Stereoselective method to quantify bupropion and its three major metabolites, hydroxybupropion, erythro-dihydrobupropion, and threo-dihydrobupropion using HPLC-MS/MS.
ABSTRACT: Bupropion metabolites formed via oxidation and reduction exhibit pharmacological activity, but little is known regarding their stereoselective disposition. A novel stereoselective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to separate and quantify enantiomers of bupropion, 4-hydroxybupropion, and erythro- and threo-dihydrobupropion. Liquid-liquid extraction was implemented to extract all analytes from 50 ?L human plasma. Acetaminophen (APAP) was used as an internal standard. The analytes were separated on a Lux 3 ? Cellulose-3 250×4.6 mm column by methanol: acetonitrile: ammonium bicarbonate: ammonium hydroxide gradient elution and monitored using an ABSciex 5500 QTRAP triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization probe in positive mode. Extraction efficiency for all analytes was ?70%. The stability at a single non-extracted concentration for over 48 h at ambient temperature resulted in less than 9.8% variability for all analytes. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for enantiomers of bupropion and 4-hydroxybupropion was 0.3 ng/mL, while the LOQ for enantiomers of erythro- and threo-hydrobupropion was 0.15 ng/mL. The intra-day precision and accuracy estimates for enantiomers of bupropion and its metabolites ranged from 3.4% to 15.4% and from 80.6% to 97.8%, respectively, while the inter-day precision and accuracy ranged from 6.1% to 19.9% and from 88.5% to 99.9%, respectively. The current method was successfully implemented to determine the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its metabolites in 3 healthy volunteers administered a single 100mg oral dose of racemic bupropion. This novel, accurate, and precise HPLC-MS/MS method should enhance further research into bupropion stereoselective metabolism and drug interactions.
Project description:Bupropion is a widely used antidepressant and smoking cessation aid in addition to being one of two US Food and Drug Administration-recommended probe substrates for evaluation of cytochrome P450 2B6 activity. Racemic bupropion undergoes oxidative and reductive metabolism, producing a complex profile of pharmacologically active metabolites with relatively little known about the mechanisms underlying their elimination. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed to simultaneously separate and detect glucuronide metabolites of (R,R)- and (S,S)-hydroxybupropion, (R,R)- and (S,S)-hydrobupropion (threo) and (S,R)- and (R,S)-hydrobupropion (erythro), in human urine and liver subcellular fractions to begin exploring mechanisms underlying enantioselective metabolism and elimination of bupropion metabolites. Human liver microsomal data revealed marked glucuronidation stereoselectivity [Cl(int), 11.4 versus 4.3 µl/min per milligram for the formation of (R,R)- and (S,S)-hydroxybupropion glucuronide; and Cl(max), 7.7 versus 1.1 µl/min per milligram for the formation of (R,R)- and (S,S)-hydrobupropion glucuronide], in concurrence with observed enantioselective urinary elimination of bupropion glucuronide conjugates. Approximately 10% of the administered bupropion dose was recovered in the urine as metabolites with glucuronide metabolites, accounting for approximately 40%, 15%, and 7% of the total excreted hydroxybupropion, erythro-hydrobupropion, and threo-hydrobupropion, respectively. Elimination pathways were further characterized using an expressed UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) panel with bupropion enantiomers (both individual and racemic) as substrates. UGT2B7 catalyzed the stereoselective formation of glucuronides of hydroxybupropion, (S,S)-hydrobupropion, (S,R)- and (R,S)-hydrobupropion; UGT1A9 catalyzed the formation of (R,R)-hydrobupropion glucuronide. These data systematically describe the metabolic pathways underlying bupropion metabolite disposition and significantly expand our knowledge of potential contributors to the interindividual and intraindividual variability in therapeutic and toxic effects of bupropion in humans.
Project description:Bupropion, widely used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid, undergoes complex metabolism to yield numerous metabolites with unique disposition, effect, and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in humans. The stereoselective plasma and urinary pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its metabolites were evaluated to understand their potential contributions to bupropion effects. Healthy human volunteers (n = 15) were administered a single oral dose of racemic bupropion (100 mg), which was followed by collection of plasma and urine samples and determination of bupropion and metabolite concentrations using novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assays. Time-dependent, elimination rate-limited, stereoselective pharmacokinetics were observed for all bupropion metabolites. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity ratios were on average approximately 65, 6, 6, and 4 and Cmax ratios were approximately 35, 6, 3, and 0.5 for (2R,3R)-/(2S,3S)-hydroxybupropion, R-/S-bupropion, (1S,2R)-/(1R,2S)-erythrohydrobupropion, and (1R,2R)-/(1S,2S)-threohydrobupropion, respectively. The R-/S-bupropion and (1R,2R)-/(1S,2S)-threohydrobupropion ratios are likely indicative of higher presystemic metabolism of S- versus R-bupropion by carbonyl reductases. Interestingly, the apparent renal clearance of (2S,3S)-hydroxybupropion was almost 10-fold higher than that of (2R,3R)-hydroxybupropion. The prediction of steady-state pharmacokinetics demonstrated differential stereospecific accumulation [partial area under the plasma concentration-time curve after the final simulated bupropion dose (300-312 hours) from 185 to 37,447 nM?h] and elimination [terminal half-life of approximately 7-46 hours] of bupropion metabolites, which may explain observed stereoselective differences in bupropion effect and DDI risk with CYP2D6 at steady state. Further elucidation of bupropion and metabolite disposition suggests that bupropion is not a reliable in vivo marker of CYP2B6 activity. In summary, to our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report to provide novel insight into mechanisms underlying bupropion disposition by detailing the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of individual bupropion metabolites, which will enhance clinical understanding of bupropion's effects and DDIs with CYP2D6.
Project description:Bupropion hydroxylation is a bioactivation and metabolic pathway, and the standard clinical CYP2B6 probe. This investigation determined the influence of CYP2B6 allelic variants on clinical concentrations and metabolism of bupropion enantiomers. Secondary objectives evaluated the influence of CYP2C19 and P450 oxidoreductase variants. Healthy volunteers in specific cohorts (CYP2B6*1/*1, CYP2B6*1/*6, CYP2B6*6/*6, and also CYP2B6*4 carriers) received single-dose oral bupropion. Plasma and urine bupropion and hydroxybupropion was quantified. Subjects were also genotyped for CYP2C19 and P450 oxidoreductase variants. Hydroxylation of both bupropion enantiomers, assessed by plasma hydroxybupropion/bupropion AUC ratios and urine hydroxybupropion formation clearances, was lower in CYP2B6*6/*6 but not CYP2B6*1/*6 compared with CYP2B6*1/*1 genotypes, and numerically greater in CYP2B6*4 carriers. CYP2C19 and P450 oxidoreductase variants did not influence bupropion enantiomers hydroxylation or plasma concentrations. The results show that clinical hydroxylation of both bupropion enantiomers was equivalently influenced by CYP2B6 allelic variation. CYP2B6 polymorphisms affect S-bupropion bioactivation, which may affect therapeutic outcomes.
Project description:Bupropion is a widely used antidepressant and the recommended CYP2B6 probe drug. However, current understanding of bupropion elimination pathways is limited. Bupropion has three active circulating metabolites, OH-bupropion, threohydrobupropion, and erythrohydrobupropion, but together with bupropion these metabolites and their conjugates in urine represent only 23% of the dose, and the majority of the elimination pathways of bupropion result in uncharacterized metabolites. The aim of this study was to determine the structures of the uncharacterized bupropion metabolites using human clinical samples and in vitro incubations. Three new metabolites, 4'-OH-bupropion, erythro-4'-OH-hydrobupropion, and threo-4'-OH-hydrobupropion, were detected in human liver microsome incubations and were isolated from human urine. The structures of the metabolites were confirmed via comparison of UV absorbance, NMR spectra, and mass spectral data to those of the synthesized standards. In total, these metabolites represented 24% of the drug related material excreted in urine.
Project description:A liquid chromatography in tandem with electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of bupropion and its major metabolites (hydroxybupropion, threo- and erythrohydrobupropion) in human umbilical cord plasma and placental tissue. The samples were acidified with trichloroacetic acid, and protein precipitated by adding acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation of drug and metabolites was achieved by using a Waters Symmetry C(18) column, with an isocratic elution of 31% methanol and 69% formic acid (0.04%, v/v) aqueous solution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out by mass spectrometry using positive electro-spray ionization mode, and the compounds were monitored using multiple reactions monitoring method. Deuterium-labeled isotopes of the compounds were used as internal standards. Calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.99) in the tested ranges. The lower limit of quantification of analytes in umbilical cord plasma samples is <0.72 ng/mL and 0.92 ng/g in placental tissue samples. The relative deviation of this method was <15% for intra- and inter-day assays, and the accuracy ranged between 88% and 105%. The extraction recovery of the four analytes ranged between 89% and 96% in umbilical cord plasma, and 64% and 80% in placental tissue. No significant matrix effect was observed in the presented method.
Project description:Bupropion is widely used for treatment of depression and as a smoking-cessation drug. Despite more than 20 years of therapeutic use, its metabolism is not fully understood. While CYP2B6 is known to form hydroxybupropion, the enzyme(s) generating erythro- and threohydrobupropion have long remained unclear. Previous experiments using microsomal preparations and the nonspecific inhibitor glycyrrhetinic acid suggested a role for 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11?-HSD1) in the formation of both erythro- and threohydrobupropion. 11?-HSD1 catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoids (cortisone, prednisone) to their active forms (cortisol, prednisolone). Moreover, it accepts several other substrates. Here, we used for the first time recombinant 11?-HSD1 to assess its role in the carbonyl reduction of bupropion. Furthermore, we applied human, rat, and mouse liver microsomes and a selective inhibitor to characterize species-specific differences and to estimate the relative contribution of 11?-HSD1 to bupropion metabolism. The results revealed 11?-HSD1 as the major enzyme responsible for threohydrobupropion formation. The reaction was stereoselective and no erythrohydrobupropion was formed. Human liver microsomes showed 10 and 80 times higher activity than rat and mouse liver microsomes, respectively. The formation of erythrohydrobupropion was not altered in experiments with microsomes from 11?-HSD1-deficient mice or upon incubation with 11?-HSD1 inhibitor, indicating the existence of another carbonyl reductase that generates erythrohydrobupropion. Molecular docking supported the experimental findings and suggested that 11?-HSD1 selectively converts R-bupropion to threohydrobupropion. Enzyme inhibition experiments suggested that exposure to bupropion is not likely to impair 11?-HSD1-dependent glucocorticoid activation but that pharmacological administration of cortisone or prednisone may inhibit 11?-HSD1-dependent bupropion metabolism.
Project description:Bupropion is used clinically to treat depression and to promote smoking cessation. It is metabolized by CYP2B6 to its active metabolite hydroxybupropion, yet alterations in CYP2B6 activity have little impact on bupropion plasma levels. Furthermore, less than 10% of a bupropion dose is excreted as urinary bupropion and its characterized metabolites hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion, and erythrohydrobupropion, suggesting that alternative metabolic pathways may exist. In vitro data suggested CYP2C19 could metabolize bupropion. The current study investigated the impact of functional CYP2C19 genetic variants on bupropion pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes. In 42 healthy volunteers, CYP2C19*2 (a reduced activity allele) was associated with higher bupropion area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), but similar hydroxybupropion AUC. The mean bupropion AUC was 771 versus 670 hours?ng/ml in individuals with and without CYP2C19*2, respectively (P = 0.017). CYP2C19*2 was also associated with higher threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion AUC (P < 0.005). Adjusting for CYP2B6 genotype did not alter these associations, and CYP2C19 variants did not alter the utility of the hydroxybupropion/bupropion ratio as a measure of CYP2B6 activity. Finally, in a clinical trial of 540 smokers, CYP2C19 genotype was not associated with smoking cessation outcomes, supporting the hypothesis that bupropion response is mediated by hydroxybupropion, which is not altered by CYP2C19. In conclusion, our study reports the first in vivo evidence that reduced CYP2C19 activity significantly increases the steady-state exposure to bupropion and its reductive metabolites threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion. These pharmacokinetic changes were not associated with differences in bupropion's ability to promote smoking cessation in smokers, but may influence the side effects and toxicity associated with bupropion.
Project description:Seven new carolignans, including two pairs of enantiomers (±)-erythro-7'-methylcarolignan E (1a/1b) and (±)-threo-7'-methylcarolignan E (2a/2b), (+)-threo-carolignan E (3a), (+)-erythro-carolignan E (4a), and (-)-erythro-carolignan Z (5), together with four known lignans (3b, 4b, 6, and 7) and six polyphenols (8-13) were isolated from the aerial parts of Euphorbia sikkimensis. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by electronic circular dichroism calculations. Seven of the isolates were examined for anti-HIV effects, and compounds 1a and 1b showed moderate anti-HIV activity with EC50 values of 6.3 and 5.3 ?M.
Project description:The potential of inhibitory metabolites of perpetrator drugs to contribute to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is uncommon and underestimated. However, the occurrence of unexpected DDI suggests the potential contribution of metabolites to the observed DDI. The aim of this study was to develop a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for bupropion and its three primary metabolites-hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion-based on a mixed "bottom-up" and "top-down" approach and to contribute to the understanding of the involvement and impact of inhibitory metabolites for DDIs observed in the clinic. PK profiles from clinical researches of different dosages were used to verify the bupropion model. Reasonable PK profiles of bupropion and its metabolites were captured in the PBPK model. Confidence in the DDI prediction involving bupropion and co-administered CYP2D6 substrates could be maximized. The predicted maximum concentration (Cmax) area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values and Cmax and AUC ratios were consistent with clinically observed data. The addition of the inhibitory metabolites into the PBPK model resulted in a more accurate prediction of DDIs (AUC and Cmax ratio) than that which only considered parent drug (bupropion) P450 inhibition. The simulation suggests that bupropion and its metabolites contribute to the DDI between bupropion and CYP2D6 substrates. The inhibitory potency from strong to weak is hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion, erythrohydrobupropion, and bupropion, respectively. The present bupropion PBPK model can be useful for predicting inhibition from bupropion in other clinical studies. This study highlights the need for caution and dosage adjustment when combining bupropion with medications metabolized by CYP2D6. It also demonstrates the feasibility of applying the PBPK approach to predict the DDI potential of drugs undergoing complex metabolism, especially in the DDI involving inhibitory metabolites.