Identification of rs671, a common variant of ALDH2, as a gout susceptibility locus.
ABSTRACT: Gout is a common disease resulting from hyperuricemia. Recently, a genome-wide association study identified an association between gout and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2188380, located on an intergenic region between MYL2 and CUX2 on chromosome 12. However, other genes around rs2188380 could possibly be gout susceptibility genes. Therefore, we performed a fine-mapping study of the MYL2-CUX2 region. From 8,595 SNPs in the MYL2-CUX2 region, 9 tag SNPs were selected, and genotyping of 1,048 male gout patients and 1,334 male controls was performed by TaqMan method. Eight SNPs showed significant associations with gout after Bonferroni correction. rs671 (Glu504Lys) of ALDH2 had the most significant association with gout (P = 1.7 × 10(-18), odds ratio = 0.53). After adjustment for rs671, the other 8 SNPs no longer showed a significant association with gout, while the significant association of rs671 remained. rs671 has been reportedly associated with alcohol drinking behavior, and it is well-known that alcohol drinking elevates serum uric acid levels. These data suggest that rs671, a common functional SNP of ALDH2, is a genuine gout-associated SNP in the MYL2-CUX2 locus and that "A" allele (Lys) of rs671 plays a protective role in the development of gout.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitous toxic metal present in the environment that poses adverse health effects to humans. Inter-individual variation in blood Pb levels is affected by various factors, including genetic makeup. However, limited data are available on the association between genetic variation and blood Pb levels. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic markers associated with blood Pb levels in the Korean population. METHODS:The study subjects consisted of 1,483 healthy adults with no history of occupational exposure to Pb. We measured blood Pb levels and calculated probable daily intake of Pb according to dietary data collected using 24-hour recall. We conducted exome-wide association screening using Illumina Human Exome-12v1.2 platform (n?=?500) and a replication analysis using VeraCode Goldengate assay (n?=?1,483). RESULTS:Among the 244,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested, 12 SNPs associated with blood Pb level were identified, with suggestive significance level (P?<?1?×?10-4). In the Goldengate assay for replication, three SNPs (C12orf51 rs11066280, MYL2 rs12229654, and ALDH2 rs671) were associated with statistically suggestively significant differences in blood Pb levels. When stratified by drinking status, a potential association of C12orf51 rs11066280, MYL2 rs12229654, and ALDH2 rs671 with blood Pb level was observed only in drinkers. A marginally significant gene-environment interaction between ALDH2 rs671 and alcohol consumption was observed in relation to blood Pb levels. The effects of the three suggestively significant SNPs on blood Pb levels was dependent on daily calcium intake amounts. CONCLUSIONS:This exome-wide association study indicated that C12orf51 rs11066280, MYL2 rs12229654, and ALDH2 rs671 polymorphisms are linked to blood Pb levels in the Korean population. Our results suggest that these three SNPs are involved in the determination of Pb levels in Koreans via the regulation of alcohol drinking behavior, and that their negative effects may be compensated by appropriate calcium intake.
Project description:To date, the relationship between the aldehyde dehydrogenases-2 (ALDH2) rs671 G>A (Glu504Lys) polymorphism and gastric cancer (GC) risk has not been thoroughly elucidated. To derive a more precise estimation of the effect of the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism on GC, we conducted this meta-analysis. We searched for qualified studies in the Embase, PubMed, Wang Fan and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the association. A total of 6,421 GC patients and 8,832 control subjects were included in the present study. The pooled results indicated no significant relationship between the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism and GC susceptibility in all genetic models. A stratified analysis by country showed that the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism might be a risk factor for GC in Japan (Allele model: Punadjusted = 0.034; Dominant model: Punadjusted = 0.040); however, the result was nonsignificant when the Bonferroni correction and false discovery rate (FDR) were applied. In subgroup analyses by drinking status in the dominant model, our study revealed that the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism significantly increased the risk of GC for drinkers (dominant model: P < 0.001). No relationship between the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism and GC risk was observed in any other subgroup. Our present study indicated no association between the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism and GC risk in Eastern Asian populations. However, the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism can significantly increase GC risk for drinkers.
Project description:Gout is caused by hyperuricemia, with alcohol consumption being an established risk factor. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are crucial enzymes for alcohol metabolism. We recently performed a genome-wide association study of gout and a subsequent fine-mapping study which identified rs671 of ALDH2 as a gout locus. However, the association between gout and common variants of ADH1B has hitherto remained unreported, prompting us to investigate the association between gout and common dysfunctional variants of ADH1B (rs1229984) and ALDH2 (rs671). We used 1,048 clinically defined gout cases and 1,334 controls of Japanese male. The "His carrier" (His/His or His/Arg) of rs1229984 (His48Arg) of ADH1B significantly increased gout risk (P?=?4.3?×?10-4, odds ratio?=?1.76), as did the "non-Lys carrier (Glu/Glu)" of rs671 (Glu504Lys) of ALDH2. Furthermore, common variants of ADH1B and ALDH2 are independently associated with gout. Our findings likewise suggest that genotyping these variants can be useful for the evaluation of gout risk.
Project description:Gout is a common form of inflammatory arthritis caused by hyperuricemia and the deposition of Monosodium Urate (MSU) crystals. It is also considered as a complex disorder in which multiple genetic factors have been identified in association with its susceptibility and/or clinical outcomes. Major genes that were associated with gout include URAT1, GLUT9, OAT4, NPT1 (SLC17A1), NPT4 (SLC17A3), NPT5 (SLC17A4), MCT9, ABCG2, ABCC4, KCNQ1, PDZK1, NIPAL1, IL1?, IL-8, IL-12B, IL-23R, TNFA, MCP-1/CCL2, NLRP3, PPARGC1B, TLR4, CD14, CARD8, P2X7R, EGF, A1CF, HNF4G and TRIM46, LRP2, GKRP, ADRB3, ADH1B, ALDH2, COMT, MAOA, PRKG2, WDR1, ALPK1, CARMIL (LRRC16A), RFX3, BCAS3, CNIH-2, FAM35A and MYL2-CUX2. The proteins encoded by these genes mainly function in urate transport, inflammation, innate immunity and metabolism. Understanding the functions of gout-associated genes will provide important insights into future studies to explore the pathogenesis of gout, as well as to develop targeted therapies for gout.
Project description:Hip fracture is the most severe bone fragility fracture among osteoporotic injuries. Family history is a known risk factor for fracture and now included among criteria for osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment; however, genetic factors underlying family history favoring fracture remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that a missense SNP in the ALDH2 gene, rs671 (ALDH2*2), is significantly associated with hip fracture (odds ratio?=?2.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.20-5.10, p?=?0.021). The rs671 SNP was also significantly associated with osteoporosis development (odds ratio?=?2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.88, p?=?0.040). For analysis we enrolled 92 hip fracture patients plus 48 control subjects without bone fragility fractures with higher than -2.5?SD bone mineral density. We also recruited 156 osteoporosis patients diagnosed as below -2.5?SD in terms of bone mineral density but without hip fracture. Association of rs671 with hip fracture and osteoporosis was significant even after adjustment for age and body mass index. Our results provide new insight into the pathogenesis of hip fracture.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), a critical enzyme for the detoxification of alcohol, is associated with many types of cancers. To verify the relationship of ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism and esophageal cancer (EC), we performed a meta-analysis of a total of 31 published data including 8,510 patients and 16,197 controls. METHODS: The pooled odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a fixed or random-effects model. Heterogeneity (PH ), publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were also determined. RESULTS: Although a protective effort was found in the rs671 homozygote comparison (AA/GG: OR=0.69; 95% CI=0.48-0.98), the heterozygote comparison was apparently associated with the risk of EC, particularly in the Chinese population ( AG/GG: OR=1.39; 95% CI=1.03-1.87). Alcohol consumption remarkably increased this risk, especially in the AG genotype. Drinking men with the AG genotype appeared to show a higher risk ( AG/GG: OR=4.39; 95% CI=1.24-6.55) than drinking women. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis provided advanced information regarding the association of the ALDH2 A>G polymorphism and EC. Taken together, insights from this study suggested an enhanced effect on the development of EC through a genetic-environmental interaction.
Project description:<h4>Background and objective</h4>Several studies have been conducted to examine the association between aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (ALDH2) rs671 polymorphism and essential hypertension (EH). However, the results remain inconsistent. This study aimed to clarify the association between ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism and EH susceptibility.<h4>Methods</h4>One thousand and ninety-four cases and 1236 controls who were ethnic Han Chinese were collected for this population-based case-control study. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, using allele contrast, dominant, recessive, and co-dominant models using fixed or random-effect models.<h4>Results</h4>Significant differences were observed between EH cases and controls at the level of both genotype (?2 = 6.656, P<0.05) and alleles (?2 = 6.314, P<0.05). An additional meta-analysis using 4204 cases and 5435 controls established that rs671 was significantly associated with EH (P<0.00001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The results of our case-control study and meta-analysis showed that there is a significant association between ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism and EH susceptibility. In addition, the results of the breakdown analysis by gender suggest a male-specific association between the ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism and EH.
Project description:Molecular mechanisms that prompt or mitigate excessive alcohol consumption could be partly explained by metabolic shifts. This genome-wide association study aims to identify the susceptibility gene loci for excessive alcohol consumption by jointly measuring weekly alcohol consumption and ?-GT levels. We analysed the Taiwan Biobank data of 18,363 Taiwanese people, including 1945 with excessive alcohol use. We found that one or two copies of the G allele in rs671 (ALDH2) increased the risk of excessive alcohol consumption, while one or two copies of the C allele in rs3782886 (BRAP) reduced the risk of excessive alcohol consumption. To minimize the influence of extensive regional linkage disequilibrium, we used the ridge regression. The ridge coefficients of rs7398833, rs671 and rs3782886 were unchanged across different values of the shrinkage parameter. The three variants corresponded to posttranscriptional activity, including cut-like homeobox 2 (a protein coded by CUX2), Glu504Lys of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (a protein encoded by ALDH2) and Glu4Gly of BRCA1-associated protein (a protein encoded by BRAP). We found that Glu504Lys of ALDH2 and Glu4Gly of BRAP are involved in the negative regulation of excessive alcohol consumption. The mechanism underlying the ?-GT-catalytic metabolic reaction in excessive alcohol consumption is associated with ALDH2, BRAP and CUX2. Further study is needed to clarify the roles of ALDH2, BRAP and CUX2 in the liver-brain endocrine axis connecting metabolic shifts with excessive alcohol consumption.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated the protective effect of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) in cardiovascular diseases. Increased levels of the potential ALDH2 substrate 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) are involved in myocardial/cerebral ischemia accompanied by a high level of oxidative stress. In this investigation, we first performed a case-control study to explore the potential association of ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism and post-stroke epilepsy (PSE). Then, we performed an in vitro study to determine whether the overexpression of ALDH2 could decrease the level of oxidative stress and the apoptosis ratio induced by 4-HNE. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the allele and genotype frequencies of the rs671 polymorphism between PSE patients and ischemic stroke (IS) patients. Individuals with the rs671 A allele showed significantly higher levels of plasma 4-HNE. The overexpression of ALDH2 partially blocked the increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis ratio induced by 4-HNE and also partially restored the ALDH2 activity in PC12 cells; these effects were reversed in the presence of ?V1-2. Our results suggest that the ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism is associated with PSE susceptibility and affects the 4-HNE levels. Targeting ALDH2 might be a useful strategy for the treatment or prevention of PSE.
Project description:Alcohol drinking is a major risk factor for esophageal cancer (EC) and the metabolism of ethanol has been suggested to play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies, including genomewide association studies (GWAS), have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) to be associated with EC. Using a population-based case-control study with 858 EC cases and 1,081 controls conducted in Jiangsu Province, China, we aimed to provide further information on the association of ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms with EC in a Chinese population. Results showed that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.66] for G-allele carriers compared to A/A homozygotes. No heterogeneity was detected on this association across different strata of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Statistical interaction between ALDH2 (rs671) and alcohol drinking on EC susceptibility in both additive and multiplicative scales was observed. Compared to G/G homozygotes, A-allele carriers were positively associated with EC among moderate/heavy drinkers (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.12-2.40) and inversely associated with EC among never/light drinks (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.54-1.03). In addition, statistical interaction between ALDH2 and ADH1B polymorphisms on EC susceptibility among never/light drinkers was indicated. We did not observe association of ADH1C polymorphism with EC. In conclusion, our findings indicated that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC independent of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking status and alcohol drinking interacted with ALDH2 (rs671) on EC susceptibility in this high-risk Chinese population.