Plasma vitamin D biomarkers and leukocyte telomere length in men.
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D may reduce telomere shortening through anti-inflammatory and anti-cell proliferation mechanisms. In women, higher plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been shown to be associated with longer telomere length, but the relationship has not been assessed in men.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) among 2483 men [1832 men for 1,25(OH)2D] who were selected as cases and controls in three studies of telomeres and cancer nested within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We also genotyped 95 SNPs representing common genetic variation in vitamin D pathway genes. LTL was measured by quantitative PCR, and z-scores within each study were calculated. Associations were assessed by linear as well as logistic regression adjusting for age and other potential confounders.Age (P-trend < 0.0001), pack-years of smoking (P-trend = 0.04) and body mass index (P-trend = 0.05) were inversely associated with LTL. Neither 25(OH)D nor 1,25(OH)2D was associated with LTL (multivariable-adjusted P-trend 0.69 and 0.41, respectively, for the linear regression model). One SNP in the retinoid X receptor alpha gene was associated with long LTL (P = 0.0003).In this cross-sectional study of men, 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were not associated with relative LTL.
Project description:Vitamin D may reduce telomere shortening through anti-inflammatory and anti-cell proliferation mechanisms. In the present study, we examined the association between vitamin D and relative leukocyte telomere length by using both plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) biomarkers. Vitamin D biomarker levels and leukocyte telomere length were measured using plasma samples collected in 1989-1990 from participants of the Nurses' Health Study, a study of nurses from 11 US states. In total, 1,424 participants had their 25(OH)D levels assessed and 837 had their 1,25(OH)2D levels assessed. Genotyping was performed on 480 participants on 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms in vitamin D-related genes. Linear and logistic regression models were used. Higher 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with longer telomere length (P for trend = 0.05), and the odds ratio increased from 1.07 (P = 0.65) when comparing the second lowest quartile of 25(OH)D with the lowest to 1.59 (P = 0.01) when comparing the highest quartile with the lowest. Vitamin D-related single nucleotide polymorphisms and 1,25(OH)2D levels were not significantly associated with telomere length. Total calcium intake significantly modified the association between 25(OH)D and telomere length (P for interaction = 0.05). Higher plasma 25(OH)D levels may be associated with longer telomeres, and this association may be modified by calcium intake.
Project description:Vitamin D may play an important role in a range of disease processes. In the general population, lower vitamin D levels have been associated with kidney dysfunction. HIV-infected populations have a higher risk of chronic kidney disease. Few studies have examined the link between lower vitamin D levels and kidney function decline among HIV-infected persons. We investigated the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] with kidney function decline in a cohort of HIV-infected white and black men under highly active antiretroviral therapy treatment in the vitamin D ancillary study of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. The associations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D with annual change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were evaluated using linear mixed effects models. This study included 187 whites and 86 blacks with vitamin D measures and eGFR ?60?ml/min/1.73?m2 at baseline. Over a median follow-up of 8.0 years, lower 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with faster eGFR decline in whites (adjusted annual change in eGFR, tertile 1: -2.06?ml/min/1.73?m2 vs. tertile 3: -1.23?ml/min/1.73?m2, p trend .03), while no significant association was detected in blacks. Lower 1,25(OH)2D was associated with faster kidney function decline in both whites and blacks, although the estimates were not statistically significant. In conclusion, lower 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with faster eGFR decline in a cohort of HIV-infected white men, but not in those with black ancestry. Further research is warranted to investigate the association of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D with kidney function decline in larger and ethnically diverse populations.
Project description:The vitamin D metabolite 1,25(OH)2D is the bioactive ligand of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR forms a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) that when bound to ligand influences the transcriptional control of genes that regulate circulating levels of vitamin D metabolites. Whether genetic variation in VDR or RXRA affects circulating levels of 1,25(OH)2D or 25(OH)D has not been established. We used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) tagging approach to evaluate the association between SNPs in VDR and RXRA and serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D and 25(OH)D. A total of 42 tagSNPs in VDR and 32 in RXRA were analyzed in a sample of 415 participants. Principal components analyses revealed a gene-level association between RXRA and serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations (P=0.01), but not 25(OH)D. No gene-level association was found for VDR with either serum biomarker. At the single-SNP level, a significant positive trend was observed for increasing 1,25(OH)2D levels with each additional copy of the A allele for RXRA SNP rs9409929 (P-trend=0.003). After a multiple comparisons adjustment, no individual SNP in VDR or RXRA was significantly associated with either outcome. These results demonstrate an association between genetic variation in RXRA and 1,25(OH)2D serum concentrations.
Project description:Previous prospective studies assessing the relationship between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk have shown inconclusive results, particularly for risk of aggressive disease. In this study, we examine the association between prediagnostic concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] and the risk of prostate cancer overall and by tumor characteristics. Principal investigators of 19 prospective studies provided individual participant data on circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D for up to 13,462 men with incident prostate cancer and 20,261 control participants. ORs for prostate cancer by study-specific fifths of season-standardized vitamin D concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. 25(OH)D concentration was positively associated with risk for total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted OR comparing highest vs. lowest study-specific fifth was 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.31; P trend < 0.001). However, this association varied by disease aggressiveness (P heterogeneity = 0.014); higher circulating 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of nonaggressive disease (OR per 80 percentile increase = 1.24, 1.13-1.36) but not with aggressive disease (defined as stage 4, metastases, or prostate cancer death, 0.95, 0.78-1.15). 1,25(OH)2D concentration was not associated with risk for prostate cancer overall or by tumor characteristics. The absence of an association of vitamin D with aggressive disease does not support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency increases prostate cancer risk. Rather, the association of high circulating 25(OH)D concentration with a higher risk of nonaggressive prostate cancer may be influenced by detection bias. SIGNIFICANCE: This international collaboration comprises the largest prospective study on blood vitamin D and prostate cancer risk and shows no association with aggressive disease but some evidence of a higher risk of nonaggressive disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prospective studies examining the potential association of vitamin D with age-related muscle loss have shown inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE:To examine the association between baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and prospective change in lean mass with aging in African ancestry population. We also determined if associations were modulated by age and diabetes mellitus (DM). DESIGN:Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING:Data were collected from a random sub-sample of 574 men, participants of the Tobago Bone Health Study (TBHS). PARTICIPANTS:574 Afro-Caribbean men, aged 43+ years (mean age: 59.1 ± 10.5), who were randomly selected as the participants in both the baseline and the follow-up visits. MEASUREMENTS:Baseline fasting serum 25(OH)D was measured using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and and 1,25(OH)2D was measured using radioimmunosassay (RIA). Changes in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured appendicular lean mass (ALM), and total body lean mass (TBLM) were measured over an average of 6.0 ± 0.5 years. The associations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D with ALM and TBLM were assessed by multiple linear regression model after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS:When stratifying all men into two groups by age, greater baseline 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels were associated with smaller losses of ALM and TBLM in older (age 60+ years) but not in younger (age 43 - 59 years) men. When stratifying by DM status, the associations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D with declines in ALM and TBLM were statistically significant only in prediabetic, but not among normal glycemic or diabetic men. CONCLUSION:Higher endogenous vitamin D concentrations are associated with less lean mass loss with aging among older and prediabetic Afro-Caribbean men independent of potential confounders. Our findings raise a possibility that maintaining high serum vitamin D level might be important for musculoskeletal health in elderly and prediabetic African ancestry men.
Project description:Vitamin D is hypothesized to suppress inflammation. We tested total and free vitamin D metabolites and their association with inflammatory markers. Interleukin-6 levels were lower with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and free 25OHD associations mirrored those of 25OHD. However, associations for the two metabolites diverged for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) soluble receptors.Vitamin D is hypothesized to suppress inflammation, and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and inflammatory markers are inversely correlated. However, total serum 25OHD may not be the best indicator of biologically active vitamin D.We tested serum total 25OHD, total 1,25(OH)2D, vitamin D binding protein (DBP), and estimated free 25OHD and free 1,25(OH)2D associations with inflammatory markers serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF-? and their soluble receptors, interleukin-10 (IL-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP) as continuous outcomes and the presence of ?2 inflammatory markers in the highest quartile as a dichotomous outcome, in a random subcohort of 679 men in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study.IL-6 was lower in men with higher 25OHD (-0.23 ?g/mL per standard deviation (SD) increase in 25OHD, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) -0.07 to -0.38 ?g/mL) and with higher 1,25(OH)2D (-0.20 ?g/mL, 95 % CI -0.0004 to -0.39 ?g/mL); free D associations were slightly stronger. 25OHD and DBP, but not 1,25(OH)2D, were independently associated with IL-6. TNF-? soluble receptors were inversely associated with 1,25(OH)2D but positively associated with 25OHD, and each had independent effects. The strongest association with ?2 inflammatory markers in the highest quartile was for free 1,25(OH)2D (odds ratios (OR) 0.70, 95 % CI 0.54 to 0.89 per SD increase in free 1,25(OH)2D).Associations of 1,25(OH)2D and free 25OHD with IL-6 mirrored those of 25OHD, suggesting that 1,25(OH)2D and free D do not improve upon 25OHD in population-based IL-6 studies. However, associations for the two metabolites diverged for TNF-? soluble receptor, warranting examination of both metabolites in studies of TNF-? and its antagonists.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Vitamin D insufficiency is a common public health problem nationwide. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D), the most commonly used index of vitamin D status, is converted to the active hormone 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D), which, operating through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), inhibits in vitro cell proliferation, induces differentiation and apoptosis, and may protect against prostate cancer. Despite intriguing results from laboratory studies, previous epidemiological studies showed inconsistent associations of circulating levels of 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, and several VDR polymorphisms with prostate cancer risk. Few studies have explored the joint association of circulating vitamin D levels with VDR polymorphisms.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>During 18 y of follow-up of 14,916 men initially free of diagnosed cancer, we identified 1,066 men with incident prostate cancer (including 496 with aggressive disease, defined as stage C or D, Gleason 7-10, metastatic, and fatal prostate cancer) and 1,618 cancer-free, age- and smoking-matched control participants in the Physicians' Health Study. We examined the associations of prediagnostic plasma levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D, individually and jointly, with total and aggressive disease, and explored whether relations between vitamin D metabolites and prostate cancer were modified by the functional VDR FokI polymorphism, using conditional logistic regression. Among these US physicians, the median plasma 25(OH)D levels were 25 ng/ml in the blood samples collected during the winter or spring and 32 ng/ml in samples collected during the summer or fall. Nearly 13% (summer/fall) to 36% (winter/spring) of the control participants were deficient in 25(OH)D (<20 ng/ml) and 51% (summer/fall) and 77% (winter/spring) had insufficient plasma 25(OH)D levels (<32 ng/ml). Plasma levels of 1,25(OH)2D did not vary by season. Men whose levels for both 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were below (versus above) the median had a significantly increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-3.4), although the interaction between the two vitamin D metabolites was not statistically significant (pinteraction = 0.23). We observed a significant interaction between circulating 25(OH)D levels and the VDR FokI genotype (pinteraction < 0.05). Compared with those with plasma 25(OH)D levels above the median and with the FokI FF or Ff genotype, men who had low 25(OH)D levels and the less functional FokI ff genotype had increased risks of total (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3) and aggressive prostate cancer (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.8). Among men with plasma 25(OH)D levels above the median, the ff genotype was no longer associated with risk. Conversely, among men with the ff genotype, high plasma 25(OH)D level (above versus below the median) was related to significant 60% approximately 70% lower risks of total and aggressive prostate cancer.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data suggest that a large proportion of the US men had suboptimal vitamin D status (especially during the winter/spring season), and both 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D may play an important role in preventing prostate cancer progression. Moreover, vitamin D status, measured by 25(OH)D in plasma, interacts with the VDR FokI polymorphism and modifies prostate cancer risk. Men with the less functional FokI ff genotype (14% in the European-descent population of this cohort) are more susceptible to this cancer in the presence of low 25(OH)D status.
Project description:Higher vitamin D status, lower adiposity, and longer telomere length are each reportedly associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases and all-cause mortality. However, direct relationships between vitamin D status (measured by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration), adiposity, and telomere length are not well established. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of associations of 25(OH)D and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) with mean relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using data gathered on 5,096 participants from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at age 31 years (1997). 25(OH)D was not associated with LTL in either basic or confounder/mediator-adjusted models. BMI was inversely associated with LTL after adjustment for potential confounding by age, sex, socioeconomic position, physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol intake, and use of oral contraceptives (per 1-unit increase in BMI, mean difference in LTL = -0.4%, 95% confidence interval: -0.6, -0.2). The BMI-LTL association was also independent of 25(OH)D and was attenuated slightly, but remained, after adjustment for C-reactive protein, a marker of low-grade inflammation (mean difference in LTL = -0.3%, 95% confidence interval -0.6, -0.1). These findings suggest that vitamin D status is unlikely to be an important determinant of LTL, at least by young adulthood. Inflammation may partly mediate associations of adiposity with LTL.
Project description:Hypercalcemia occurs in up to 4% of the population in association with malignancy, primary hyperparathyroidism, ingestion of excessive calcium and/or vitamin D, ectopic production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and impaired degradation of 1,25(OH)2D. The ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamin D3 (or vitamin D2) results in hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria due to the formation of supraphysiological amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] that bind to the vitamin D receptor, albeit with lower affinity than the active form of the vitamin, 1,25(OH)2D, and the formation of 5,6-trans 25(OH)D, which binds to the vitamin D receptor more tightly than 25(OH)D. In patients with granulomatous disease such as sarcoidosis or tuberculosis and tumors such as lymphomas, hypercalcemia occurs as a result of the activity of ectopic 25(OH)D-1-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) expressed in macrophages or tumor cells and the formation of excessive amounts of 1,25(OH)2D. Recent work has identified a novel cause of non-PTH-mediated hypercalcemia that occurs when the degradation of 1,25(OH)2D is impaired as a result of mutations of the 1,25(OH)2D-24-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (CYP24A1). Patients with biallelic and, in some instances, monoallelic mutations of the CYP24A1 gene have elevated serum calcium concentrations associated with elevated serum 1,25(OH)2D, suppressed PTH concentrations, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, and on occasion, reduced bone density. Of interest, first-time calcium renal stone formers have elevated 1,25(OH)2D and evidence of impaired 24-hydroxylase-mediated 1,25(OH)2D degradation. We will describe the biochemical processes associated with the synthesis and degradation of various vitamin D metabolites, the clinical features of the vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia, their biochemical diagnosis, and treatment.
Project description:Objective:Genetic studies have identified four Qatari genotypes: Q1 Arab, Bedouin; Q2 Asian/Persian; Q3 African; and a fourth admixed group not fitting into the previous 3 groups. This study was undertaken to determine if there was an increased risk of deficiency of vitamin D and its metabolites associated with differing genotypes, perhaps due to genetic differences in skin pigmentation. Methods:398 Qatari subjects (220 type 2 diabetes and 178 controls) had their genotype determined by Affymetrix 500?k SNP arrays. Total values of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), and 25-hydroxy-3epi-vitamin D (3epi-25(OH)D) concentrations were measured by the LC-MS/MS analysis. Results:The distribution was as follows: 164 (41.2%) genotyped Q1, 149 (37.4%) genotyped Q2, 31 (7.8%) genotyped Q3, and 54 (13.6%) genotyped "admixed." Median levels of 25(OH)D and 3epi-25(OH)D did not differ across Q1, Q2, Q3, and "admixed" genotypes, respectively. 1,25(OH)2D levels were lower (p < 0.04) between Q2 and the admixed groups, and 24,25(OH)2D levels were lower (p < 0.05) between Q1 and the admixed groups. Vitamin D metabolite levels were lower in females for 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D (p < 0.001), and 24,25(OH)2D (p < 0.006), but 3epi-25(OH)D did not differ (p < 0.26). Diabetes prevalence was not different between genotypes. Total 1,25(OH)2D (p < 0.001), total 24,25(OH)2D (p < 0.001), and total 3epi-25(OH)D (p < 0.005) were all significantly lower in diabetes patients compared to controls whilst the total 25(OH)D was higher in diabetes than controls (p < 0.001). Conclusion:Whilst 25(OH)D levels did not differ between genotype groups, 1,25(OH)2D and 24,25(OH)2D were lower in the admixed group, suggesting that there are genetic differences in vitamin D metabolism that may be of importance in a population that may allow a more targeted approach to vitamin D replacement. This may be of specific importance in vitamin D replacement strategies with the Q2 genotype requiring less, and the other genotypes requiring more to increase 1,25(OH)2D. Whilst overall the group was vitamin D deficient, total 25(OH)D was higher in diabetes, but 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25(OH)2D, and 3epi-25(OH)D were lower in diabetes that did not affect the relationship to genotype.