA levels still further, such that after 72 h of culture these transcripts were conservatively 10-18-fold higher than in hepatocytes prior to culture. This suggests that these two isoenzymes comprise the bulk of the total cytochrome P-450 content maintained by metyrapone. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the technique commonly used to isolate rat hepatocytes alters hepatic gene expression, as illustrated by the elevation of the mRNAs encoding CYP-1A2, -2B1/2, -3A1/2 and -4A1, and that such perturbations are exacerbated during culture under standard conditions by the loss of the constitutive CYP2C11 and the precocious induction of CYP1A1 and CYP3A1/2 mRNAs.
Project description:Whereas many cytochrome P450 enzymes are transcriptionally suppressed by inflammatory stimuli, down-regulation of CYP2B protein by the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta is nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and occurs via polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Here, we used iTRAQ proteomic analysis to search for other proteins that are potentially down-regulated by cellular NO in cultured rat hepatocytes, and we identified CYP3A1 as one such protein. Therefore, we examined whether CYP3A proteins, like CYP2B, undergo NO- and proteasome-dependent degradation in response to cytokine treatment of rat hepatocytes. In cultured rat hepatocytes treated with phenobarbital, IL-1beta stimulation failed to down-regulate CYP3A1 mRNA within 24 h of treatment, whereas CYP3A protein was down-regulated to 40% of control within 6 h, showing the post-transcriptional down-regulation of CYP3A1 protein. The down-regulation of CYP3A after 9 h of stimulation by IL-1beta was attenuated by inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS) and of the proteasome, showing NO- and proteasome-dependent down-regulation at earlier time points. However, the down-regulation of CYP3A evoked by IL-1beta measured 24 h after stimulation was not affected by the inhibition of NOS or by proteasomal inhibitors, showing that CYP3A1 down-regulation at later time points is NO- and proteasome-independent. IL-6, which did not evoke NO production nor affect CYP3A1 mRNA within 24 h, produced a delayed proteasome-independent down-regulation as well. Taken together, these observations show a novel dual mode of post-transcriptional CYP3A down-regulation by cytokines: NO- and proteasome-dependent at earlier time points and NO- and proteasome-independent at later times.
Project description:To design a glucocorticoid-inducible virus vector overexpressing recombinant matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) and counteract extracellular matrix deposition in the trabecular meshwork only when steroid is present.Endogenous MMP1 expression was measured in primary human trabecular meshwork cells (HTM) treated with dexamethasone (DEX), triamcinolone acetate, and prednisolone acetate by TaqMan PCR. Wild-type and mutant MMP1 cDNAs were cloned downstream of a glucocorticoid response element (GRE) and P(TAL) promoter. Adenoviruses AdhGRE.MMP1 and AdhGRE.mutMMP1 were generated by homologous recombination. HTM cells and perfused human anterior segments were infected with the viruses, with and without DEX. MMP1 mRNA and protein were analyzed by TaqMan PCR, Western blot analysis, and ELISA. Activity of secreted MMP1 was evaluated by FRET and rat tail collagen type I assays. Immunohistochemistry was performed by double-labeling with anti-human MMP1 and collagen type I antibodies.Endogenous MMP1 expression was greatly downregulated by the steroids. DEX-treated cells and perfused organ cultures infected with AdhGRE.MMP1 secreted high levels of MMP1. Induction of MMP1 cycled on and off with the addition or removal of DEX. Secreted wild-type MMP1 degraded collagen type I after activation, whereas secreted mutMMP1 did not. Immunohistochemistry showed faint staining of collagen type I in areas of trabecular meshwork with high MMP1 transgene expression.The authors have developed a novel glucocorticoid-inducible adenovirus vector that overproduces MMP1 only in the presence of DEX. The availability of this vector sets up the foundation for the development of gene therapy drugs for the potential treatment of ocular hypertension in steroid-responsive patients.
Project description:Chronic metabolic acidosis plays a role in cachexia by enhancing total proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Glucocorticoid also triggers proteolysis and plays a permissive role in the effect of acidosis. The System A amino acid transporter SNAT2/SLC38A2 is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells including muscle, performing Na<sup>+</sup>-dependent active import of neutral amino acids, and is strongly inhibited by low pH. Exposure of rat skeletal muscle cell line L6-G8C5 to low pH rapidly inhibits SNAT2 transport activity and enhances total proteolysis rate. Pharmacological inhibition or silencing of SNAT2 also enhances proteolysis. This study tests the hypothesis that the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX), like low pH, inhibits SNAT2 activity in L6-G8C5 myotubes, thus contributing to total proteolysis. Incubation with 500 nM DEX for 4 h reduced the System A amino acid transport rate to half the rate in control cultures. This inhibition depended on glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene transcription, but SNAT2 mRNA levels were unaffected by DEX. In contrast, the SNAT2 protein assessed by immunoblotting was significantly depleted. The co-inhibitory effects of DEX and low pH on System A transport activity were additive in stimulating total proteolysis. In keeping with this mechanism, DEX's inhibitory effect on SNAT2 transport activity was significantly blunted by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Proof of principle was achieved in similar experiments using recombinant expression of a GFP-tagged SNAT2 fusion protein in HEK293A cells. It is concluded that DEX acutely depletes the SNAT2 transporter protein, at least partly through proteasome-dependent degradation of this functionally important transporter.
Project description:Glucocorticoids can cause steroid-induced diabetes or accelerate the progression to diabetes by creating systemic insulin resistance and decreasing functional ?-cell mass, which is influenced by changes in ?-cell function, growth, and death. The synthetic glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (Dex) is deleterious to functional ?-cell mass by decreasing ?-cell function, survival, and proliferation. However, the mechanism by which Dex decreases ?-cell proliferation is unknown. Interestingly, Dex induces the transcription of an antiproliferative factor and negative regulator of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, Mig6 (also known as gene 33, RALT, and Errfi1). We, therefore, hypothesized that Dex impairs ?-cell proliferation by increasing the expression of Mig6 and thereby decreasing downstream signaling of epidermal growth factor receptor. We found that Dex induced Mig6 and decreased [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, an index of cellular replication, in mouse, rat, and human islets. Using adenovirally delivered small interfering RNA targeted to Mig6 in rat islets, we were able to limit the induction of Mig6 upon exposure to Dex, compared with islets treated with a control virus, and completely rescued the Dex-mediated impairment in replication. We demonstrated that both Dex and overexpression of Mig6 attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and blocked the G(1)/S transition of the cell cycle. In conclusion, Mig6 functions as a molecular brake for ?-cell proliferation during glucocorticoid treatment in ?-cells, and thus, Mig6 may be a novel target for preventing glucocorticoid-induced impairments in functional ?-cell mass.