Fractional Dynamics of Network Growth Constrained by Aging Node Interactions.
ABSTRACT: In many social complex systems, in which agents are linked by non-linear interactions, the history of events strongly influences the whole network dynamics. However, a class of "commonly accepted beliefs" seems rarely studied. In this paper, we examine how the growth process of a (social) network is influenced by past circumstances. In order to tackle this cause, we simply modify the well known preferential attachment mechanism by imposing a time dependent kernel function in the network evolution equation. This approach leads to a fractional order Barabási-Albert (BA) differential equation, generalizing the BA model. Our results show that, with passing time, an aging process is observed for the network dynamics. The aging process leads to a decay for the node degree values, thereby creating an opposing process to the preferential attachment mechanism. On one hand, based on the preferential attachment mechanism, nodes with a high degree are more likely to absorb links; but, on the other hand, a node's age has a reduced chance for new connections. This competitive scenario allows an increased chance for younger members to become a hub. Simulations of such a network growth with aging constraint confirm the results found from solving the fractional BA equation. We also report, as an exemplary application, an investigation of the collaboration network between Hollywood movie actors. It is undubiously shown that a decay in the dynamics of their collaboration rate is found, even including a sex difference. Such findings suggest a widely universal application of the so generalized BA model.
Project description:When individuals interact with each other and meaningfully contribute toward a common goal, it results in a collaboration. The artifacts resulting from collaborations are best captured using a hypergraph model, whereas the relation of who has collaborated with whom is best captured via an abstract simplicial complex (SC). We propose a generative algorithm GENESCs for SCs modeling fundamental collaboration relations. The proposed network growth process favors attachment that is preferential not to an individual's degree, i.e., how many people has he/she collaborated with, but to his/her facet degree, i.e., how many maximal groups or facets has he/she collaborated within. Based on our observation that several real-world facet size distributions have significant deviation from power law-mainly since larger facets tend to subsume smaller ones-we adopt a data-driven approach. We prove that the facet degree distribution yielded by GENESCs is power law distributed for large SCs and show that it is in agreement with real world co-authorship data. Finally, based on our intuition of collaboration formation in domains such as collaborative scientific experiments and movie production, we propose two variants of GENESCs based on clamped and hybrid preferential attachment schemes, and show that they perform well in these domains.
Project description:The scale-free (SF) property is a major concept in complex networks, and it is based on the definition that an SF network has a degree distribution that follows a power-law (PL) pattern. This paper highlights that not all networks with a PL degree distribution arise through a Barabási-Albert (BA) preferential attachment growth process, a fact that, although evident from the literature, is often overlooked by many researchers. For this purpose, it is demonstrated, with simulations, that established measures of network topology do not suffice to distinguish between BA networks and other (random-like and lattice-like) SF networks with the same degree distribution. Additionally, it is examined whether an existing self-similarity metric proposed for the definition of the SF property is also capable of distinguishing different SF topologies with the same degree distribution. To contribute to this discrimination, this paper introduces a spectral metric, which is shown to be more capable of distinguishing between different SF topologies with the same degree distribution, in comparison with the existing metrics.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Many biological networks show some characteristics of scale-free networks. Scale-free networks can evolve through preferential attachment where new nodes are preferentially attached to well connected nodes. In networks which have evolved through preferential attachment older nodes should have a higher average connectivity than younger nodes. Here we have investigated preferential attachment in the context of metabolic networks. RESULTS: The connectivities of the enzymes in the metabolic network of Escherichia coli were determined and representatives for these enzymes were located in 11 eukaryotes, 17 archaea and 46 bacteria. E. coli enzymes which have representatives in eukaryotes have a higher average connectivity while enzymes which are represented only in the prokaryotes, and especially the enzymes only present in betagamma-proteobacteria, have lower connectivities than expected by chance. Interestingly, the enzymes which have been proposed as candidates for horizontal gene transfer have a higher average connectivity than the other enzymes. Furthermore, It was found that new edges are added to the highly connected enzymes at a faster rate than to enzymes with low connectivities which is consistent with preferential attachment. CONCLUSION: Here, we have found indications of preferential attachment in the metabolic network of E. coli. A possible biological explanation for preferential attachment growth of metabolic networks is that novel enzymes created through gene duplication maintain some of the compounds involved in the original reaction, throughout its future evolution. In addition, we found that enzymes which are candidates for horizontal gene transfer have a higher average connectivity than other enzymes. This indicates that while new enzymes are attached preferentially to highly connected enzymes, these highly connected enzymes have sometimes been introduced into the E. coli genome by horizontal gene transfer. We speculate that E. coli has adjusted its metabolic network to a changing environment by replacing the relatively central enzymes for better adapted orthologs from other prokaryotic species.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Many biological networks such as protein-protein interaction networks, signaling networks, and metabolic networks have topological characteristics of a scale-free degree distribution. Preferential attachment has been considered as the most plausible evolutionary growth model to explain this topological property. Although various studies have been undertaken to investigate the structural characteristics of a network obtained using this growth model, its dynamical characteristics have received relatively less attention. RESULTS: In this paper, we focus on the robustness of a network that is acquired during its evolutionary process. Through simulations using Boolean network models, we found that preferential attachment increases the number of coupled feedback loops in the course of network evolution. Whereas, if networks evolve to have more coupled feedback loops rather than following preferential attachment, the resulting networks are more robust than those obtained through preferential attachment, although both of them have similar degree distributions. CONCLUSION: The presented analysis demonstrates that coupled feedback loops may play an important role in network evolution to acquire robustness. The result also provides a hint as to why various biological networks have evolved to contain a number of coupled feedback loops.
Project description:Preferential attachment is a stochastic process that has been proposed to explain certain topological features characteristic of complex networks from diverse domains. The systematic investigation of preferential attachment is an important area of research in network science, not only for the theoretical matter of verifying whether this hypothesized process is operative in real-world networks, but also for the practical insights that follow from knowledge of its functional form. Here we describe a maximum likelihood based estimation method for the measurement of preferential attachment in temporal complex networks. We call the method PAFit, and implement it in an R package of the same name. PAFit constitutes an advance over previous methods primarily because we based it on a nonparametric statistical framework that enables attachment kernel estimation free of any assumptions about its functional form. We show this results in PAFit outperforming the popular methods of Jeong and Newman in Monte Carlo simulations. What is more, we found that the application of PAFit to a publically available Flickr social network dataset yielded clear evidence for a deviation of the attachment kernel from the popularly assumed log-linear form. Independent of our main work, we provide a correction to a consequential error in Newman's original method which had evidently gone unnoticed since its publication over a decade ago.
Project description:Human interpersonal communications drive political, technological, and economic systems, placing importance on network link prediction as a fundamental problem of the sciences. These systems are often described at the network-level by degree counts -the number of communication links associated with individuals in the network-that often follow approximate Pareto distributions, a divergence from Poisson-distributed counts associated with random chance. A defining challenge is to understand the inter-personal dynamics that give rise to such heavy-tailed degree distributions at the network-level; primarily, these distributions are explained by preferential attachment, which, under certain conditions, can create power law distributions; preferential attachment's prediction of these distributions breaks down, however, in conditions with no network growth. Analysis of an organization's email network suggests that these degree distributions may be caused by the existence of individual participation-shift dynamics that are necessary for coherent communication between humans. We find that the email network's degree distribution is best explained by turn-taking and turn-continuing norms present in most social network communication. We thus describe a mechanism to explain a long-tailed degree distribution in conditions with no network growth.
Project description:MOTIVATION: Much of the large-scale molecular data from living cells can be represented in terms of networks. Such networks occupy a central position in cellular systems biology. In the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, nodes represent proteins and edges represent connections between them, based on experimental evidence. As PPI networks are rich and complex, a mathematical model is sought to capture their properties and shed light on PPI evolution. The mathematical literature contains various generative models of random graphs. It is a major, still largely open question, which of these models (if any) can properly reproduce various biologically interesting networks. Here, we consider this problem where the graph at hand is the PPI network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We are trying to distinguishing between a model family which performs a process of copying neighbors, represented by the duplication-divergence (DD) model, and models which do not copy neighbors, with the Barabási-Albert (BA) preferential attachment model as a leading example. RESULTS: The observed property of the network is the distribution of maximal bicliques in the graph. This is a novel criterion to distinguish between models in this area. It is particularly appropriate for this purpose, since it reflects the graph's growth pattern under either model. This test clearly favors the DD model. In particular, for the BA model, the vast majority (92.9%) of the bicliques with both sides ?4 must be already embedded in the model's seed graph, whereas the corresponding figure for the DD model is only 5.1%. Our results, based on the biclique perspective, conclusively show that a naïve unmodified DD model can capture a key aspect of PPI networks.
Project description:Complex network growth across diverse fields of science is hypothesized to be driven in the main by a combination of preferential attachment and node fitness processes. For measuring the respective influences of these processes, previous approaches make strong and untested assumptions on the functional forms of either the preferential attachment function or fitness function or both. We introduce a Bayesian statistical method called PAFit to estimate preferential attachment and node fitness without imposing such functional constraints that works by maximizing a log-likelihood function with suitably added regularization terms. We use PAFit to investigate the interplay between preferential attachment and node fitness processes in a Facebook wall-post network. While we uncover evidence for both preferential attachment and node fitness, thus validating the hypothesis that these processes together drive complex network evolution, we also find that node fitness plays the bigger role in determining the degree of a node. This is the first validation of its kind on real-world network data. But surprisingly the rate of preferential attachment is found to deviate from the conventional log-linear form when node fitness is taken into account. The proposed method is implemented in the R package PAFit.
Project description:Real-world networks have distinct topologies, with marked deviations from purely random networks. Many of them exhibit degree-assortativity, with nodes of similar degree more likely to link to one another. Though microscopic mechanisms have been suggested for the emergence of other topological features, assortativity has proven elusive. Assortativity can be artificially implanted in a network via degree-preserving link permutations, however this destroys the graph's hierarchical clustering and does not correspond to any microscopic mechanism. Here, we propose the first generative model which creates heterogeneous networks with scale-free-like properties in degree and clustering distributions and tunable realistic assortativity. Two distinct populations of nodes are incrementally added to an initial network by selecting a subgraph to connect to at random. One population (the followers) follows preferential attachment, while the other population (the potential leaders) connects via anti-preferential attachment: they link to lower degree nodes when added to the network. By selecting the lower degree nodes, the potential leader nodes maintain high visibility during the growth process, eventually growing into hubs. The evolution of links in Facebook empirically validates the connection between the initial anti-preferential attachment and long term high degree. In this way, our work sheds new light on the structure and evolution of social networks.
Project description:A dietary regimen of caloric restriction delays aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes, including the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we assessed how caloric restriction influences morphological, biochemical and cell biological properties of chronologically aging yeast advancing through different stages of the aging process. Our findings revealed that this low-calorie diet slows yeast chronological aging by mechanisms that coordinate the spatiotemporal dynamics of various cellular processes before entry into a non-proliferative state and after such entry. Caloric restriction causes a stepwise establishment of an aging-delaying cellular pattern by tuning a network that assimilates the following: 1) pathways of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; 2) communications between the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets, peroxisomes, mitochondria and the cytosol; and 3) a balance between the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission. Through different phases of the aging process, the caloric restriction-dependent remodeling of this intricate network 1) postpones the age-related onsets of apoptotic and liponecrotic modes of regulated cell death; and 2) actively increases the chance of cell survival by supporting the maintenance of cellular proteostasis. Because caloric restriction decreases the risk of cell death and actively increases the chance of cell survival throughout chronological lifespan, this dietary intervention extends longevity of chronologically aging yeast.