Datasets depicting mobility retardation of NCS proteins observed upon incubation with calcium, but not with magnesium, barium or strontium.
ABSTRACT: In this data article we show the specificity of the Ca(2+)-induced mobility shift in three proteins that belong to the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) protein family: Hippocalcin, GCAP1 and GCAP2. These proteins did not display a shift in mobility in native gels when incubated with divalent cations other than Ca(2+) - such as Mg(2+), Ba(2+), and Sr(2+), even at 10× concentrations. The data is similar to that obtained with another NCS protein, neurocalcin delta (Viviano et al., 2016, "Electrophoretic Mobility Shift in Native Gels Indicates Calcium-dependent Structural Changes of Neuronal Calcium Sensor Proteins", ).
Project description:Many neurons in the nervous systems express afterhyperpolarizations that are mediated by a slow calcium-activated potassium current. This current shapes neuronal firing and is inhibited by neuromodulators, suggesting an important role in the regulation of neuronal function. Surprisingly, very little is currently known about the molecular basis for this current or how it is gated by calcium. Recently, the neuronal calcium sensor protein hippocalcin was identified as a calcium sensor for the slow afterhyperpolarizing current in the hippocampus. However, while hippocalcin is very strongly expressed in the hippocampus, this protein shows a relatively restricted distribution in the brain. Furthermore, the genetic deletion of this protein only partly reduces the slow hyperpolarizing current in hippocampus. These considerations question whether hippocalcin can be the sole calcium sensor for the slow afterhyperpolarizing current. Here we use loss of function and overexpression strategies to show that hippocalcin functions as a calcium sensor for the slow afterhyperpolarizing current in the cerebral cortex, an area where hippocalcin is expressed at much lower levels than in hippocampus. In addition we show that neurocalcin ?, but not VILIP-2, can also act as a calcium sensor for the slow afterhyperpolarizing current. Finally we show that hippocalcin and neurocalcin ? both increase the calcium sensitivity of the afterhyperpolarizing current but do not alter its sensitivity to inhibition by carbachol acting through the G?q-11-PLC? signaling cascade. These results point to a general role for a subgroup of visinin-like neuronal calcium sensor proteins in the activation of the slow calcium-activated afterhyperpolarizing current.
Project description:Neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) proteins are EF-hand containing Ca2+ binding proteins that regulate sensory signal transduction. Many NCS proteins (recoverin, GCAPs, neurocalcin and visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP1)) form functional dimers under physiological conditions. The dimeric NCS proteins have similar amino acid sequences (50% homology) but each bind to and regulate very different physiological targets. Retinal recoverin binds to rhodopsin kinase and promotes Ca2+-dependent desensitization of light-excited rhodopsin during visual phototransduction. The guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAP1-5) each bind and activate retinal guanylyl cyclases (RetGCs) in light-adapted photoreceptors. VILIP1 binds to membrane targets that modulate neuronal secretion. Here, I review atomic-level structures of dimeric forms of recoverin, GCAPs and VILIP1. The distinct dimeric structures in each case suggest that NCS dimerization may play a role in modulating specific target recognition. The dimerization of recoverin and VILIP1 is Ca2+-dependent and enhances their membrane-targeting Ca2+-myristoyl switch function. The dimerization of GCAP1 and GCAP2 facilitate their binding to dimeric RetGCs and may allosterically control the Ca2+-dependent activation of RetGCs.
Project description:In this article we present data on the concentration of calcium as determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) measurements. Calcium was estimated in the reagents used for native gel electrophoresis of Neuronal Calcium Sensor (NCS) proteins. NCS proteins exhibit calcium-dependent mobility shift in native gels. The sensitivity of this shift to calcium necessitated a precise determination of calcium concentrations in all reagents used. We determined the calcium concentrations in different components used along with the samples in the native gel experiments. These were: 20 mM Tris pH 7.5, loading dye and running buffer, with distilled water as reference. Calcium determinations were through ICP measurements. It was found that the running buffer contained calcium (244 nM) over the blank.
Project description:This data article presents the differences observed between the myristoylated and non-myristoylated forms of the neuronal calcium sensor protein, neurocalcin delta (NCALD). Analysis of the myristoylated and non-myristoylated versions of the protein by mass spectrometry provided difference in mass values consistent with addition of myristoyl group. In the presence of calcium, mobility retardation was observed upon electrophoresis of the protein in native gels. The retardation was dose-dependent and was exhibited by both the myristoylated and non-myristoylated forms of the protein.
Project description:Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder that forces the body into twisting, repetitive movements or sometimes painful abnormal postures. With the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, the homozygous mutations T71N and A190T in the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) hippocalcin were identified as the genetic cause of primary isolated dystonia (DYT2 dystonia). However, the effect of these mutations on the physiological role of hippocalcin has not yet been elucidated. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we demonstrated that hippocalcin oligomerises in a calcium-dependent manner and binds to voltage-gated calcium channels. Mutations T71N and A190T in hippocalcin did not affect stability, calcium-binding affinity or translocation to cellular membranes (Ca2+/myristoyl switch). We obtained the first crystal structure of hippocalcin and alignment with other NCS proteins showed significant variability in the orientation of the C-terminal part of the molecule, the region expected to be important for target binding. We demonstrated that the disease-causing mutations did not affect the structure of the protein, however both mutants showed a defect in oligomerisation. In addition, we observed an increased calcium influx in KCl-depolarised cells expressing mutated hippocalcin, mostly driven by N-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Our data demonstrate that the dystonia-causing mutations strongly affect hippocalcin cellular functions which suggest a central role for perturbed calcium signalling in DYT2 dystonia.
Project description:Many proteins are associated with intracellular membranes due to their N-terminal myristoylation. Not all myristoylated proteins have the same localization within cells, indicating that other factors must determine their membrane targeting. The NCS (neuronal calcium sensor) proteins are a family of Ca2+-binding proteins with diverse functions. Most members of the family are N-terminally myristoylated and are either constitutively membrane-bound or have a Ca2+/myristoyl switch that allows their reversible membrane association in response to Ca2+ signals. In the case of hippocalcin and NCS-1, or alternatively KChIP1 (K+ channel-interacting protein 1), their N-terminal myristoylation motifs are sufficient for targeting to distinct organelles. We have shown that an N-terminal myristoylated hippocalcin peptide is able to specifically reproduce the membrane targeting of hippocalcin/NCS-1 when introduced into permeabilized cells. The peptide binds to liposomes containing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] with high affinity (K(d) 50 nM). Full-length hippocalcin also bound preferentially to liposomes supplemented with PtdIns(4,5)P2. Co-expression of hippocalcin-(1-14)-ECFP (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein) or NCS-1-ECFP partially displaced the expressed PH (pleckstrin homology) domain of phospholipase delta1 from the plasma membrane in live cells, indicating that they have a higher affinity for PtdIns(4,5)P2 than does this PH domain. The Golgi localization of the PH domain of FAPP1 (four-phosphate-adaptor protein 1), which binds to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, was unaffected. The localization of NCS-1 and hippocalcin is likely to be determined, therefore, by their interaction with PtdIns(4,5)P2.
Project description:The visinin-like protein (VSNL) subfamily, including VILIP-1 (the founder protein), VILIP-2, VILIP-3, hippocalcin, and neurocalcin delta, constitute a highly homologous subfamily of neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) proteins. Comparative studies have shown that VSNLs are expressed predominantly in the brain with restricted expression patterns in various subsets of neurons but are also found in peripheral organs. In addition, the proteins display differences in their calcium affinities, in their membrane-binding kinetics, and in the intracellular targets to which they associate after calcium binding. Even though the proteins use a similar calcium-myristoyl switch mechanism to translocate to cellular membranes, they show calcium-dependent localization to various subcellular compartments when expressed in the same neuron. These distinct calcium-myristoyl switch properties might be explained by specificity for defined phospholipids and membrane-bound targets; this enables VSNLs to modulate various cellular signal transduction pathways, including cyclic nucleotide and MAPK signaling. An emerging theme is the direct or indirect effect of VSNLs on gene expression and their interaction with components of membrane trafficking complexes, with a possible role in membrane trafficking of different receptors and ion channels, such as glutamate receptors of the kainate and AMPA subtype, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and Ca(2+)-channels. One hypothesis is that the highly homologous VSNLs have evolved to fulfil specialized functions in membrane trafficking and thereby affect neuronal signaling and differentiation in defined subsets of neurons. VSNLs are involved in differentiation processes showing a tumor-invasion-suppressor function in peripheral organs. Finally, VSNLs play neuroprotective and neurotoxic roles and have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:S100B is a calcium-binding protein that governs calcium-mediated responses in a variety of cells-especially neuronal and glial cells. It is also extensively investigated as a potential biomarker for several disease conditions, especially neurodegenerative ones. In order to establish S100B as a viable pharmaceutical target, it is critical to understand its mechanistic role in signaling pathways and its interacting partners. In this report, we provide evidence to support a calcium-regulated interaction between S100B and the neuronal calcium sensor protein, neurocalcin delta both in vitro and in living cells. Membrane overlay assays were used to test the interaction between purified proteins in vitro and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, for interactions in living cells. Added calcium is essential for interaction in vitro; however, in living cells, calcium elevation causes translocation of the NCALD-S100B complex to the membrane-rich, perinuclear trans-Golgi network in COS7 cells, suggesting that the response is independent of specialized structures/molecules found in neuronal/glial cells. Similar results are also observed with hippocalcin, a closely related paralog; however, the interaction appears less robust in vitro. The N-terminal region of NCALD and HPCA appear to be critical for interaction with S100B based on in vitro experiments. The possible physiological significance of this interaction is discussed.
Project description:Neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) proteins, a sub-branch of the calmodulin superfamily, are expressed in the brain and retina where they transduce calcium signals and are genetically linked to degenerative diseases. The amino acid sequences of NCS proteins are highly conserved but their physiological functions are quite different. Retinal recoverin controls Ca(2) (+)-dependent inactivation of light-excited rhodopsin during phototransduction, guanylyl cyclase activating proteins 1 and 2 (GCAP1 and GCAP2) promote Ca(2) (+)-dependent activation of retinal guanylyl cyclases, and neuronal frequenin (NCS-1) modulates synaptic activity and neuronal secretion. Here we review the molecular structures of myristoylated forms of NCS-1, recoverin, and GCAP1 that all look very different, suggesting that the attached myristoyl group helps to refold these highly homologous proteins into different three-dimensional folds. Ca(2) (+)-binding to both recoverin and NCS-1 cause large protein conformational changes that ejects the covalently attached myristoyl group into the solvent exterior and promotes membrane targeting (Ca(2) (+)-myristoyl switch). The GCAP proteins undergo much smaller Ca(2) (+)-induced conformational changes and do not possess a Ca(2) (+)-myristoyl switch. Recent structures of GCAP1 in both its activator and Ca(2) (+)-bound inhibitory states will be discussed to understand structural determinants that control their Ca(2) (+)-dependent activation of retinal guanylyl cyclases.
Project description:In this data article we report on the purity and post translation modification of bacterially expressed and purified recombinant hippocalcin (HPCA): a member of the neuronal calcium sensor protein family, whose functions are regulated by calcium. MALDI-TOF in source decay (ISD) analysis was used to identify both the myristoylated or non-myristoylated forms of the protein. MALDI-TOF ISD data on the identity of the protein, amino acid sequence and myristoylation efficiency are provided. This data relates to the article "Single-Column Purification of the Tag-free, Recombinant Form of the Neuronal Calcium Sensor Protein, Hippocalcin Expressed in Eschericia coli" .