Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin modulates mucin glycosylation with sialyl-Lewis(x) to increase binding to airway epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients battle life-long pulmonary infections with the respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). An overabundance of mucus in CF airways provides a favorable niche for PA growth. When compared with that of non-CF individuals, mucus of CF airways is enriched in sialyl-Lewis(x), a preferred binding receptor for PA. Notably, the levels of sialyl-Lewis(x) directly correlate with infection severity in CF patients. However, the mechanism by which PA causes increased sialylation remains uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the ability of PA virulence factors to modulate sialyl-Lewis(x) modification in airway mucins. We found pyocyanin (PCN) to be a potent inducer of sialyl-Lewis(x) in both mouse airways and in primary and immortalized CF and non-CF human airway epithelial cells. PCN increased the expression of C2/4GnT and ST3Gal-IV, two of the glycosyltransferases responsible for the stepwise biosynthesis of sialyl-Lewis(x), through a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-mediated phosphoinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC)-dependent pathway. Furthermore, PA bound more efficiently to airway epithelial cells pre-exposed to PCN in a flagellar cap-dependent manner. Importantly, antibodies against sialyl-Lewis(x) and anti-TNF-? attenuated PA binding. These results indicate that PA secretes PCN to induce a favorable environment for chronic colonization of CF lungs by increasing the glycosylation of airway mucins with sialyl-Lewis(x).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The redox-active pyocyanin (PCN) is a toxic, secondary metabolite secreted by the respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). Previously, we have shown that mouse lungs chronically exposed to PCN develop goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia (GCHM) and mucus hypersecretion, fibrosis and emphysema. These pathological features are commonly found in the airways of several chronic lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as in mouse airways deficient in the forkhead box A2 (FOXA2), a transcriptional repressor of goblet GCHM and mucus biosynthesis. Furthermore, PCN inhibits FOXA2 by activating the pro-GCHM signaling pathways Stat6 and EGFR. However, it is not known whether PCN-generated reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species posttranslationally modify and inactivate FOXA2.<h4>Methods</h4>We examined the posttranslational modifications of FOXA2 by PCN using specific antibodies against oxidation, nitrosylation, acetylation and ubiquitination. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to examine the ability of modified FOXA2 to bind the promoter of MUC5B mucin gene. In addition, we used quantitative real time PCR, ELISA, immunofluorescence and mouse lung infection to assess whether the loss of FOXA2 function caused GCHM and mucin overexpression. Finally, we examined the restoration of FOXA2 function by the antioxidant glutathione (GSH).<h4>Results</h4>We found that PCN-generated ROS/RNS caused nitrosylation, acetylation, ubiquitination and degradation of FOXA2. Modified FOXA2 had reduced ability to bind the promoter of the MUC5B gene. The antioxidant GSH alleviated the modification of FOXA2 by PCN, and inhibited the overexpression of MUC5AC and MUC5B mucins.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results suggest that PCN-mediated posttranslational modifications of FOXA2 are positively correlated with GCHM and overexpression of airway mucins. Furthermore, antioxidant treatment restores the function of FOXA2 to attenuate GCHM and mucus hypersecretion.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by early and persistent mucus accumulation and neutrophilic inflammation in the distal airways. Identification of the factors in CF mucopurulent secretions that perpetuate CF mucoinflammation may provide strategies for novel CF pharmacotherapies. We show that IL-1?, with IL-1?, dominated the mucin prosecretory activities of supernatants of airway mucopurulent secretions (SAMS). Like SAMS, IL-1? alone induced MUC5B and MUC5AC protein secretion and mucus hyperconcentration in CF human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Mechanistically, IL-1? induced the sterile ? motif-pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) and downstream endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 2 (ERN2) to upregulate mucin gene expression. Increased mRNA levels of IL1B, SPDEF, and ERN2 were associated with increased MUC5B and MUC5AC expression in the distal airways of excised CF lungs. Administration of an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) blocked SAMS-induced expression of mucins and proinflammatory mediators in CF HBE cells. In conclusion, IL-1? and IL-1? are upstream components of a signaling pathway, including IL-1R1 and downstream SPDEF and ERN2, that generate a positive feedback cycle capable of producing persistent mucus hyperconcentration and IL-1? and/or IL-1?-mediated neutrophilic inflammation in the absence of infection in CF airways. Targeting this pathway therapeutically may ameliorate mucus obstruction and inflammation-induced structural damage in young CF children.
Project description:Respiratory mucus contains a mixture of gel-forming mucins but the functional significance of these different mucin species is unknown. To help gain a better understanding of mucus in airways we therefore need to ascertain the concentration of each of the gel-forming mucins within respiratory secretions. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the amounts of specific gel-forming mucins directly from solubilized secretions of the airways and purified mucin preparations. We investigated the feasibility of using direct-binding ELISA employing mucin-specific antisera but were unable to obtain reliable data owing to interference with the immobilization of the mucins on the assay surface by 6 M urea and high levels of non-mucin proteins. We therefore developed an alternative approach based on quantitative Western blotting after agarose-gel electrophoresis, which was not subject to these problems. Here we demonstrate that this procedure provides reliable and reproducible data and have employed it to determine the amounts of the MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B mucins in saline-induced sputa from healthy airways and spontaneous sputa from asthmatic airways. Additionally we have used this procedure to analyse these glycoproteins in mucin preparations purified from cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mucus. Our findings indicate that MUC5AC and MUC5B are the major oligomeric mucins and that airways mucus contains variable amounts of these glycoproteins. By contrast, the MUC2 mucin comprised, at most, only 2.5% of the weight of the gel-forming mucins, indicating that MUC2 is a minor component in sputum. Finally, we show that the amounts and glycosylated variants of the MUC5AC and MUC5B mucins can be altered significantly in diseased airways with, for instance, an increase in the low-charge form of the MUC5B mucin in CF and COPD mucus.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cell surface sialylation is emerging as an important feature of cancer cell metastasis. Sialyltransferase expression has been reported to be altered in tumours and may account for the formation of sialylated tumour antigens. We have focused on the influence of alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase ST3Gal III in key steps of the pancreatic tumorigenic process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ST3Gal III overexpressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines Capan-1 and MDAPanc-28 were generated. They showed an increase of the tumour associated antigen sialyl-Lewis(x). The transfectants' E-selectin binding capacity was proportional to cell surface sialyl-Lewis(x) levels. Cellular migration positively correlated with ST3Gal III and sialyl-Lewis(x) levels. Moreover, intrasplenic injection of the ST3Gal III transfected cells into athymic nude mice showed a decrease in survival and higher metastasis formation when compared to the mock cells. CONCLUSION: In summary, the overexpression of ST3Gal III in these pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines underlines the role of this enzyme and its product in key steps of tumour progression such as adhesion, migration and metastasis formation.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by increased mucus viscosity and delayed mucociliary clearance that contributes to progressive decline of lung function. Mucus in the respiratory and GI tract is excessively adhesive in the presence of airway dehydration and excess extracellular Ca2+ upon mucin release, promoting hyperviscous, densely packed mucins characteristic of CF. Therapies that target mucins directly through ionic interactions remain unexploited. Here we show that poly (acetyl, arginyl) glucosamine (PAAG), a polycationic biopolymer suitable for human use, interacts directly with mucins in a Ca2+-sensitive manner to reduce CF mucus viscoelasticity and improve its transport. Notably, PAAG induced a linear structure of purified MUC5B and altered its sedimentation profile and viscosity, indicative of proper mucin expansion. In vivo, PAAG nebulization improved mucociliary transport in CF rats with delayed mucus clearance, and cleared mucus plugging in CF ferrets. This study demonstrates the potential use of a synthetic glycopolymer PAAG as a molecular agent that could benefit patients with a broad array of mucus diseases.
Project description:Dysfunction of CFTR in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelium perturbs the normal regulation of ion transport, leading to a reduced volume of airway surface liquid (ASL), mucus dehydration, decreased mucus transport, and mucus plugging of the airways. CFTR is normally expressed in ciliated epithelial cells of the surface and submucosal gland ductal epithelium and submucosal gland acinar cells. Critical questions for the development of gene transfer strategies for CF airway disease are what airway regions require CFTR function and how many epithelial cells require CFTR expression to restore normal ASL volume regulation and mucus transport to CF airway epithelium? An in vitro model of human CF ciliated surface airway epithelium (CF HAE) was used to test whether a human parainfluenza virus (PIV) vector engineered to express CFTR (PIVCFTR) could deliver sufficient CFTR to CF HAE to restore mucus transport, thus correcting the CF phenotype. PIVCFTR delivered CFTR to >60% of airway surface epithelial cells and expressed CFTR protein in CF HAE approximately 100-fold over endogenous levels in non-CF HAE. This efficiency of CFTR delivery fully corrected the basic bioelectric defects of Cl(-) and Na(+) epithelial ion transport and restored ASL volume regulation and mucus transport to levels approaching those of non-CF HAE. To determine the numbers of CF HAE surface epithelial cells required to express CFTR for restoration of mucus transport to normal levels, different amounts of PIVCFTR were used to express CFTR in 3%-65% of the surface epithelial cells of CF HAE and correlated to increasing ASL volumes and mucus transport rates. These data demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that restoration of normal mucus transport rates in CF HAE was achieved after CFTR delivery to 25% of surface epithelial cells. In vivo experimentation in appropriate models will be required to determine what level of mucus transport will afford clinical benefit to CF patients, but we predict that a future goal for corrective gene transfer to the CF human airways in vivo would attempt to target at least 25% of surface epithelial cells to achieve mucus transport rates comparable to those in non-CF airways.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in people with CF. Abnormal mucociliary transport has been the leading hypothesis for the underlying pathogenesis of CF airway disease. However, this has been difficult to investigate at very early time points. A porcine CF model, which recapitulates many features of CF disease in humans, enables studies to be performed in non-CF and CF pigs on the day that they are born. In newborn CF pigs, we found that under basal conditions, mucociliary transport rates in non-CF and CF pigs are similar. However, after cholinergic stimulation, which stimulates submucosal gland secretion, particles become stuck in the CF airways owing to a failure of mucus strands to release from submucosal glands. In this review, we summarize these recent discoveries and also discuss the morphology, composition, and function of mucins in the porcine lung.
Project description:Although destructive airway disease is evident in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF), little is known about the nature of the early CF lung environment triggering the disease. To elucidate early CF pulmonary pathophysiology, we performed mucus, inflammation, metabolomic, and microbiome analyses on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 46 preschool children with CF enrolled in the Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis (AREST CF) program and 16 non-CF disease controls. Total airway mucins were elevated in CF compared to non-CF BALF irrespective of infection, and higher densities of mucus flakes containing mucin 5B and mucin 5AC were observed in samples from CF patients. Total mucins and mucus flakes correlated with inflammation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. Many CF BALFs appeared sterile by culture and molecular analyses, whereas other samples exhibiting bacterial taxa associated with the oral cavity. Children without computed tomography-defined structural lung disease exhibited elevated BALF mucus flakes and neutrophils, but little/no bacterial infection. Although CF mucus flakes appeared "permanent" because they did not dissolve in dilute BALF matrix, they could be solubilized by a previously unidentified reducing agent (P2062), but not N-acetylcysteine or deoxyribonuclease. These findings indicate that early CF lung disease is characterized by an increased mucus burden and inflammatory markers without infection or structural lung disease and suggest that mucolytic and anti-inflammatory agents should be explored as preventive therapy.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive genetic disease that is characterised by airway mucus plugging and reduced mucus clearance. There are currently alternative hypotheses that attempt to describe the abnormally viscous and elastic mucus that is a hallmark of CF airways disease, including: 1) loss of CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR)-dependent airway surface volume (water) secretion, producing mucus hyperconcentration-dependent increased viscosity, and 2) impaired bicarbonate secretion by CFTR, producing acidification of airway surfaces and increased mucus viscosity.A series of experiments was conducted to determine the contributions of mucus concentration versus pH to the rheological properties of airway mucus across length scales from the nanoscopic to macroscopic.For length scales greater than the nanoscopic, i.e. those relevant to mucociliary clearance, the effect of mucus concentration dominated over the effect of airway acidification.Mucus hydration and chemical reduction of disulfide bonds that connect mucin monomers are more promising therapeutic approaches than alkalisation.
Project description:Lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is initiated by defective host defense that predisposes airways to bacterial infection. Advanced CF is characterized by a deficit in mucociliary transport (MCT), a process that traps and propels bacteria out of the lungs, but whether this deficit occurs first or is secondary to airway remodeling has been unclear. To assess MCT, we tracked movement of radiodense microdisks in airways of newborn piglets with CF. Cholinergic stimulation, which elicits mucus secretion, substantially reduced microdisk movement. Impaired MCT was not due to periciliary liquid depletion; rather, CF submucosal glands secreted mucus strands that remained tethered to gland ducts. Inhibiting anion secretion in non-CF airways replicated CF abnormalities. Thus, impaired MCT is a primary defect in CF, suggesting that submucosal glands and tethered mucus may be targets for early CF treatment.