Endoplasmic Reticulum-resident Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) Isoform Glucose-regulated Protein 94 (GRP94) Regulates Cell Polarity and Cancer Cell Migration by Affecting Intracellular Transport.
ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that is up-regulated in cancer and is required for the folding of numerous signaling proteins. Consequently, HSP90 represents an ideal target for the development of new anti-cancer agents. The human HSP90 isoform, glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and regulates secretory pathways, integrins, and Toll-like receptors, which contribute to regulating immunity and metastasis. However, the cellular function of GRP94 remains underinvestigated. We report that GRP94 knockdown cells are defective in intracellular transport and, consequently, negatively impact the trafficking of F-actin toward the cellular cortex, integrin ?2 and integrin ?L toward the cell membrane and filopodia, and secretory vesicles containing the HSP90?-AHA1-survivin complex toward the leading edge. As a result, GRP94 knockdown cells form a multipolar spindle instead of bipolar morphology and consequently manifest a defect in cell migration and adhesion.
Project description:Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Unfortunately, results from clinical trials have been disappointing as off-target effects and toxicities have been observed. These detriments may be a consequence of pan-Hsp90 inhibition, as all clinically evaluated Hsp90 inhibitors simultaneously disrupt all four human Hsp90 isoforms. Using a structure-based approach, we designed an inhibitor of Grp94, the ER-resident Hsp90. The effect manifested by compound 2 on several Grp94 and Hsp90?/? (cytosolic isoforms) clients were investigated. Compound 2 prevented intracellular trafficking of the Toll receptor, inhibited the secretion of IGF-II, affected the conformation of Grp94, and suppressed Drosophila larval growth, all Grp94-dependent processes. In contrast, compound 2 had no effect on cell viability or cytosolic Hsp90?/? client proteins at similar concentrations. The design, synthesis, and evaluation of 2 are described herein.
Project description:Grp94 and Hsp90 are the ER and cytoplasmic paralog members, respectively, of the hsp90 family of molecular chaperones. The structural and biochemical differences between Hsp90 and Grp94 that allow each paralog to efficiently chaperone its particular set of clients are poorly understood. The two paralogs exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity, yet also display significant differences in their quaternary conformations and ATPase activity. In order to identify the structural elements that distinguish Grp94 from Hsp90, we characterized the similarities and differences between the two proteins by testing the ability of Hsp90/Grp94 chimeras to functionally substitute for the wild-type chaperones in vivo. We show that the N-terminal domain or the combination of the second lobe of the Middle domain plus the C-terminal domain of Grp94 can functionally substitute for their yeast Hsp90 counterparts but that the equivalent Hsp90 domains cannot functionally replace their counterparts in Grp94. These results also identify the interface between the Middle and C-terminal domains as an important structural unit within the Hsp90 family.
Project description:Grp94 and Hsp90, the ER and cytoplasmic hsp90 paralogs, share a conserved ATP-binding pocket that has been targeted for therapeutics. Paralog-selective inhibitors may lead to drugs with fewer side effects. Here, we analyzed 1 (BnIm), a benzyl imidazole resorcinylic inhibitor, for its mode of binding. The structures of 1 bound to Hsp90 and Grp94 reveal large conformational changes in Grp94 but not Hsp90 that expose site 2, a binding pocket adjacent to the central ATP cavity that is ordinarily blocked. The Grp94:1 structure reveals a flipped pose of the resorcinylic scaffold that inserts into the exposed site 2. We exploited this flipped binding pose to develop a Grp94-selective derivative of 1. Our structural analysis shows that the ability of the ligand to insert its benzyl imidazole substituent into site 1, a different side pocket off the ATP binding cavity, is the key to exposing site 2 in Grp94.
Project description:The molecular chaperone, Hsp90, is an essential eukaryotic protein that assists in the maturation and activation of client proteins. Hsp90 function depends upon the binding and hydrolysis of ATP, which causes large conformational rearrangements in the chaperone. Hsp90 is highly conserved from bacteria to eukaryotes, and similar nucleotide-dependent conformations have been demonstrated for the bacterial, yeast, and human proteins. There are, however, important species-specific differences in the ability of nucleotide to shift the conformation from one state to another. Although the role of nucleotide in conformation has been well studied for the cytosolic yeast and human proteins, the conformations found in the absence of nucleotide are less well understood. In contrast to cytosolic Hsp90, crystal structures of the endoplasmic reticulum homolog, Grp94, show the same conformation in the presence of both ADP and AMPPNP. This conformation differs from the yeast AMPPNP-bound crystal state, suggesting that Grp94 may have a different conformational cycle. In this study, we use small angle X-ray scattering and rigid body modeling to study the nucleotide free states of cytosolic yeast and human Hsp90s, as well as mouse Grp94. We show that all three proteins adopt an extended, chair-like conformation distinct from the extended conformation observed for the bacterial Hsp90. For Grp94, we also show that nucleotide causes a small shift toward the crystal state, although the extended state persists as the major population. These results provide the first evidence that Grp94 shares a conformational state with other Hsp90 homologs.
Project description:Bile-salt-dependent lipase (BSDL; EC 184.108.40.206) is an enzyme expressed by the pancreatic acinar cell and secreted as a component of the pancreatic juice. During its route towards secretion, BSDL is associated with intracellular membranes by means of a multiprotein folding complex, which includes the glucose-regulated protein of 94 kDa (Grp94). We have postulated that the association of BSDL with membranes is required for the complete O-glycosylation of the protein, which diverts BSDL from a degradation route and consequently allows its secretion. To further characterize the role of Grp94 in BSDL secretion, we have studied the effect of a ribozyme specifically targeted to Grp94 mRNA. This ribozyme has been transfected into AR4-2J cells, and we have shown that a decrease in Grp94 expression leads to a concomitant decrease in BSDL secretion and expression. Geldanamycin (GA), which alters Grp94 functions, also affects the release of BSDL into the culture medium of AR4-2J cells. BSDL expressed in GA-treated AR4-2J cells is unstable. Furthermore, under conditions that decrease the level of BSDL secretion, no intracellular accumulation of the enzyme was observed, suggesting that BSDL that cannot associate with (or be structured by) Grp94 could be rapidly degraded. We have further shown that this degradation probably occurs via the ubiquitin-dependent pathway. Altogether, these results indicate that Grp94 has a pivotal role in BSDL folding and in the sorting of this pancreatic enzyme.
Project description:Glucose regulated protein 94 kDa, Grp94, is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localized isoform of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) that is responsible for the trafficking and maturation of toll-like receptors, immunoglobulins, and integrins. As a result, Grp94 has emerged as a therapeutic target to disrupt cellular communication, adhesion, and tumor proliferation, potentially with fewer side effects compared to pan-inhibitors of all Hsp90 isoforms. Although, the N-terminal ATP binding site is highly conserved among all four Hsp90 isoforms, recent cocrystal structures of Grp94 have revealed subtle differences between Grp94 and other Hsp90 isoforms that has been exploited for the development of Grp94-selective inhibitors. In the current study, a structure-based approach has been applied to a Grp94 nonselective compound, SNX 2112, which led to the development of 8j (ACO1), a Grp94-selective inhibitor that manifests ?440 nM affinity and >200-fold selectivity against cytosolic Hsp90 isoforms.
Project description:Hsp90 isoform-selective inhibition is highly desired as it can potentially avoid the toxic side-effects of pan-inhibition. The current study developed selective inhibitors of one such isoform, Grp94, predicated on the chimeric and pan-Hsp90 inhibitor, radamide (RDA). Replacement of the quinone moiety of RDA with a phenyl ring (2) was found to be better suited for Grp94 inhibition as it can fully interact with a unique hydrophobic pocket present in Grp94. An extensive SAR for this scaffold showed that substitutions at the 2- and 4-positions (8 and 27, respectively) manifested excellent Grp94 affinity and selectivity. Introduction of heteroatoms into the ring also proved beneficial, with a 2-pyridine derivative (38) exhibiting the highest Grp94 affinity (K(d)=820 nM). Subsequent cell-based assays showed that these Grp94 inhibitors inhibit migration of the metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, as well as exhibit an anti-proliferative affect against the multiple myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226.
Project description:Glucose regulated protein 94 (Grp94) is the endoplasmic reticulum resident of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) family and represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of several diseases. Grp94 is the most unique member of the 90 kDa heat shock protein family due to a five amino acid insertion into its primary sequence, which creates hydrophobic subpockets exclusive to Grp94 that can be utilized for selective inhibition. The first resorcinol-based Grp94-selective inhibitor to take advantage of the hydrophobic S2 subpocket has been developed and shown to manifest low nanomolar affinity and ∼10-fold selectivity for Grp94. Furthermore, these Grp94-selective inhibitors manifest low micromolar GI50 values against multiple myeloma cells, supporting Grp94 as an emerging target for the treatment of this disease.
Project description:Hsp70 and Hsp90 chaperones are critical for protein quality control in the cytosol, whereas organelle-specific Hsp70/Hsp90 paralogs provide similar protection for mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Cytosolic Hsp70/Hsp90 can operate sequentially with Hsp90 selectively associating with Hsp70 after Hsp70 is bound to a client protein. This observation has long suggested that Hsp90 could have a preference for interacting with clients at their later stages of folding. However, recent work has shown that cytosolic Hsp70/Hsp90 can directly interact even in the absence of a client, which opens up an alternative possibility that the ordered interactions of Hsp70/Hsp90 with clients could be a consequence of regulated changes in the direct interactions between Hsp70 and Hsp90. However, it is unknown how such regulation could occur mechanistically. Here, we find that the ER Hsp70/Hsp90 (BiP/Grp94) can form a direct complex in the absence of a client. Importantly, the direct interaction between BiP and Grp94 is nucleotide-specific, with BiP and Grp94 having higher affinity under ADP conditions and lower affinity under ATP conditions. We show that this nucleotide-specific association between BiP and Grp94 is largely due to the conformation of BiP. When BiP is in the ATP conformation its substrate-binding domain blocks Grp94; in contrast, Grp94 can readily associate with the ADP conformation of BiP, which represents the client-bound state of BiP. Our observations provide a mechanism for the sequential involvement of BiP and Grp94 in client folding where the conformation of BiP provides the signal for the subsequent recruitment of Grp94.
Project description:Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone binding to mutant proinsulin has been reported, the role of protein chaperones in the handling of wild-type proinsulin is underinvestigated. Here, we have explored the importance of glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), a prominent ER chaperone known to fold insulin-like growth factors, in proinsulin handling within ?-cells. We found that GRP94 coimmunoprecipitated with proinsulin and that inhibition of GRP94 function and/or expression reduced glucose-dependent insulin secretion, shortened proinsulin half-life, and lowered intracellular proinsulin and insulin levels. This phenotype was accompanied by post-ER proinsulin misprocessing and higher numbers of enlarged insulin granules that contained amorphic material with reduced immunogold staining for mature insulin. Insulin granule exocytosis was accelerated twofold, but the secreted insulin had diminished bioactivity. Moreover, GRP94 knockdown or knockout in ?-cells selectively activated protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), without increasing apoptosis levels. Finally, GRP94 mRNA was overexpressed in islets from patients with type 2 diabetes. We conclude that GRP94 is a chaperone crucial for proinsulin handling and insulin secretion.