The Enemy within: Innate Surveillance-Mediated Cell Death, the Common Mechanism of Neurodegenerative Disease.
ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative diseases comprise an array of progressive neurological disorders all characterized by the selective death of neurons in the central nervous system. Although, rare (familial) and common (sporadic) forms can occur for the same disease, it is unclear whether this reflects several distinct pathogenic pathways or the convergence of different causes into a common form of nerve cell death. Remarkably, neurodegenerative diseases are increasingly found to be accompanied by activation of the innate immune surveillance system normally associated with pathogen recognition and response. Innate surveillance is the cell's quality control system for the purpose of detecting such danger signals and responding in an appropriate manner. Innate surveillance is an "intelligent system," in that the manner of response is relevant to the magnitude and duration of the threat. If possible, the threat is dealt with within the cell in which it is detected, by degrading the danger signal(s) and restoring homeostasis. If this is not successful then an inflammatory response is instigated that is aimed at restricting the spread of the threat by elevating degradative pathways, sensitizing neighboring cells, and recruiting specialized cell types to the site. If the danger signal persists, then the ultimate response can include not only the programmed cell death of the original cell, but the contents of this dead cell can also bring about the death of adjacent sensitized cells. These responses are clearly aimed at destroying the ability of the detected pathogen to propagate and spread. Innate surveillance comprises intracellular, extracellular, non-cell autonomous and systemic processes. Recent studies have revealed how multiple steps in these processes involve proteins that, through their mutation, have been linked to many familial forms of neurodegenerative disease. This suggests that individuals harboring these mutations may have an amplified response to innate-mediated damage in neural tissues, and renders innate surveillance mediated cell death a plausible common pathogenic pathway responsible for neurodegenerative diseases, in both familial and sporadic forms. Here we have assembled evidence in favor of the hypothesis that neurodegenerative disease is the cumulative result of chronic activation of the innate surveillance pathway, triggered by endogenous or environmental danger or damage associated molecular patterns in a progressively expanding cascade of inflammation, tissue damage and cell death.
Project description:Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a key player in multiple cell death signaling pathways. We report that DAPK is regulated by DANGER, a partial MAB-21 domain-containing protein. DANGER binds directly to DAPK and inhibits DAPK catalytic activity. DANGER-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts and neurons exhibit greater DAPK activity and increased sensitivity to cell death stimuli than do wild-type control cells. In addition, DANGER-deficient mice manifest more severe brain damage after acute excitotoxicity and transient cerebral ischemia than do control mice. Accordingly, DANGER may physiologically regulate the viability of neurons and represent a potential therapeutic target for stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that play a pivotal role in tumor surveillance. Exosomes are nanovesicles released into the extracellular environment via the endosomal vesicle pathway and represent an important mode of intercellular communication. The ability of anticancer chemotherapy to enhance the immunogenic potential of malignant cells mainly relies on the establishment of the immunogenic cell death (ICD) and the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Moreover, the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and the induction of senescence represent two crucial modalities aimed at promoting the clearance of drug-treated tumor cells by NK cells. Emerging evidence has shown that stress stimuli provoke an increased release of exosome secretion. Remarkably, tumor-derived exosomes (Tex) produced in response to stress carry distinct type of DAMPs that activate innate immune cell populations. Moreover, stress-induced ligands for the activating receptor NKG2D are transported by this class of nanovesicles. Here, we will discuss how Tex interact with NK cells and provide insight into their potential role in response to chemotherapy-induced stress stimuli. The capability of some "danger signals" carried by exosomes that indirectly affect the NK cell activity in the tumor microenvironment will be also addressed.
Project description:Patten recognition receptors, which recognize pathogens or components of injured cells (danger), trigger activation of the innate immune system. Whether and how the host distinguishes between danger- versus pathogen-associated molecular patterns remains unresolved. We report that CD24-deficient mice exhibit increased susceptibility to danger- but not pathogen-associated molecular patterns. CD24 associates with high mobility group box 1, heat shock protein 70, and heat shock protein 90; negatively regulates their stimulatory activity; and inhibits nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. This occurs at least in part through CD24 association with Siglec-10 in humans or Siglec-G in mice. Our results reveal that the CD24-Siglec G pathway protects the host against a lethal response to pathological cell death and discriminates danger- versus pathogen-associated molecular patterns.
Project description:The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against pathogen infection though also influences pathways involved in cancer immunosurveillance. The innate immune system relies on a limited set of germ line-encoded sensors termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), signaling proteins and immune response factors. Cytosolic receptors mediate recognition of danger damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) signals. Once activated, these sensors trigger multiple signaling cascades, converging on the production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. Recent studies revealed that PRRs respond to nucleic acids (NA) released by dying, damaged, cancer cells, as danger DAMPs signals, and presence of signaling proteins across cancer types suggests that these signaling mechanisms may be involved in cancer biology. DAMPs play important roles in shaping adaptive immune responses through the activation of innate immune cells and immunological response to danger DAMPs signals is crucial for the host response to cancer and tumor rejection. Furthermore, PRRs mediate the response to NA in several vaccination strategies, including DNA immunization. As route of double-strand DNA intracellular entry, DNA immunization leads to expression of key components of cytosolic NA-sensing pathways. The involvement of NA-sensing mechanisms in the antitumor response makes these pathways attractive drug targets. Natural and synthetic agonists of NA-sensing pathways can trigger cell death in malignant cells, recruit immune cells, such as DCs, CD8+ T cells, and NK cells, into the tumor microenvironment and are being explored as promising adjuvants in cancer immunotherapies. In this minireview, we discuss how cGAS-STING and RIG-I-MAVS pathways have been targeted for cancer treatment in preclinical translational researches. In addition, we present a targeted selection of recent clinical trials employing agonists of cytosolic NA-sensing pathways showing how these pathways are currently being targeted for clinical application in oncology.
Project description:Constitutive cell-autonomous immunity in metazoans predates interferon-inducible immunity and comprises primordial innate defense. Phagocytes mobilize interferon-inducible responses upon engagement of well-characterized signaling pathways by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The signals controlling deployment of constitutive cell-autonomous responses during infection have remained elusive. Vita-PAMPs denote microbial viability, signaling the danger of cellular exploitation by intracellular pathogens. We show that cyclic-di-adenosine monophosphate in live Gram-positive bacteria is a vita-PAMP, engaging the innate sensor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) to mediate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Subsequent inactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin mobilizes autophagy, which sequesters stressed ER membranes, resolves ER stress, and curtails phagocyte death. This vita-PAMP-induced ER-phagy additionally orchestrates an interferon response by localizing ER-resident STING to autophagosomes. Our findings identify stress-mediated ER-phagy as a cell-autonomous response mobilized by STING-dependent sensing of a specific vita-PAMP and elucidate how innate receptors engage multilayered homeostatic mechanisms to promote immunity and survival after infection.
Project description:Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. We show that lack of PINK1- a mitochondrial kinase linked to recessive familial PD - leads to glia type-specific abnormalities of innate immunity. PINK1 loss enhances LPS/IFN-? stimulated pro-inflammatory phenotypes of mixed astrocytes/microglia (increased iNOS, nitric oxide and COX-2, reduced IL-10) and pure astrocytes (increased iNOS, nitric oxide, TNF-? and IL-1?), while attenuating expression of both pro-inflammatory (TNF-?, IL-1?) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in microglia. These abnormalities are associated with increased inflammation-induced NF-?B signaling in astrocytes, and cause enhanced death of neurons co-cultured with inflamed PINK1 -/- mixed glia and neuroblastoma cells exposed to conditioned medium from LPS/IFN-? treated PINK1 -/- mixed glia. Neuroblastoma cell death is prevented with an iNOS inhibitor, implicating increased nitric oxide production as the cause for enhanced death. Finally, we show for the first time that lack of a recessive PD gene (PINK1) increases ?-Synuclein-induced nitric oxide production in all glia types (mixed glia, astrocytes and microglia). Our results describe a novel pathogenic mechanism in recessive PD, where PINK1 deficiency may increase neuron death via exacerbation of inflammatory stimuli-induced nitric oxide production and abnormal innate immune responses in glia cells.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common devastating neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. The precise molecular and cellular basis underlying PD still remains uncertain; however, accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal cell death is caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Over the previous two decades, more than 20 genes have been identified as the cause of and/or risk for PD. Because sporadic and familial forms of PD have many similarities in clinical and neuropathological features, common molecular pathways, such as aberrant mitochondrial and protein homeostasis, are likely to exist in both conditions. Of the various genes and proteins involved in PD, the versatile DnaJ/Hsp40 co-chaperones have attracted particular attention since several genes encoding this protein family have been successively identified as the cause of the familial forms of PD/Parkinsonism. In this review, we will introduce the current knowledge regarding the integratory and modulatory effect of DnaJ/Hsp40 in various cellular functions and argue how the failure of these proteins may initiate and/or facilitate of the disease.
Project description:Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration often result from the aberrant deposition of aggregated host proteins, including amyloid-?, ?-synuclein, and prions, that can activate inflammasomes. Inflammasomes function as intracellular sensors of both microbial pathogens and foreign as well as host-derived danger signals. Upon activation, they induce an innate immune response by secreting the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18, and additionally by inducing pyroptosis, a lytic cell death mode that releases additional inflammatory mediators. Microglia are the prominent innate immune cells in the brain for inflammasome activation. However, additional CNS-resident cell types including astrocytes and neurons, as well as infiltrating myeloid cells from the periphery, express and activate inflammasomes. In this review, we will discuss current understanding of the role of inflammasomes in common degenerative diseases of the brain and highlight inflammasome-targeted strategies that may potentially treat these diseases.
Project description:Pattern recognition underpins innate immunity; the accurate identification of danger, including infection, injury, or tumor, is key to an appropriately targeted immune response. Pathogen detection is increasingly well defined mechanistically, but the discrimination of endogenous inflammatory triggers remains unclear. Tenascin-C, a matrix protein induced upon tissue damage and expressed by tumors, activates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated sterile inflammation. Here we map three sites within tenascin-C that directly and cooperatively interact with TLR4. We also identify a conserved inflammatory epitope in related proteins from diverse families, and demonstrate that its presence targets molecules for TLR detection, while its absence enables escape of innate immune surveillance. These data reveal a unique molecular code that defines endogenous proteins as inflammatory stimuli by marking them for recognition by TLRs.
Project description:Non-apoptotic forms of cell death can trigger sterile inflammation through the release of danger-associated molecular patterns, which are recognized by innate immune receptors. However, despite years of investigation the mechanisms which initiate inflammatory responses after heart transplantation remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1), a specific inhibitor of ferroptosis, decreases the level of pro-ferroptotic hydroperoxy-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, reduces cardiomyocyte cell death and blocks neutrophil recruitment following heart transplantation. Inhibition of necroptosis had no effect on neutrophil trafficking in cardiac grafts. We extend these observations to a model of coronary artery ligation-induced myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury where inhibition of ferroptosis resulted in reduced infarct size, improved left ventricular systolic function, and reduced left ventricular remodeling. Using intravital imaging of cardiac transplants, we uncover that ferroptosis orchestrates neutrophil recruitment to injured myocardium by promoting adhesion of neutrophils to coronary vascular endothelial cells through a TLR4/TRIF/type I IFN signaling pathway. Thus, we have discovered that inflammatory responses after cardiac transplantation are initiated through ferroptotic cell death and TLR4/Trif-dependent signaling in graft endothelial cells. These findings provide a platform for the development of therapeutic strategies for heart transplant recipients and patients, who are vulnerable to ischemia reperfusion injury following restoration of coronary blood flow.