Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Red Clover and Its Rhizobial Symbiont.
ABSTRACT: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two TiO2 NPs, i.e., P25, E171 and a non-nanomaterial TiO2. Growth of both organisms individually and their symbiotic root nodulation were investigated in liquid and hydroponic systems. While 23 and 18 mg l(-1) of E171 and non-nanomaterial TiO2 decreased the growth rate of R. trifolii by 43 and 23% respectively, P25 did not cause effects. Shoot length of red clover decreased between 41 and 62% for all tested TiO2 NPs. In 21% of the TiO2 NP treated plants, no nodules were found. At high concentrations certain TiO2 NPs impaired R. trifolii as well as red clover growth and their symbiosis in the hydroponic systems.
Project description:Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly used as a food additive (E171 in the EU) for its whitening and opacifying properties. However, a risk of intestinal barrier disruption, including dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, is increasingly suspected because of the presence of a nano-sized fraction in this additive. We hypothesized that food-grade E171 and Aeroxyde P25 (identical to the NM-105 OECD reference nanomaterial in the European Union Joint Research Centre) interact with both commensal intestinal bacteria and transient food-borne bacteria under non-UV-irradiated conditions. Based on differences in their physicochemical properties, we expect a difference in their respective effects. To test these hypotheses, we chose a panel of eight Gram-positive/Gram-negative bacterial strains, isolated from different biotopes and belonging to the species Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis (subsp. lactis and cremoris), Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus sakei. Bacterial cells were exposed to food-grade E171 vs. P25 in vitro and the interactions were explored with innovative (nano)imaging methods. The ability of bacteria to trap TiO2 was demonstrated using synchrotron UV fluorescence imaging with single cell resolution. Subsequent alterations in the growth profiles were shown, notably for the transient food-borne L. lactis and the commensal intestinal E. coli in contact with food-grade TiO2. However, for both species, the reduction in cell cultivability remained moderate, and the morphological and ultrastructural damages, observed with electron microscopy, were restricted to a small number of cells. E. coli exposed to food-grade TiO2 showed some internalization of TiO2 (7% of cells), observed with high-resolution nano-secondary ion mass spectrometry (Nano-SIMS) chemical imaging. Taken together, these data show that E171 may be trapped by commensal and transient food-borne bacteria within the gut. In return, it may induce some physiological alterations in the most sensitive species, with a putative impact on gut microbiota composition and functioning, especially after chronic exposure.
Project description:Exposure to titanium dioxide (TiO2) food additive by ingestion increased over the years. TiO2 is used in food to give a brighter, fresher colour to sweets, cookies, salad dressing under the name E171. New studies on E171 showed that after ingestion in a colorectal cancer mouse model, a significant increased number of colorectal tumours were found. In addition, short-term exposure to E171 induces gene expression changes in relation to oxidative stress responses, an impairment of the immune system, activation of signalling and cancer-related genes. Furthermore, dysregulation of the immune system was also observed after ingestion of E171 in rats. E171 comprises nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs). Previous in vitro studies showed the capacity of E171, TiO2 NPs and MPs to induce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and induction of the micronuclei. The aim of our study was to investigate the relative contribution of the NPs and MPs fractions to the effects of E171 at the molecular level. This investigation was performed using in vitro exposure of Caco-2 cells to E171 as well as the NPs and MPs fractions of TiO2 and assessing effects with genome wide gene expression analysis. Results showed that the E171, TiO2 NPs and MPs induce gene expression changes in signalling, inflammation, immune system, transport, and cancer. Contribution of NPs was observed on genes involved in TLR cascade, MHC class I and II presentation, late cornified envelope, potassium channels, and cell cycle. MPs contribution was observed with changes in gene expression on a target to Hedgehog family, α-defensins, cadherin and cholinergic receptors. The gene expression changes associated with the immune system and inflammation induced by E171, MPs, and NPs suggest the creation of a favourable environment for cancer development. Overall design: Total of 76 samples, 3 biological replicates plus every sample in duplicate. One time course exposure to TiO2 NPs for 2, 4, and 24h and exposure to MPs and E171 for 24h. Samples of MPs and E171 also have a time 0h exposure. First pre-processing was performed with the samples of the time course experiment with NPs. For this, six groups were defined: NPs 2h, 4h, and 24h for the exposed samples and control 2h, 4h, and 24h for the controls. The second pre-processing was split in 2 parts in which the first part was a pre-processing of the NPs 24h with its time-matched control and the second part was a pre-processing of E171 24h and MPs 24h with their time-matched control. The second pre-processing was split in 2 because the experiments were performed independently.
Project description:Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are commonly used as a food additive (E171 in the EU) for its whitening and opacifying properties. However, the risk of gut barrier disruption is an increasing concern because of the presence of a nano-sized fraction. Food-grade E171 may interact with mucus, a gut barrier protagonist still poorly explored in food nanotoxicology. To test this hypothesis, a comprehensive approach was performed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo interactions between TiO2 and intestinal mucus, by comparing food-grade E171 with NM-105 (Aeroxyde P25) OECD reference nanomaterial.We tested E171-trapping properties of mucus in vitro using HT29-MTX intestinal epithelial cells. Time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed without labeling to avoid modification of the particle surface. Near-UV irradiation of E171 TiO2 particles at 364 nm resulted in fluorescence emission in the visible range, with a maximum at 510 nm. The penetration of E171 TiO2 into the mucoid area of HT29-MTX cells was visualized in situ. One hour after exposure, TiO2 particles accumulated inside "patchy" regions 20 µm above the substratum. The structure of mucus produced by HT29-MTX cells was characterized by MUC5AC immunofluorescence staining. The mucus layer was thin and organized into regular "islands" located approximately 20 µm above the substratum. The region-specific trapping of food-grade TiO2 particles was attributed to this mucus patchy structure. We compared TiO2-mediated effects in vivo in rats after acute or sub-chronic oral daily administration of food-grade E171 and NM-105 at relevant exposure levels for humans. Cecal short-chain fatty acid profiles and gut mucin O-glycosylation patterns remained unchanged, irrespective of treatment.Food-grade TiO2 is trapped by intestinal mucus in vitro but does not affect mucin O-glycosylation and short-chain fatty acid synthesis in vivo, suggesting the absence of a mucus barrier impairment under "healthy gut" conditions.
Project description:The food additive titanium dioxide (TiO2), or E171, is a white food colorant. Recent studies showed after E171 ingestion a significantly increased number of colorectal tumours in a colorectal cancer mouse model as well as inflammatory responses and dysregulation of the immune system in the intestine of rats. In the mouse colon, E171 induced gene expression changes related to oxidative stress, impairment of the immune system, activation of signalling and cancer-related processes. E171 comprises nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs). Previous in vitro studies showed that E171, NPs and MPs induced oxidative stress responses, DNA damage and micronuclei formation. This study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of the NPs and MPs to effects of E171 at the transcriptome level in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells by genome wide microarray analysis. The results showed that E171, NPs, and MPs induce gene expression changes related to signalling, inflammation, immune system, transport and cancer. At the pathway level, metabolism of proteins with the insulin processing pathway and haemostasis were specific to E171 exposure. The gene expression changes associated with the immune system and inflammation induced by E171, MPs, and NPs suggest the creation of a favourable environment for colon cancer development.
Project description:Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO2-NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO2-NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer's patches (PP) as observed with the TiO2-NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO2-treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-? secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO2 from dietary sources.
Project description:Background Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is broadly used in common consumer goods, including as a food additive (E171 in Europe) for colouring and opacifying properties. The E171 additive contains TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), part of them being absorbed in the intestine and accumulated in several systemic organs. Exposure to TiO2-NPs in rodents during pregnancy resulted in alteration of placental functions and a materno-foetal transfer of NPs, both with toxic effects on the foetus. However, no human data are available for pregnant women exposed to food-grade TiO2-NPs and their potential transfer to the foetus. In this study, human placentae collected at term from normal pregnancies and meconium (the first stool of newborns) from unpaired mothers/children were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy for their titanium (Ti) contents and for analysis of TiO2 particle deposition, respectively. Using an ex vivo placenta perfusion model, we also assessed the transplacental passage of food-grade TiO2 particles. Results By ICP-MS analysis, we evidenced the presence of Ti in all placentae (basal level ranging from 0.01 to 0.48?mg/kg of tissue) and in 50% of the meconium samples (0.02–1.50?mg/kg), suggesting a materno-foetal passage of Ti. STEM-EDX observation of the placental tissues confirmed the presence of TiO2-NPs in addition to iron (Fe), tin (Sn), aluminium (Al) and silicon (Si) as mixed or isolated particle deposits. TiO2 particles, as well as Si, Al, Fe and zinc (Zn) particles were also recovered in the meconium. In placenta perfusion experiments, confocal imaging and SEM-EDX analysis of foetal exudate confirmed a low transfer of food-grade TiO2 particles to the foetal side, which was barely quantifiable by ICP-MS. Diameter measurements showed that 70 to 100% of the TiO2 particles recovered in the foetal exudate were nanosized. Conclusions Altogether, these results show a materno-foetal transfer of TiO2 particles during pregnancy, with food-grade TiO2 as a potential source for foetal exposure to NPs. These data emphasize the need for risk assessment of chronic exposure to TiO2-NPs during pregnancy.
Project description:Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are currently the second most produced engineered nanomaterial in the world with vast usage in consumer products leading to recurrent human exposure. Animal studies indicate significant nanoparticle accumulation in the brain while cellular toxicity studies demonstrate negative effects on neuronal cell viability and function. However, the toxicological effects of nanoparticles on astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the brain, have not been extensively investigated. Therefore, we determined the sub-toxic effect of three different TiO2 nanoparticles (rutile, anatase and commercially available P25 TiO2 nanoparticles) on primary rat cortical astrocytes. We evaluated some events related to astrocyte functions and mitochondrial dysregulation: (1) glutamate uptake; (2) redox signaling mechanisms by measuring ROS production; (3) the expression patterns of dynamin-related proteins (DRPs) and mitofusins 1 and 2, whose expression is central to mitochondrial dynamics; and (4) mitochondrial morphology by MitoTracker® Red CMXRos staining. Anatase, rutile and P25 were found to have LC50 values of 88.22 ± 10.56 ppm, 136.0 ± 31.73 ppm and 62.37 ± 9.06 ppm respectively indicating nanoparticle specific toxicity. All three TiO2 nanoparticles induced a significant loss in glutamate uptake indicative of a loss in vital astrocyte function. TiO2 nanoparticles also induced an increase in reactive oxygen species generation, and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting mitochondrial damage. TiO2 nanoparticle exposure altered expression patterns of DRPs at low concentrations (25 ppm) and apoptotic fission at high concentrations (100 ppm). TiO2 nanoparticle exposure also resulted in changes to mitochondrial morphology confirmed by mitochondrial staining. Collectively, our data provide compelling evidence that TiO2 nanoparticle exposure has potential implications in astrocyte-mediated neurological dysfunction.
Project description:Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most extensively utilized food additives (E171) in the food industry. Along with nanotechnology development, the concern about the presence of nanostructured particles in E171 TiO2 and commercial food products is growing. In the present study, the physicochemical properties of commercially available E171 TiO2 particles, including particle size distribution, were investigated, followed by their cytotoxicity and intestinal transport evaluation. The fate determination and quantification of E171 TiO2 in commercial foods were carried out based on the analytical procedure developed using simulated foods. The results demonstrated that TiO2 is a material mainly composed of particles larger than 100 nm, but present as an agglomerated or aggregated particle in commercial foods with amounts of less than 1% (wt/wt). Titanium dioxide particles generated reactive oxygen species and inhibited long-term colony formation, but the cytotoxicity was not related to particle size distribution or particle type (food- or general-grade). All TiO2 particles were mainly transported by microfold (M) cells, but also by intestinal tight junction. These findings will be useful for TiO2 application in the food industry and predicting its potential toxicity.
Project description:It is known that the adsorption of bioactive molecules provides engineered nanoparticles (NPs) with novel biological activities. However, the biological effects of the adsorbed molecules may also be modified by the interaction with NP. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a powerful pro-inflammatory compound, is a common environmental contaminant and is present in several body compartments such as the gut. We recently observed that the co-incubation of LPS with TiO2 NPs markedly potentiates its pro-inflammatory effects on murine macrophages, suggesting that, when included in a NP bio-corona, LPS activity is enhanced. To distinguish the effects of adsorbed LPS from those of the free endotoxin, a pellet fraction, denominated P25/LPS, was isolated by centrifugation from a mixture of P25 TiO2 NP (128 µg/ml) and LPS (10 ng/ml) in the presence of fetal bovine serum. Western blot analysis of the pellet eluate indicated that the P25/LPS fraction contained, besides proteins, also LPS, pointing to the presence of LPS-doped NP. The effects of adsorbed or free LPS were then compared in Raw264.7 murine macrophages. RT-PCR was used to evaluate the induction of cytokine genes, whereas active, phosphorylated isoforms of proteins involved in signaling pathways were assessed with western blot. At a nominal LPS concentration of 40 pg/ml, P25/LPS induced the expression of both NF-κB and IRF3-dependent cytokines at levels comparable with those observed with free LPS (10 ng/ml), although with different time courses. Moreover, compared to free LPS, P25/LPS caused a more sustained phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and a more prolonged induction of STAT1-dependent genes. Cytochalasin B partially inhibited the induction of Tnfa by P25/LPS, but not by free LPS, and suppressed the induction of IRF3-dependent genes by either P25/LPS or free LPS. These data suggest that, when included in the bio-corona of TiO2 NP, LPS exhibits enhanced and time-shifted pro-inflammatory effects. Thus, in assessing the hazard of NP in real life, the enhanced effects of adsorbed bioactive molecules should be taken into account.
Project description:Nanoparticles (NPs), materials that have one dimension less than 100 nm, are used in manufacturing, health, and food products, and consumer products including cosmetics, clothing, and household appliances. Their utility to industry is derived from their high surface-area-to-volume ratios and physico-chemical properties distinct from their bulk counterparts, but the near-certainty that NPs will be released into the environment raises the possibility that they could present health risks to humans and wildlife. The thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine, and 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3), are involved in development and metabolism in vertebrates including humans and frogs. Many of the processes of anuran metamorphosis are analogous to human post-embryonic development and disruption of TH action can have drastic effects. These shared features make the metamorphosis of anurans an excellent model for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We used the cultured tailfin (C-fin) assay to examine the exposure effects of 0.1-10 nM (~8-800 ng/L) of three types of ~20 nm TiO2 NPs (P25, M212, M262) and micron-sized TiO2 (? TiO2) ±10 nM T3. The actual Ti levels were 40.9-64.7% of the nominal value. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) was used to measure the relative amounts of mRNA transcripts encoding TH-responsive THs receptors (thra and thrb) and Rana larval keratin type I (rlk1), as well as the cellular stress-responsive heat shock protein 30 kDa (hsp30), superoxide dismutase (sod), and catalase (cat). The levels of the TH-responsive transcripts were largely unaffected by any form of TiO2. Some significant effects on stress-related transcripts were observed upon exposure to micron-sized TiO2, P25, and M212 while no effect was observed with M262 exposure. Therefore, the risk of adversely affecting amphibian tissue by disrupting TH-signaling or inducing cellular stress is low for these compounds relative to other previously-tested NPs.