The effects of hemoglobin levels and their interactions with cigarette smoking on survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.
ABSTRACT: There is very little published information regarding the prognostic value of hemoglobin (Hb) levels combined with smoking on the survival of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and the interactions between them remain unclear. A total of 2440 NPC patients were confirmed, and multivariate analysis was performed to identify valuable prognostic Hb levels in the entire population and in the cohort of smokers. The survival differences were compared using log-rank tests. The multiplicative and additive interactions were assessed using Cox regression and a Microsoft Word Excel spreadsheet. Postradiotherapy (RT) Hb was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.797; P = 0.006), failure-free survival (FFS) (HR=0.811; P = 0.010), and loco-regional failure-free survival (LR-FFS) (HR = 0.725; P = 0.000). In the cohort of smokers, pack-years was also an independent predictor of OS (HR = 0.673; P < 0.001) and FFS (HR = 0.681; P < 0.001), LR-FFS (HR = 0.663; P = 0.001). A significant positive additive effect was found for the interaction between low post-RT Hb and high SI on OS, with RERI = 5.616, AP = 0.665, and S = 4.078. Stratified analyses demonstrated that heavy smokers with low post-RT Hb had HRs of 2.295 (P < 0.001) for death, 2.222 (P < 0.001) for disease failure, and 2.267 (P < 0.001) loco-regional recurrence compared with light smokers with high post-RT Hb levels, and post-RT Hb level is an important predictor of survival in patients with NPC. The positive interaction between post-RT Hb level and pack-years contributes to the elevated risk of poor survival. Oncologists should devote particular attention to heavy smokers with low post-RT Hb levels in the future.
Project description:PURPOSE: To investigate prognostic impact of chemoradiotherapy-induced hemoglobin (Hb) decrease on treatment outcomes of endemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight hundred and fifteen non-metastatic NPC, receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (NACT+RT group) or concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT group), were enrolled in this study, who were regrouped according to pre-radiotherapy Hb (pre-RT Hb), post-radiotherapy Hb (post-RT Hb) and individual Hb decrease through radiotherapy or CCRT (?Hb), respectively. Survival curves were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed using the COX proportional hazard model and binary logistic regression model. RESULTS: A poorer 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was observed when pre-RT Hb<130.00 g/L. However, post-RT Hb<130.00 g/L was associated with significantly poorer 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) (P=0.010) and disease specific survival (DSS) (P=0.008). Multivariate analysis with the COX proportional hazard model identified post-RT Hb<130.00 g/L as an independent negative prognostic factor for both LRFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.896; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.158-3.106; P=0.011) and DSS (HR, 1.767; 95% CI, 1.152-2.711; P=0.009). Similarly, ?Hb <-15.00 g/L also predicted poorer 5-year LRFS (P=0.024) and DSS (P=0.015), which was confirmed in multivariate analysis as an independent adverse prognostic factor for LRFS (HR, 1.586; 95% CI, 1.058-2.377; P=0.026) and DSS (HR, 1.556; 95% CI, 1.087-2.227; P=0.016), respectively. Multivariate analysis with binary logistic regression model indicated that CCRT was a significantly independent predictor for post-RT Hb <130.00 g/L and ?Hb < -15.00 g/L. CONCLUSIONS: Chemoradiotherapy-induced decreased Hb levels have negative influence on locoregional control and survival, and might counteract the benefit of neoadjuvant/concomitant chemotherapy. Further studies on supportive care to maintain sufficient Hb level during chemo-radiotherapy are warranted.
Project description:This study is to evaluate the efficacy of additional concurrent chemotherapy for intermediate risk (stage II and T3N0M0) NPC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).440 patients with intermediate risk NPC were studied retrospectively, including 128 patients treated with IMRT alone [radiotherapy group (RT group)] and 312 paitents treated with IMRT plus concurrent chemotherapy [chemoradiotherapy group (CRT group)]. Propensity score matching was carried out to create RT and CRT cohorts equally matched for host and tumor factor. Significantly more severe acute toxicities were observed in the CRT group than in the RT group. Multivariate analyses of 440 patients failed to demonstrate concurrent chemotherapy as an independent prognostic factor for FFS, LR-FFS, and D-FFS. Between the well-matched RT cohort and the CRT cohort, no significant difference was demonstrated in all survival endpoints (FFS: 92.8% versus 91.2%, P?=?0.801; LR-FFS: 95.2% versus 94.4%, P?=?0.755; D-FFS: 96.4% versus 96.3%, P?=?0.803; OS: 98.2% versus 98.9%, P?=?0.276). Our results demonstrated that for patients with intermediate risk NPC treated with IMRT, additional concurrent chemotherapy did not provide any significant survival benefit but significantly more severe acute toxicities. However, prospective randomized trials are warranted for the ultimate confirm of our findings.
Project description:The value of post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) tumor volume for prognostication in loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC) is unascertained. Here, we recruited 4109 histologically proven LA-NPC (stage III-IVA) that were treated with radical chemo-intensive-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Post-NACT gross primary tumor (GTVp) and lymph node (GTVnd) volumes of each patient were calculated from planning computed tomography (CT). We observed similar linear association between GTVp/GTVnd and overall survival (OS); thresholds of 52 cm3 for GTVp and 12 cm3 for GTVnd were consistent for risk discretization for OS, disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and local relapse-free survival (LRFS). Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) modelling incorporating T-/N-categories and GTVp/GTVnd yielded four T-N-volume (TNV) risk groupings with disparate OS (p < 0.001). TNV risk stratification outperformed GTVp/GTVnd and eighth edition TNM for predicting OS (AUC 0.643 vs. 0.541-0.591; p < 0.001), DFS (0.629 vs. 0.545-0.580; p < 0.001), and DMFS (0.652 vs. 0.522-0.621; p < 0.001). NACT + concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) over NACT + IMRT was not superior for low- and low-intermediate-risk groupings (p > 0.05 for both), but superior for intermediate- and high-risk groupings in terms of OS (HR 0.68 (95% CI 0.47-0.99) for intermediate risk, 0.73 (0.55-0.97) for high risk; both p < 0.05). Overall, GTVp/GTVnd represent effective indicators for prognostication and decision-making in LA-NPC after NACT.
Project description:The prognostic value of plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA remains unknown in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 584 newly diagnosed patients with nonmetastatic and biopsy-proven NPC treated using IMRT. Plasma EBV DNA concentration was measured before therapy (pre-DNA) and within 1 month of completing therapy (post-DNA) using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to identify pre-DNA and post-DNA cut-off values. Prognostic value was assessed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model .Three-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and distant metastasis-free (DMFS) for pre-DNA >2010 vs.?2010 were 78.1% vs. 93.6% (P?<?0.001), 92.3% vs. 98.9% (P?<?0.001), 90.9% vs. 96.6% (P?=?0.004) and 85.5% vs. 96.6% (P?<?0.001), respectively. Three-year DFS, OS, LRRFS and DMFS for post-DNA >0 vs.?=?0 were 49.9% vs. 88.5% (P?<?0.001), 72.1% vs. 97.5% (P?<?0.001), 86.6% vs. 94.3% (P?=?0.019), and 60.5% vs. 93.3% (P?<?0.001), respectively. Plasma EBV DNA remains a prognostic factor in IMRT era and should be incorporated into TNM staging to guide individualized treatment strategies in NPC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an endemic neoplasm in southern China. Although NPC sufferers are sensitive to radiotherapy, 20-30% of patients finally progress with recurrence and metastases. Elevated lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) has been reported to be associated with favorable prognosis in some hematology malignancies, but has not been studied in NPC. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LMR could predict the prognosis of NPC patients. METHODS:A retrospective cohort of 1,547 non-metastatic NPC patients was recruited between January 2005 and June 2008. The counts for peripheral lymphocyte and monocyte were retrieved, and the LMR was calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, univariate and multivariate COX proportional hazards analyses were applied to evaluate the associations of LMR with overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), respectively. RESULTS:Univariate analysis revealed that higher LMR level (? 5.220) was significantly associated with superior OS, DFS and DMFS (P values <0.001). The higher lymphocyte count (? 2.145 × 10(9)/L) was significantly associated with better OS (P = 0.002) and DMFS (P = 0.031), respectively, while the lower monocyte count (<0.475 × 10(9)/L) was associated with better OS (P = 0.012), DFS (P = 0.011) and DMFS (P = 0.003), respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that higher LMR level was a significantly independent predictor for superior OS (hazard ratio or HR = 0.558, 95% confidence interval or 95% CI = 0.417-0.748; P<0.001), DFS (HR = 0.669, 95% CI = 0.535-0.838; P<0.001) and DMFS (HR = 0.543, 95% CI = 0.403-0.732; P<0.001), respectively. The advanced T and N stages were also independent indicators for worse OS, DFS, and DMFS, except that T stage showed borderline statistical significance for DFS (P = 0.053) and DMFS (P = 0.080). CONCLUSIONS:The elevated pretreatment peripheral LMR level was a significant favorable factor for NPC prognosis and this easily accessed variable may serve as a potent marker to predict the outcomes of NPC patients.
Project description:Background: To explore the value of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) compared to radiotherapy (RT) alone which includes two-dimensional radiotherapy (2D-RT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: All topic-related comparative articles were identified by a comprehensive search of public databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and CBMdisc). The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS), loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Secondary outcomes were grade 3-4 acute toxicity events. We performed subgroup analysis of CRT versus 2D-RT/IMRT alone to investigate the optimal modality. Sensitivity analysis focused on CRT versus IMRT alone was used to assess stability of the study results. Results: Eleven comparative studies (2138 patients) were eligible. CRT had significantly higher OS (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45-0.98, P = 0.04) and LRRFS (HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.46-0.80, P = 0.0003) than RT alone, but no significant difference was observed in DMFS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.52-1.31, P = 0.41). Meanwhile, CRT was associated with higher frequencies of grade 3-4 leukopenia, mucositis and nausea (P = 0.005, 0.03, < 0.0001, respectively). Subgroup analysis showed that IMRT alone could achieve equivalent OS, LRRFS and DMFS compared to CRT (P = 0.14, 0.06, 0.89, respectively). Significant value was only observed in LRRFS for CRT compared to 2D-RT alone (P = 0.01). Sensitivity analysis for the comparison of CRT and IMRT alone demonstrated generally stable outcomes, in support of the final conclusions. Conclusions: In the treatment of patients with stage II NPC, CRT was better than 2D-RT alone with significant benefit in LRRFS. IMRT alone was superior to CRT with equivalent survival outcomes and fewer grade 3-4 acute toxicities.
Project description:Purpose: We used randomized trials of radiotherapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy in non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma to investigate the survival benefit of chemoradiotherapy regimens between two/three-dimensional radiotherapy (2D/3D RT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Overall, 27 trials and 7,940 patients were included. Treatments were grouped into seven categories including RT alone, induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by RT (IC-RT), RT followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (RT-AC), IC followed by RT followed by AC (IC-RT-AC), concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CRT), IC followed by CRT (IC-CRT), and CRT followed by AC (CRT-AC). To distinguish between 2D/3D RT and IMRT, three categories in IMRT were newly added, including CRT in IMRT, IC-CRT in IMRT, and CRT-AC in IMRT. The P score was used to rank the treatments. Results: Both fixed- and random-effects frequentist and Bayesian network meta-analysis models were applied, which provided similar results and the same ranking. IC-CRT was the most effective regimen compared with CRT-AC and CRT in the IMRT era for overall survival (OS) (HR, 95% CI, IC-CRT vs. CRT-AC, 0.61 (0.45, 0.82); IC-CRT vs. CRT 0.65 (0.47, 0.91)), progression-free survival (PFS) (0.69 (0.54, 0.88); 0.63 (0.49, 0.80)), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (0.58 (0.28, 1.21); 0.60 (0.42, 0.85)). CRT-AC achieved the highest survival benefit compared with CRT, and IC-CRT for loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) (0.44 (0.15, 1.28); 0.72 (0.22, 2.33)). Among these 10 categories, after distinguishing between 2D/3D RT and IMRT, IC-CRT in IMRT ranked first for OS, PFS, and DMFS, and CRT-AC in IMRT ranked first for LRRFS. Conclusion: IC-CRT should be the most suitable regimen for loco-regionally advanced NPC in the IMRT era.
Project description:The impact of standard chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) as preferred therapy for elderly patients (age?60 years) with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear. Therefore, a strict matched cohort study was conducted to compare the survival and treatment toxicity of standard chemo-radiotherapy in the elderly NPC patients with those of radiotherapy (RT) alone. From 1998 to 2003, total 498 newly diagnosed elderly non-metastatic NPC patients were abstracted and classified into two groups by the treatments they received. For each patient in the CRT group, a matched pair in RT group was identified by matching for gender, age, histological type, T and N classifications, RT dose to primary tumor and neck nodes, and days of radiotherapy. Treatment tolerability and toxicity were clarified, and treatment outcomes were calculated and compared between the two groups. Two groups were well balanced in clinical characteristics because of the strict matching conditions. Totally 87 pairs can be assessed according to the criteria. The 5-year OS, CSS, FFS, and LR-FFS for CRT and RT groups were 62% versus 40% (P=0.013), 67% versus 47% (P=0.018), 65% versus 53% (log-rank: P=0.064, Breslow: P=0.048), and 88% versus 72%, (P=0.019), respectively. There was no significant difference in 5-year D-FFS between the two groups (75% vs. 73%, P=0.456). The CRT group experienced significantly more Grade ?3 acute mucositis (46.0% vs. 28.7%, P= 0.019). We concluded that standard chemo-radiotherapy can achieve a reasonable local and regional control in elderly NPC patients with acceptable and reversible acute toxicity. However, distant metastasis remains the dominant failure pattern. When the elderly NPC patients are in good performance status following a complete evaluation of overall functional status and comorbidity conditions, standard chemo-radiotherapy is worthy of recommendation.
Project description:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hospital case volume on clinical outcomes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and Methods:Data on 1,073 patients with cT1-4N0-3M0 NPC were collected from a multi-institutional retrospective database (KROG 11-06). All patients received definitive radiotherapy (RT) either with three-dimensional-conformal RT (3D-CRT) (n=576) or intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) (n=497). The patients were divided into two groups treated at high volume institution (HVI) (n=750) and low volume institution (LVI) (n=323), defined as patient volume ? 10 (median, 13; range, 10 to 18) and < 10 patients per year (median, 3; range, 2 to 6), respectively. Endpoints were overall survival (OS) and loco-regional progression-free survival (LRPFS). RESULTS:At a median follow-up of 56.7 months, the outcomes were significantly better in those treated at HVI than at LVI. For the 614 patients of propensity score-matched cohort, 5-year OS and LRPFS were consistently higher in the HVI group than in the LVI group (OS: 78.4% vs. 62.7%, p < 0.001; LRPFS: 86.2% vs. 65.8%, p < 0.001, respectively). According to RT modality, significant difference in 5-year OS was observed in patients receiving 3D-CRT (78.7% for HVI vs. 58.9% for LVI, p < 0.001) and not in those receiving IMRT (77.3% for HVI vs. 75.5% for LVI, p=0.170). CONCLUSION:A significant relationship was observed between HVI and LVI for the clinical outcomes of patients with NPC. However, the difference in outcome becomes insignificant in the IMRT era, probably due to the standardization of practice by education.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a membrane-bound enzyme involved in the metabolism of glutathione. Studies suggested that GGT played an important role in the tumor development, progression, invasion and drug resistance and prognosis. The association between GGT and prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the association of pretherapeutic serum level of GGT with clinical-pathological parameters and survival in patients with NPC. METHODS:Two hundred and twenty-two patients with NPC were recruited in this study and were stratified into two GGT risk groups (? 34.5 U/L, > 34.5 U/L). The association of pretherapeutic serum GGT levels with clinical-pathological parameters was examined. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed. FINDINGS:The pretherapeutic serum level of GGT was not associated with gender, age, pathology, T stage, N stage, TNM stage, chemotherapy or radiotherapy in patients with NPC. Patients in the high-risk GGT group had a poorer survival than the low-risk GGT group (3-year overall survival, 74.2% vs. 50.2%, P = 0.001; 3-year progression-free survival, 76.4% vs. 47.1%, P < 0.001; 3-year loco-regional relapse-free survival, 76.4% vs. 51.3%, P < 0.001; 3-year distant metastasis-free survival, 89.5% vs. 66.4%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested that patients in the high-risk GGT group had 2.117 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.225 ? 3.659, P = 0.007) times the risk of death, 2.836 (95% CI, 1.765 ? 4.557, P < 0.001) times the risk of progression, 2.551 (95% CI, 1.573 ? 4.138, P < 0.001) times the risk of relapse, and 3.331 (95% CI, 1.676 ? 6.622, P < 0.001) times the risk of metastasis compared with those in the low-risk GGT group. CONCLUSION:The pretherapeutic serum level of GGT might serve as a novel independent prognostic factor for overall-survival, progression-free survival, loco-regional relapse-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival in patients with NPC.