Weight discrimination and unhealthy eating-related behaviors.
ABSTRACT: Individuals with obesity often experience unfair treatment because of their body weight. Such experiences are associated with binge eating, but less is known about its association with other eating-related behaviors and whether these relations are specific to discrimination based on weight or extend to other attributions for discrimination. The present research uses a large national sample (N = 5129) to examine whether weight discrimination is associated with diet and meal rhythmicity, in addition to overeating, and whether these associations generalize to nine other attributions for discrimination. We found that in addition to overeating, weight discrimination was associated with more frequent consumption of convenience foods and less regular meal timing. These associations were generally similar across sex, age, and race. Discrimination based on ancestry, gender, age, religion, and physical disability were also associated with overeating, which suggests that overeating may be a general coping response to discrimination. Unfair treatment because of body weight is associated with unhealthy eating-related behaviors, which may be one pathway through which weight discrimination increases risk for weight gain and obesity.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Disordered eating behaviors are prevalent among adolescents. Understanding how these behaviors link to body mass index (BMI) across different stages of development and over an extended period may provide insight for designing interventions around eating and weight. This study had two objectives: (1) to assess the distribution of disordered eating behaviors and develop a global score of disordered eating behaviors among adolescents and (2) to examine the association between the number of disordered eating behaviors in adolescence and BMI trajectory over 15 years.<h4>Methods</h4>Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults (EAT), a longitudinal study of weight-related health and behavior comprising four waves (EAT-I to EAT-IV), measured seven disordered eating behaviors (importance of weight and shape, frequent dieting, extreme unhealthy weight control behaviors, overeating, distress about overeating, loss of control while overeating, and frequency of overeating and loss of control) at baseline (N = 1,230, ages 11 to 18 years, 1998-1999). These behaviors were summed to create a disordered eating behavior score. BMI was self-reported at all four waves (up to age 27-33 years at EAT-IV). Repeated measures with random slope and intercept examined the association between disordered eating behaviors and BMI trajectories over 15 years.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, 50.7% and 33.7% of females and males endorsed disordered eating behaviors. Throughout 15 years of follow-up, sociodemographic-adjusted BMI was higher among adolescents who engaged in disordered eating behaviors. The association remained significant after further adjustment for baseline BMI (p < .05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Among adolescents, regardless of the type of disordered eating behaviors, engagement in disordered eating behavior predicted higher BMI in a dose-response fashion.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The present study examined whether different sleep health parameters (duration, timing, and quality) are associated with obesity-related eating behaviors including emotional overeating, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, satiety responsiveness, and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), during toddlerhood. DESIGN:Among 134 low-income 33-month-old children, parents reported on child sleep parameters, including sleep quality (Children's Sleep Wake Scale; CSWS) and usual bedtimes and wake times on weekdays and weekends (weeknight sleep duration, weekday-to-weekend bedtime delay). Child eating behaviors were assessed using both observed and parent-report measures. Child Emotional Overeating, Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, and Satiety Responsiveness were measured by parent report using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire-Toddler. Observed child EAH was evaluated by measuring kilocalories of palatable foods consumed following a meal. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between sleep parameters and eating behaviors. RESULTS:Poorer child sleep quality was associated with greater Emotional Overeating (standardized ??=?-0.20 (SE 0.09), p?<?.05) and greater Food Responsiveness (??=?-0.18 (SE 0.09), p?<?.05). Shorter child nighttime sleep duration was associated with greater EAH kcal consumed (standardized ??=?-0.22 (SE 0.09), p?<?.05). Child bedtime delay was not associated with any of the eating behaviors, and no child sleep variables were associated with either Enjoyment of Food or Satiety Responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS:Shorter nocturnal sleep duration and poorer sleep quality during toddlerhood were associated with some, but not all, of the obesity-related eating behaviors. Poor sleep health may promote childhood obesity risk through different eating behavior pathways. As children growing up in poverty may experience greater sleep decrements, sleep duration and sleep quality may be important targets for intervention among low-income families with young children.
Project description:Eating, physical activity and other weight-related lifestyle behaviors may have been impacted by the COVID-19 crisis and people with obesity may be disproportionately affected. We examined weight-related behaviors and weight management barriers among UK adults during the COVID-19 social lockdown. During April-May of the 2020 COVID-19 social lockdown, UK adults (N?=?2002) completed an online survey including measures relating to physical activity, diet quality, overeating and how mental/physical health had been affected by lockdown. Participants also reported on perceived changes in weight-related behaviors and whether they had experienced barriers to weight management, compared to before the lockdown. A large number of participants reported negative changes in eating and physical activity behavior (e.g. 56% reported snacking more frequently) and experiencing barriers to weight management (e.g. problems with motivation and control around food) compared to before lockdown. These trends were particularly pronounced among participants with higher BMI. During lockdown, higher BMI was associated with lower levels of physical activity and diet quality, and a greater reported frequency of overeating. Reporting a decline in mental health because of the COVID-19 crisis was not associated with higher BMI, but was predictive of greater overeating and lower physical activity in lockdown. The COVID-19 crisis may have had a disproportionately large and negative influence on weight-related behaviors among adults with higher BMI.
Project description:Exercise may sensitize individuals with overweight and obesity to appetitive signals (e.g., hunger and fullness cues), overriding trait eating behaviors that contribute to overeating and obesity, such as uncontrolled eating. The objective of the current study was to measure predictors of objective ad libitum energy intake at a laboratory-based, post-exercise test-meal in adolescents ranging in weight status from overweight to severe obesity. We hypothesized that appetitive states, rather than appetitive traits, would be the strongest predictors of energy intake at a post-exercise test-meal, after controlling for body size. At Baseline, 30 adolescents (ages 10-16 years, 50% female (F), 43% non-Hispanic white (NHW), 83% with obesity (OB)) completed state and trait appetite measures and an ad libitum dinner meal following intensive exercise. Nineteen of those participants (47% F, 32% NHW, 79% OB) completed identical assessments two years later (Year 2). Energy intake (kcal) at each time point was adjusted for fat-free mass index (i.e., body size). Adjusted energy intake was reliable from Baseline to Year 2 (ICC = 0.84). Multiple pre-meal appetite ratings were associated with test-meal energy intake. In stepwise linear regression models, pre-meal prospective food consumption was the strongest and only significant predictor of test-meal energy intake at both Baseline (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.25, <i>p</i> = 0.005) and Year 2 (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.41, <i>p</i> = 0.003). Baseline post-exercise energy intake was associated with weight change over two years (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.24, <i>p</i> = 0.04), but not with change in fat mass (<i>p</i> = 0.11). Appetitive traits were not associated with weight or body composition change (<i>p</i> > 0.22). State appetite cues were the strongest predictors of post-exercise energy intake, independent of body size. Future studies should examine whether long-term exercise programs enhance responsiveness to homeostatic appetite signals in youth with overweight and obesity, with a goal to reduce excess energy intake and risk for weight gain over time.
Project description:Melanocortins have a crucial role in appetite and weight regulation. Although the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene has been repeatedly linked to obesity and antipsychotic-induced weight gain, the mechanism behind how it leads to this effect in still undetermined. The goal of this study was to conduct an in-depth and sophisticated analysis of MC4R polymorphisms, body mass index (BMI), eating behavior and depressed mood.We genotyped 328 individuals of European ancestry on the following MC4R markers based on the relevant literature on obesity and antipsychotic-induced weight gain: rs571312, rs17782313, rs489693, rs11872992, and rs8087522. Height and weight were measured, and information on depressed mood and overeating behaviors was obtained during the in-person assessment.BMI was associated with rs17782313 C allele; however, this finding did not survive correction for multiple testing (P = 0.018). Although rs17782313 was significantly associated with depressed mood and overeating behaviors, tests of indirect effects indicated that emotional eating and food cravings, rather than depressed mood, uniquely accounted for the effect of this marker and BMI (n = 152).To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the link between MC4R rs17782313, mood and overeating behavior, as well as to demonstrate possible mechanisms behind MC4R's influence on body weight. If replicated in a larger sample, these results may have important clinical implications, including potential for the use of MC4R agonists in the treatment of obesity and disordered eating.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the relationship between self-related agency beliefs and observed eating behavior in adolescent girls with loss of control (LOC) eating. METHOD:One-hundred eleven adolescent girls (14.5 ± 1.7 years; BMI: 27.1 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) were administered the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL). Adolescents then participated in a laboratory test meal. RESULTS:Greater general and eating self-efficacy were associated with fewer episodes of LOC eating. General self-efficacy was inversely related to total intake at the meal (p < .01). Only the WEL availability subscale score, but not the other WEL subscales, was inversely related to total energy, snack, and dessert intake (ps < 0.05). DISCUSSION:General self-related agency beliefs may be important in relation to energy consumption. Among girls susceptible to disordered eating and obesity, the domain-specific belief in one's ability to refrain from eating when food is widely available may be especially salient in determining overeating in the current food environment. Further research is therefore needed to assess the predictive validity of these beliefs on eating and weight outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Child eating behaviors are highly heterogeneous and their longitudinal impact on childhood weight is unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize eating behaviors during the first 10 years of life and evaluate associations with BMI at age 11 years.<h4>Method</h4>Data were parental reports of eating behaviors from 15 months to age 10 years (n = 12,048) and standardized body mass index (zBMI) at age 11 years (n = 4884) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Latent class growth analysis was used to derive latent classes of over-, under-, and fussy-eating. Linear regression models for zBMI at 11 years on each set of classes were fitted to assess associations with eating behavior trajectories.<h4>Results</h4>We identified four classes of overeating; "low stable" (70%), "low transient" (15%), "late increasing" (11%), and "early increasing" (6%). The "early increasing" class was associated with higher zBMI (boys: β = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.02; girls: β = 1.1; 0.92, 1.28) compared with "low stable." Six classes were found for undereating; "low stable" (25%), "low transient" (37%), "low decreasing" (21%), "high transient" (11%), "high decreasing" (4%), and "high stable" (2%). The latter was associated with lower zBMI (boys: β = -0.79; -1.15, -0.42; girls: β = -0.76; -1.06, -0.45). Six classes were found for fussy eating; "low stable" (23%), "low transient" (15%), "low increasing" (28%), "high decreasing" (14%), "low increasing" (13%), and "high stable" (8%). The "high stable" class was associated with lower zBMI (boys: β = -0.49; -0.68-0.30; girls: β = -0.35; -0.52, -0.18).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Early increasing overeating during childhood is associated with higher zBMI at age 11. High persistent levels of undereating and fussy eating are associated with lower zBMI. Longitudinal trajectories of eating behaviors may help identify children potentially at risk of adverse weight outcomes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Life adversities are recognized risk factors for eating disorders, in adolescents and adults, but whether such adversities are also associated with particular eating behaviors earlier in life is still unclear. Our aim was to assess whether experiencing adverse life events in early childhood is associated with emotional overeating and restrained eating at age 10. METHODS:Emotional overeating and restrained eating were assessed in 4,653 10-years-old children using the mother-reported Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Mothers also reported on 24 different life events during childhood, those with moderate or severe impact being categorized as adverse life events. Regression analyses were performed to investigate relationships between adverse life events and eating behaviors in the total sample. RESULTS:Adjusted for covariates, adverse life events were associated with more emotional overeating and restrained eating in children (p-values for trend <.01). Specifically, mothers who reported that their child experienced 3+ adverse life events, also reported significantly higher emotional overeating (B = 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.33) and restrained eating (B = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08-0.33) in their children relative to children who did not experience adverse life events. These results did not differ by sex. DISCUSSION:Our results based on mother-reported data suggest that children's experiences of life adversities are associated with emotional overeating and restrained eating at age 10?years. We recommend future prospective studies using multi-informant assessments of both adverse life events and eating behaviors to further describe the nature and developmental course of this relationship.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Life disruptions caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic are particularly salient for young adults. Some young adults may engage in unhealthy eating practices to cope with social distancing and isolation during the pandemic, which could increase incidental weight gain. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of eating to cope with the pandemic with body weight change in young adults before versus after spread of COVID-19.<h4>Methods</h4>Data included the baseline (October/2018-October/2019) and follow-up (May/2020-July/2020) assessments from an ongoing longitudinal cohort recruited from Southern California. A diverse sample of participants (54% Hispanic; age = 19.72[.47] years; N = 1,820) completed online self-report measures of weight at baseline and follow-up and were given a checklist of pandemic coping behaviors including overeating (yes/no) and eating high fat or sugary foods (yes/no) to cope with social distancing and isolation during the pandemic.<h4>Results</h4>With and without adjusting for confounders, young adults who did versus did not report overeating to cope with the pandemic gained more weight from baseline to follow-up (5.55 vs. 2.54 lbs). Unhealthy food intake to cope with the pandemic was not associated with weight change. Baseline weight moderated the association of eating coping practices with weight change such that individuals with higher baseline weight gained more weight if they engaged in eating to cope behaviors versus not (p's≤.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Unhealthy eating behavior to cope with the pandemic and corresponding body weight increases may be occurring in young adults. Interventions to promote healthy eating practices in young adults warrant consideration for weight gain prevention during the pandemic.
Project description:Abuse in childhood predicts stress-related overeating and excess weight gain in young women. We investigated whether two stress-related overeating behaviors--binge eating and coping-motivated eating--explain childhood abuse associations with weight status in young women.Analyses included 4377 women participating in the Growing Up Today Study, a longitudinal cohort of youth enrolled at age 9 to 14 years. We used marginal structural models to estimate the effects of abuse before age 11 years on weight status at age 22 to 29 years with and without adjustment for binge eating and coping-motivated eating.Women with severe physical, sexual, and emotional abuse had early adult body mass indexes (BMIs) that were 0.74 kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-1.33), 0.69 (95% CI: -0.46 to 1.83), and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.24-1.45) kg/m(2) higher, respectively, than those without abuse. Adjustment for coping-motivated eating attenuated the excess BMI associated with severe physical abuse, but no other important attenuations were found.Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse before age 11 years were associated with higher early adult weight status, although the sexual abuse estimate was not statistically significant. Evidence for a role of stress-related eating in abuse--BMI associations was limited and inconsistent across abuse types.