Conflicting genomic signals affect phylogenetic inference in four species of North American pines.
ABSTRACT: Adaptive evolutionary processes in plants may be accompanied by episodes of introgression, parallel evolution and incomplete lineage sorting that pose challenges in untangling species evolutionary history. Genus Pinus (pines) is one of the most abundant and most studied groups among gymnosperms, and a good example of a lineage where these phenomena have been observed. Pines are among the most ecologically and economically important plant species. Some, such as the pines of the southeastern USA (southern pines in subsection Australes), are subjects of intensive breeding programmes. Despite numerous published studies, the evolutionary history of Australes remains ambiguous and often controversial. We studied the phylogeny of four major southern pine species: shortleaf (Pinus echinata), slash (P. elliottii), longleaf (P. palustris) and loblolly (P. taeda), using sequences from 11 nuclear loci and maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our analysis encountered resolution difficulties similar to earlier published studies. Although incomplete lineage sorting and introgression are two phenomena presumptively underlying our results, the phylogenetic inferences seem to be also influenced by the genes examined, with certain topologies supported by sets of genes sharing common putative functionalities. For example, genes involved in wood formation supported the clade echinata-taeda, genes linked to plant defence supported the clade echinata-elliottii and genes linked to water management properties supported the clade echinata-palustris The support for these clades was very high and consistent across methods. We discuss the potential factors that could underlie these observations, including incomplete lineage sorting, hybridization and parallel or adaptive evolution. Our results likely reflect the relatively short evolutionary history of the subsection that is thought to have begun during the middle Miocene and has been influenced by climate fluctuations.
Project description:Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii) are ecologically and economically important pine species that dominate many forest ecosystems in the southern United States, but like all conifers, the study of their genetic diversity and demographic history has been hampered by their large genome size. A small number of studies mainly based on candidate-gene sequencing have been reported for P. taeda to date, whereas none are available for P. elliottii. Targeted exome resequencing has recently enabled population genomics studies for conifers, approach used here to assess genomic diversity, signatures of selection, population structure, and demographic history of P. elliottii and P. taeda. Extensive similarities were revealed between these species: both species feature rapid linkage disequilibrium decay and high levels of genetic diversity. Moreover, genome-wide positive correlations for measures of genetic diversity between the species were also observed, likely due to shared structural genomic constraints. Also, positive selection appears to be targeting a common set of genes in both pines. Demographic history differs between both species, with only P. taeda being affected by a dramatic bottleneck during the last glacial period. The ability of P. taeda to recover from a dramatic reduction in population size while still retaining high levels of genetic diversity shows promise for other pines facing environmental stressors associated with climate change, indicating that these too may be able to adapt successfully to new future conditions even after a drastic population size contraction.
Project description:A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r(2), between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r(2) did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Four species of Pinus subsection Australes occur in the Caribbean Basin: P. caribaea, P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis. This study analyses the phylogeography of these species to assess possible colonization events from Central America to the islands and subsequent population expansions during glacial periods driven by both drier climate and larger emerged land areas. METHODS: Allele size data were obtained for plastid microsatellites for 314 individuals from 24 populations, covering the distribution range of subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin. KEY RESULTS: In total, 113 plastid haplotypes were identified. The highest genetic diversity was found in populations of P. caribaea. Overall, Caribbean Basin populations fit the isolation by distance model. Significant phylogeographical structure was found (R(ST) = 0·671 > permuted R(ST) = 0·101; P < 0·0001). The haplotype network and a Bayesian analysis of population structure (BAPS) indicated different Central American origins for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea plastids, with Central America populations in northern and south-eastern groups. Sudden expansion times for BAPS clusters were close to three glacial maxima. CONCLUSIONS: Central America contains ancestral plastid haplotypes. Population expansion has played a major role in the distribution of genetic diversity in P. caribaea var. hondurensis. Two colonization events gave rise to the P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea lineages. Plastid variation in the eastern species (P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis) evolved independently from that in P. caribaea var. caribaea. Incomplete lineage sorting between P. cubensis and P. maestrensis is apparent. Inferred expansion times for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and for the eastern lineages correspond to glacial maxima, whereas those for P. caribaea var. hondurensis correspond to the beginning of the temperature decrease that led to Marine Isotope Stage 8.
Project description:Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of three Fusarium circinatum isolates that were used to inoculate slash pines (Pinus elliottii) at the U.S. Forest Service Resistance Screening Center in Asheville, North Carolina. The genomes of these isolates were similar to other publicly available genomes, with average nucleotide identity values of >0.98.
Project description:Recent diversification followed by secondary contact and hybridization may explain complex patterns of intra- and interspecific morphological and genetic variation in the North American hard pines (Pinus section Trifoliae), a group of approximately 49 tree species distributed in North and Central America and the Caribbean islands. We concatenated five plastid DNA markers for an average of 3.9 individuals per putative species and assessed the suitability of the five regions as DNA bar codes for species identification, species delimitation, and phylogenetic reconstruction. The ycf1 gene accounted for the greatest proportion of the alignment (46.9%), the greatest proportion of variable sites (74.9%), and the most unique sequences (75 haplotypes). Phylogenetic analysis recovered clades corresponding to subsections Australes, Contortae, and Ponderosae. Sequences for 23 of the 49 species were monophyletic and sequences for another 9 species were paraphyletic. Morphologically similar species within subsections usually grouped together, but there were exceptions consistent with incomplete lineage sorting or introgression. Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses indicated that all three subsections diversified relatively recently during the Miocene. The general mixed Yule-coalescent method gave a mixed model estimate of only 22 or 23 evolutionary entities for the plastid sequences, which corresponds to less than half the 49 species recognized based on morphological species assignments. Including more unique haplotypes per species may result in higher estimates, but low mutation rates, recent diversification, and large effective population sizes may limit the effectiveness of this method to detect evolutionary entities.
Project description:The present opinion deals with the re-evaluation of glycerol esters of wood rosin (GEWR, E 445) when used as a food additive. Regarding GEWR originating from Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine), based on the overall toxicity database, and given the absence of reproductive and developmental toxicity data, the Panel concluded that the current acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 12.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day for GEWR (E 445) as established by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) in 1994 should be temporary pending the provision of such data. This assessment is restricted to GEWR derived from P. palustris (longleaf pine) and P. elliottii (slash pine) and with a chemical composition in compliance with GEWR used in the toxicological testing. The Panel concluded that the mean and the high exposure levels (P95) of the brand-loyal refined exposure scenario did not exceed the temporary ADI in any of the population groups from the use of GEWR (E 445) as a food additive at the reported use levels. For GEWR originating from Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia, the Panel noted that concentrations of the fractions of 'glycerol monoesters', 'free resin acids' and 'neutrals', which are considered to be of particular toxicological relevance, are not known; therefore, the evaluation of chemical equivalence with GEWR originating from P. palustris (longleaf pine) and P. elliottii (slash pine) is not possible; no data on stability were available; no toxicological data were available. Therefore, the Panel concluded that a safety assessment of GEWR originating from P. halepensis and P. brutia could not be performed. The Panel recommended the European Commission to consider an update of the definition of GEWR (E 445) in the EU specifications. It should be indicated that GEWR (E 445) (i) contain, besides the mentioned glycerol di- and triesters, a residual fraction of glycerol monoesters, and (ii) contain residual free resin acids and neutrals (non-acidic other saponifiable and unsaponifiable substances).
Project description:Until very recently, complete characterization of the megagenomes of conifers has remained elusive. The diploid genome of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) has a highly repetitive, 31 billion bp genome. It is the largest genome sequenced and assembled to date, and the first from the subgenus Strobus, or white pines, a group that is notable for having the largest genomes among the pines. The genome represents a unique opportunity to investigate genome "obesity" in conifers and white pines. Comparative analysis of P. lambertiana and P. taeda L. reveals new insights on the conservation, age, and diversity of the highly abundant transposable elements, the primary factor determining genome size. Like most North American white pines, the principal pathogen of P. lambertiana is white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fischer ex Raben.). Identification of candidate genes for resistance to this pathogen is of great ecological importance. The genome sequence afforded us the opportunity to make substantial progress on locating the major dominant gene for simple resistance hypersensitive response, Cr1 We describe new markers and gene annotation that are both tightly linked to Cr1 in a mapping population, and associated with Cr1 in unrelated sugar pine individuals sampled throughout the species' range, creating a solid foundation for future mapping. This genomic variation and annotated candidate genes characterized in our study of the Cr1 region are resources for future marker-assisted breeding efforts as well as for investigations of fundamental mechanisms of invasive disease and evolutionary response.
Project description:Pine oleoresin is a major source of terpenes, consisting of turpentine (mono- and sesquiterpenes) and rosin (diterpenes) fractions. Higher oleoresin yields are of economic interest, since oleoresin derivatives make up a valuable source of materials for chemical industries. Oleoresin can be extracted from living trees, often by the bark streak method, in which bark removal is done periodically, followed by application of stimulant paste containing sulfuric acid and other chemicals on the freshly wounded exposed surface. To better understand the molecular basis of chemically-stimulated and wound induced oleoresin production, we evaluated the stability of 11 putative reference genes for the purpose of normalization in studying Pinus elliottii gene expression during oleoresinosis. Samples for RNA extraction were collected from field-grown adult trees under tapping operations using stimulant pastes with different compositions and at various time points after paste application. Statistical methods established by geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper softwares were consistent in pointing as adequate reference genes HISTO3 and UBI. To confirm expression stability of the candidate reference genes, expression profiles of putative P. elliottii orthologs of resin biosynthesis-related genes encoding Pinus contorta ?-pinene synthase [PcTPS-(-)?-pin1], P. contorta levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase (PcLAS1), Pinus taeda ?-pinene synthase [PtTPS-(+)?pin], and P. taeda ?-farnesene synthase (Pt?FS) were examined following stimulant paste application. Increased oleoresin yields observed in stimulated treatments using phytohormone-based pastes were consistent with higher expression of pinene synthases. Overall, the expression of all genes examined matched the expected profiles of oleoresin-related transcript changes reported for previously examined conifers.
Project description:Geographic barriers and Quaternary climate changes are two major forces driving the evolution, speciation, and genetic structuring of extant organisms. In this study, we used Pinus armandii and eleven other Asian white pines (subsection Strobus, subgenus Pinus) to explore the influences of geographic factors and Pleistocene climatic oscillations on species in South China, a region known to be centers of plant endemism and biodiversity hotspots. Range-wide patterns of genetic variation were investigated using chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA markers, with extensive sampling throughout the entire range of P. armandii. Both cpDNA and mtDNA revealed that P. armandii exhibits high levels of genetic diversity and significant population differentiation. Three geographically distinct subdivisions corresponding to the Qinling-Daba Mountains (QDM), Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) and Yungui Plateau (YGP) were revealed in mainland China by cpDNA. Their break zone was located in the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). A series of massive mountains, induced by the QTP uplift, imposed significant geographic barriers to genetic exchange. The disjunct distribution patterns of ancestral haplotypes suggest that a large continuous population of the white pines may have existed from southwest to subtropical China. Repeated range shifts in response to the Pleistocene glaciations led to the isolation and diversification of the subtropical species. The two Taiwanese white pines share a common ancestor with the species in mainland China and obtain their chloroplasts via long-distance pollen dispersal from North Asian pines. Distinct genetic patterns were detected in populations from the Qinling-Daba Mountains, Yungui Plateau, Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains, and subtropical China, indicating significant contributions of geographic factors to the genetic differentiation in white pines. Our study depicts a clear picture of the evolutionary history of Chinese white pines and highlights the heterogeneous contributions of geography and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations to the extremely high plant species diversity and endemism in South China.
Project description:Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) and Arabidopsis thaliana differ greatly in form, ecological niche, evolutionary history, and genome size. Arabidopsis is a small, herbaceous, annual dicotyledon, whereas pines are large, long-lived, coniferous forest trees. Such diverse plants might be expected to differ in a large number of functional genes. We have obtained and analyzed 59,797 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from wood-forming tissues of loblolly pine and compared them to the gene sequences inferred from the complete sequence of the Arabidopsis genome. Approximately 50% of pine ESTs have no apparent homologs in Arabidopsis or any other angiosperm in public databases. When evaluated by using contigs containing long, high-quality sequences, we find a higher level of apparent homology between the inferred genes of these two species. For those contigs 1,100 bp or longer, approximately 90% have an apparent Arabidopsis homolog (E value < 10-10). Pines and Arabidopsis last shared a common ancestor approximately 300 million years ago. Few genes would be expected to retain high sequence similarity for this time if they did not have essential functions. These observations suggest substantial conservation of gene sequence in seed plants.