Delineation of MGMT Hypermethylation as a Biomarker for Veliparib-Mediated Temozolomide-Sensitizing Therapy of Glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Sensitizing effects of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors have been studied in several preclinical models, but a clear understanding of predictive biomarkers is lacking. In this study, in vivo efficacy of veliparib combined with temozolomide (TMZ) was evaluated in a large panel of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and potential biomarkers were analyzed. METHODS:The efficacy of TMZ alone vs TMZ/veliparib was compared in a panel of 28 GBM PDX lines grown as orthotopic xenografts (8-10 mice per group); all tests of statistical significance were two-sided. DNA damage was analyzed by ?H2AX immunostaining and promoter methylation of DNA repair gene O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) by Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-approved methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:The combination of TMZ/veliparib statistically significantly extended survival of GBM models (P < .05 by log-rank) compared with TMZ alone in five of 20 MGMT-hypermethylated lines (average extension in median survival = 87 days, range = 20-150 days), while the combination was ineffective in six MGMT-unmethylated lines. In the MGMT promoter-hypermethylated GBM12 line (median survival with TMZ+veliparib = 189 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 59 to 289 days, vs TMZ alone = 98 days, 95% CI = 49 to 210 days, P = .04), the profound TMZ-sensitizing effect of veliparib was lost when MGMT was overexpressed (median survival with TMZ+veliparib = 36 days, 95% CI = 28 to 38 days, vs TMZ alone = 35 days, 95% CI = 32 to 37 days, P = .87), and a similar association was observed in two nearly isogenic GBM28 sublines with an intact vs deleted MGMT locus. In comparing DNA damage signaling after dosing with veliparib/TMZ or TMZ alone, increased phosphorylation of damage-responsive proteins (KAP1, Chk1, Chk2, and H2AX) was observed only in MGMT promoter-hypermethylated lines. CONCLUSION:Veliparib statistically significantly enhances (P < .001) the efficacy of TMZ in tumors with MGMT promoter hypermethylation. Based on these data, MGMT promoter hypermethylation is being used as an eligibility criterion for A071102 (NCT02152982), the phase II/III clinical trial evaluating TMZ/veliparib combination in patients with GBM.
Project description:Effective sensitizing strategies potentially can extend the benefit of temozolomide (TMZ) therapy in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). We previously demonstrated that robust TMZ-sensitizing effects of the [poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase] (PARP) inhibitor veliparib (ABT-888) are restricted to TMZ-sensitive GBM xenografts. The focus of this study is to provide an understanding for the differential sensitization in paired TMZ-sensitive and -resistant GBM models.The impact of veliparib on TMZ-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in models of acquired TMZ resistance (GBM12TMZ-mgmt(High), GBM12TMZ-mgmt(Low), and U251TMZ), inherent TMZ resistance (T98G), and TMZ-sensitive (U251 and GBM12). In vivo drug efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics were analyzed using clinically relevant dosing regimens.Veliparib enhanced TMZ cytotoxicity and DNA-damage signaling in all GBM models in vitro with more pronounced effects in TMZ-resistant lines at 3 to 10 ?mol/L veliparib. In vivo, combined TMZ/veliparib, compared with TMZ alone, significantly delayed tumor growth and enhanced DNA-damage signaling and ?H2AX levels in the sensitive GBM12 xenograft line but not in the resistant GBM12TMZ lines. The pharmacokinetic profile of veliparib was similar for GBM12 and GBM12TMZ tumors with Cmax (?1.5 ?mol/L) in tissue significantly lower than concentrations associated with optimal in vitro sensitizing effects for resistant tumors. In contrast, robust suppression of PARP-1 expression by shRNA significantly increased TMZ sensitivity of U251TMZ in vitro and in vivo.In vitro cytotoxicity assays do not adequately model the therapeutic index of PARP inhibitors, as concentrations of veliparib and TMZ required to sensitize TMZ-resistant cancer cells in vivo cannot be achieved using a tolerable dosing regimen.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) is important chemotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), but the optimal dosing schedule is unclear.The efficacies of different clinically relevant dosing regimens were compared in a panel of 7 primary GBM xenografts in an intracranial therapy evaluation model.Protracted TMZ therapy (TMZ daily M-F, 3 wk every 4) provided superior survival to a placebo-treated group in 1 of 4 O(6)-DNA methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter hypermethylated lines (GBM12) and none of the 3 MGMT unmethylated lines, while standard therapy (TMZ daily M-F, 1 wk every 4) provided superior survival to the placebo-treated group in 2 of 3 MGMT unmethylated lines (GBM14 and GBM43) and none of the methylated lines. In comparing GBM12, GBM14, and GBM43 intracranial specimens, both GBM14 and GBM43 mice treated with protracted TMZ had a significant elevation in MGMT levels compared with placebo. Similarly, high MGMT was found in a second model of acquired TMZ resistance in GBM14 flank xenografts, and resistance was reversed in vitro by treatment with the MGMT inhibitor O(6)-benzylguanine, demonstrating a mechanistic link between MGMT overexpression and TMZ resistance in this line. Additionally, in an analysis of gene expression data, comparison of parental and TMZ-resistant GBM14 demonstrated enrichment of functional ontologies for cell cycle control within the S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle and DNA damage checkpoints.Across the 7 tumor models studied, there was no consistent difference between protracted and standard TMZ regimens. The efficacy of protracted TMZ regimens may be limited in a subset of MGMT unmethylated tumors by induction of MGMT expression.
Project description:Prognosis of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains dismal despite maximal surgical resection followed by aggressive chemo-radiation therapy. Almost every GBM, regardless of genotype, relapses as aggressive recurrent disease. Sensitization of GBM cells to chemo-radiation is expected to extend survival of patients with GBM by enhancing treatment efficacy. The PARP family of enzymes has a pleiotropic role in DNA repair and metabolism and has emerged as an attractive target for sensitization of cancer cells to genotoxic therapies. However, despite promising results from a number of preclinical studies, progress of clinical trials involving PARP inhibitors (PARPI) has been slower in GBM as compared to other malignancies. Preclinical in vivo studies have uncovered limitations of PARPI-mediated targeting of base excision repair, considered to be the likely mechanism of sensitization for temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant GBM. Nevertheless, PARPI remain a promising sensitizing approach for at least a subset of GBM tumors that are inherently sensitive to TMZ. Our PDX preclinical trial has helped delineate MGMT promoter hyper-methylation as a biomarker of the PARPI veliparib-mediated sensitization. In clinical trials, MGMT promoter hyper-methylation now is being studied as a potential predictive biomarker not only for response to TMZ therapy alone, but also PARPI-mediated sensitization of TMZ therapy. Besides the combination approach being investigated, IDH1/2 mutant gliomas associated with 2-hydroxygluterate (2HG)-mediated homologous recombination (HR) defect may potentially benefit from PARPI monotherapy. In this article, we discuss existing results and provide additional data in support of potential alternative mechanisms of sensitization that would help identify potential biomarkers for PARPI-based therapeutic approaches to GBM.
Project description:CpG methylation within the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is associated with enhanced survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with temozolomide (TMZ). Although MGMT promoter is methylated in approximately 50% of GBM, several studies have reported a lack of correlation between MGMT methylation and protein expression levels and consequently inaccurate discrimination of TMZ sensitive and resistant patients. To understand the limitations of currently used assays, TMZ responsiveness of 13 GBM xenograft lines was correlated with MGMT protein expression and MGMT promoter methylation determined by (1) standard methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR), (2) quantitative MS-PCR (qMS-PCR), and (3) bisulfite sequencing. For each xenograft line, mice with established intracranial xenografts were treated with vehicle control or TMZ (66 mg/kgx5 days), and TMZ response was defined as relative prolongation in median survival for TMZ-treated versus control-treated mice. The relative survival benefit with TMZ was inversely related to MGMT protein expression (r=-0.75; P=0.003) and directly correlated with qMS-PCR (r=0.72; P=0.006). There was a direct correlation between MGMT methylation signal by qMS-PCR and the number of methylated CpG sites within the region amplified by MS-PCR (r=0.78, P=0.002). However, bisulfite sequencing revealed heterogeneity in the extent of CpG methylation in those tumors with a robust qMS-PCR signal. Three of the 4 GBM lines with a qMS-PCR signal greater than 10% had at least 1 unmethylated CpG site, while only one line was fully methylated at all 12 CpG sites. These data highlight one potential limitation of the evaluation of MGMT methylation by MS-PCR assay and suggest that more detailed evaluation of methylation at individual CpG sites relative to TMZ response may be worth pursuing.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent chemotherapy drug used as a first-line treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). O6-methyl-guanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs DNA damage induced by TMZ; hence, elevated MGMT levels usually correlate with TMZ resistance. MGMT promoter methylation is a key regulatory mechanism for MGMT expression and is important in overcoming TMZ therapy resistance. To date, little is known about how MGMT expression is regulated beyond promoter methylation. In this work, we show an alternative mechanism by which MGMT levels are regulated independent of its promoter methylation status. We found that inhibition of the histone deacetylase HDAC8 by either HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI34051 or HDAC8 shRNA decreases MGMT levels in GBM cell lines. Furthermore, the proteasome receptor ADRM1 participates in this MGMT regulation by interacting with HDAC8. Interestingly, this interaction is disrupted by TMZ exclusively in TMZ sensitive cells, suggesting that this MGMT regulatory pathway might be inactivated in TMZ resistant cells. Consequently, HDAC8 inhibition in GBM cell lines increases DNA damage and cell cycle arrest and, eventually, decreases cell viability, likely due to the decrease in MGMT protein levels.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal of all gliomas. The current standard of care includes surgery followed by concomitant radiation and chemotherapy with the DNA alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). O?-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs the most cytotoxic of lesions generated by TMZ, O?-methylguanine. Methylation of the MGMT promoter in GBM correlates with increased therapeutic sensitivity to alkylating agent therapy. However, several aspects of TMZ sensitivity are not explained by MGMT promoter methylation. Here, we investigated our hypothesis that the base excision repair enzyme alkylpurine-DNA-N-glycosylase (APNG), which repairs the cytotoxic lesions N³-methyladenine and N?-methylguanine, may contribute to TMZ resistance. Silencing of APNG in established and primary TMZ-resistant GBM cell lines endogenously expressing MGMT and APNG attenuated repair of TMZ-induced DNA damage and enhanced apoptosis. Reintroducing expression of APNG in TMZ-sensitive GBM lines conferred resistance to TMZ in vitro and in orthotopic xenograft mouse models. In addition, resistance was enhanced with coexpression of MGMT. Evaluation of APNG protein levels in several clinical datasets demonstrated that in patients, high nuclear APNG expression correlated with poorer overall survival compared with patients lacking APNG expression. Loss of APNG expression in a subset of patients was also associated with increased APNG promoter methylation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that APNG contributes to TMZ resistance in GBM and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Project description:Abstract Current standard-of-care for glioblastoma (GBM) includes surgery followed by concurrent therapy with radiation and temozolomide (TMZ) followed by adjuvant TMZ (days 1–5 every 28 days. Almost all GBM patients experience recurrent/progressive disease, with a median survival after recurrence of 3–9 months. Second-line treatment for recurrent GBM with bevacizumab (BEV) has not improved survival, and effective therapies for GBM are lacking. Unmethylated promoter for O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) is a validated biomarker for TMZ-resistance and is correlated with poor patient prognosis. VAL-083 is a bi-functional DNA-targeting agent which rapidly induces interstrand DNA cross-links at N7-guanine, induces double-strand breaks and acts independent of MGMT DNA repair. The current ongoing trial is a biomarker-driven Phase 2 study in MGMT-unmethylated BEV-naïve adult GBM. The primary objective of this study is to determine the effect of VAL-083 on median overall survival (mOS) for MGMT-unmethylated GBM patients compared to historical control. Secondary efficacy endpoints include progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), and quality-of-life. Thirty-five (35) subjects with recurrent GBM have received 40 mg/m2/day VAL-083 on days 1, 2, 3 of a 21-day cycle as the starting dose. Myelosuppression is the most common adverse event and a higher potential for this toxicity correlated with those patients who received a higher number of cycles of prior TMZ maintenance therapy, (>5 cycles vs. ?5 cycles, p< 0.05). To minimize the potential for hematological toxicity in rGBM, subsequent subjects initiated treatment at 30 mg/m2/d VAL-083 x 3 consecutive days every 21 days. In addition, since TMZ is of limited value in the MGMT-unmethylated setting, a second arm in newly diagnosed GBM has been included to explore whether substituting TMZ with VAL-083 offers clinical benefit and extends the time to recurrence. Enrollment, safety data and study updates will be presented at the meeting. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02717962.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The O 6 -methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene is frequently unmethylated in patients with glioblastoma (GBM), rendering them non-responsive to the standard treatment regime of surgery followed by concurrent radiotherapy (RT) and temozolomide. Here, we investigate the efficacy of adding a PARP inhibitor, veliparib, to radiotherapy to treat MGMT unmethylated GBM. METHODS:The inhibition of PARP with veliparib (ABT-888), a potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor in combination with RT was tested on a panel of patient derived cell lines (PDCLs) and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) models generated from GBM patients with MGMT unmethylated tumors. RESULTS:The combination of veliparib and RT inhibited colony formation in the majority of PDCLs tested. The PDCL, RN1 showed significantly reduced levels of the homologous repair protein, Mre11 and a heightened response to PARP inhibition measured by increased apoptosis and decreased colony formation. The oral administration of veliparib (12.5 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days in a 28-day treatment cycle) in combination with whole brain RT (4 Gy) induced apoptosis (Tunel staining) and decreased cell proliferation (Ki67 staining) in a PDX of MGMT unmethylated GBM. Significantly longer survival times of the PDX treated with the combination treatment were recorded compared to RT only or veliparib only. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate preclinical efficacy of targeting PARP at multiple levels and provide a new approach for the treatment of MGMT unmethylated GBM.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:To improve the standard treatment paradigm for glioblastoma (GBM), efforts have been made to explore the efficacy of epigenetic agents as chemosensitizers. Recent data suggest possible synergy between decitabine (DAC), a DNA hypomethylating agent, and temozolomide (TMZ) in GBM, but the mechanism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of DAC on TMZ sensitization in a consecutively derived set of primary GBM cultures, with a focus on mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. METHODS:Half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of TMZ were calculated in eleven consecutive patient-derived GBM cell lines before and after preconditioning with DAC. MMR protein expression changes were determined by quantitative immunoblots and qPCR arrays. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing of bisulfite (BS)-converted PCR amplicons of the MLH1 promoter was performed to determine methylation status. RESULTS:TMZ IC50 significantly changed in 6 of 11 GBM lines of varying MGMT promoter methylation status in response to DAC preconditioning. Knockdown of MLH1 after preconditioning reversed TMZ sensitization. SMRT-BS sequencing of the MLH1 promoter region revealed higher levels of baseline methylation at proximal CpGs in desensitized lines compared to sensitized lines. CONCLUSIONS:DAC enhances TMZ cytotoxicity in a subset of GBM cell lines, comprising lines both MGMT methylated and unmethylated tumors. This effect may be driven by levels of MLH1 via E2F1 transcription factor binding. Using unbiased long-range next-generation bisulfite-sequencing, we identified a region of the proximal MLH1 promoter with differential methylation patterns that has potential utility as a clinical biomarker for TMZ sensitization.
Project description:Background and objective:Promoter status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been widely established as a clinically relevant factor in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. However, in addition to varied therapy schedule, the prognosis of GBM patients is also affected by variations of age, race, primary or recurrent tumor. This study comprehensively investigated the association between MGMT promoter status and prognosis in overall GBM patients and in different GBM subtype including new diagnosed patients, recurrent patients and elderly patients. Methods:A comprehensive search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane databases to identify literatures (published from January 1, 2005 to April 1, 2017) that evaluated the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and prognosis of GBM patients. Results:Totally, 66 studies including 7,886 patients met the inclusion criteria. Overall GBM patients with a methylated status of MGMT receiving temozolomide (TMZ)-containing treatment had better overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) [OS: hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41-0.52, p?<?0.001, Bon?=?0.017; PFS: HR?=?0.48, 95% CI 0.40-0.57, p?<?0.001, Bon?=?0.014], but no significant advantage on OS or PFS in GBM patients with TMZ-free treatment was observed (OS: HR?=?0.97, 95% CI 0.91-1.03, p?=?0.08, Bon?=?1; PFS: HR?=?0.76, 95% CI 0.57-1.02, p?=?0.068, Bon?=?0.748). These different impacts of MGMT status on OS were similar in newly diagnosed GBM patients, elderly GBM patients and recurrent GBM. Among patients receiving TMZ-free treatment, survival benefit in Asian patients was not observed anymore after Bonferroni correction (Asian OS: HR?=?0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95, p?=?0.02, Bon?=?0.24, I2?=?0%; PFS: HR?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.94, p?=?0.02, Bon?=?0.24). No benefit was observed in Caucasian receiving TMZ-free therapy regardless of Bonferroni adjustment. Conclusion:The meta-analysis highlights the universal predictive value of MGMT methylation in newly diagnosed GBM patients, elderly GBM patients and recurrent GBM patients. For elderly methylated GBM patients, TMZ alone therapy might be a more suitable option than radiotherapy alone therapy. Future clinical trials should be designed in order to optimize therapeutics in different GBM subpopulation.